th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Teach Yourself in Hours. Joseph Schmuller. UML. THIRD EDITION. Sams Teach Yourself UML in 24 HoursTable of Contents:Chapter 1 - Introducing the UMLChapter 2 - Understanding Obje. More than 50, previous readers have learned UML with Sams Teach Yourself UML in Hours. Expert author Joe Schmuller takes you through
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Sams Teach Yourself UML in 24 Hours will give the reader hands-on experience immediately and not let up until the final page. After reading this book, the. SAMS TEACH YOURSELF UML IN 24 HOURS - Sams Teach Yourself Textbook of Java Programming - Free chm, pdf ebooks download -. Learn UML, the Unified Modeling Language, to create diagrams describing the various aspects and uses of your application before you start.
Jun 08, El Mehdi added it. Really useful to see more examples about UML and to secure all the terms before the exam. Atila Yukselov rated it liked it Feb 07, Kelley rated it liked it Aug 23, Steve rated it liked it Apr 24, Waths rated it really liked it May 20, Sherri Dishon rated it it was amazing Sep 04, Abel rated it liked it Jan 18, Susan rated it liked it Jul 02, Daitona Carter rated it it was amazing Mar 23, Nicholas Butler rated it did not like it Jul 07, Franky rated it liked it Nov 02, David rated it it was ok Oct 08, Luipasture rated it it was amazing Nov 07, William Grant-Buckley rated it liked it Dec 18, Dimitri rated it really liked it Aug 11, Chris rated it really liked it Apr 14, Allen Elledge rated it liked it Apr 18, Michael Henson rated it really liked it Jan 02, David Polania rated it really liked it Dec 08, Riiuyan rated it it was amazing Mar 04, Stephan Renkens rated it liked it Jan 18, Thang Ngo rated it liked it Nov 02, Jason Greer rated it it was ok Dec 12, Class Diagram Think about the things in the world around you.
A pretty broad admonition, admittedly, but try it anyway! It's probably the case that most of them have attributes properties and that they behave in a certain way. We can think of these behaviors as a set of operations. You'll also see that they naturally fall into categories automobiles, furniture, washing machines We refer to these categories as classes.
We'll define a class as a category or group of things that have similar attributes and common behaviors.
Here's an example. Anything in the class of "washing machines," has attributes like brandname, model, serial number, and capacity.
Behaviors for things in this class include the operations "add clothes," "add detergent," "turn on," and "remove clothes. A rectangle is the icon that represents the class. It's divided into three areas. The uppermost area contains the name, the middle area holds the attributes, and the lowest area the operations.
A class diagram consists of a number of these rectangles connected by lines that show how the classes relate to one another.
Figure 1. Why bother to think about classes of things, and their attributes and behaviors? In order to interact with our complex world, most modern software simulates some aspect of the world. Decades of experience suggest that it's easiest to develop software that does this when the software represents classes of real-world things. The class diagrams provide the representations that developers work from. Class diagrams help on the analysis side, too. They enable analysts to talk to clients in the clients' terminology and thus stimulate the clients to reveal important details about the problem they want solved.
Object Diagram An object is an instance of a class, a specific thing that has specific values of the attributes and behavior. My washer, for example, might have the brandname "Laundatorium," the model name "Washmeister," a serial number of GL, and a capacity of 16 lbs.
Note that the icon is a rectangle, just like the class icon, but the name is underlined. The name of the specific instance is on the left side of a colon, while the name of the class is on the right side of the colon.
Use Case Diagram A use case is a description of a system's behavior from a user's standpoint. For system developers, this is a valuable tool: it's a tried-and-true technique for gathering system requirements from a user's point of view.
That's important if the goal is to build a system that real people and not just computerphiles can use. We'll talk much more about use cases later. For now, here's a quick example. You use a washing machine, obviously, to wash your clothes. The little stick figure that corresponds to the washing machine user is called an actor. The ellipse represents the use case. Note that an actor, the entity that initiates the use case, can be a person or another system. State Diagram At any given time, an object is in a particular state.
A person can be a newborn, infant, child, adolescent, teenager, or adult. An elevator is either moving upward, stopped, or moving downward. A washing machine can be either in the soak, wash, rinse, spin, or off state. The UML state diagram, shown in Figure 1.
The figure shows that the washing machine transitions from one state to the next. The symbol at the top of the figure represents the "start" state and the symbol at the bottom represents the "end" state. Sequence Diagram Class diagrams and object diagrams represent static information. In a functioning system, however, objects interact with one another, and these interactions occur over time.
The UML sequence diagram shows the time-based dynamics of the interaction.
Continuing with our washing machine example, the components of the machine include a water pipe for fresh water input , a drum the part that holds the clothes , and a drain. These, of course, are also objects. As we'll see, an object can consist of other objects. What happens when you invoke the "Wash clothes" use case?
Assuming you've completed the "add clothes,""add detergent," and "turn on" operations, the sequence of steps goes something like this: 1. Water enters the drum via the water pipe 2. The drum remains stationary for five minutes 3. Water stops entering 4. The drum rotates back and forth for fifteen minutes 5. Soapy water leaves via the drain 6. Water entry restarts 7.
The drum continues rotating back and forth 8. Water entry stops 9. Rinse water exits via the drain The drum rotation becomes one-directional and increases in speed for five minutes The drum rotation stops, and the wash is done. Time, in this diagram, proceeds from top to bottom.
By the way, getting back to our ideas about states, we can characterize Steps 1 and 2 as the soak state, 3 and 4 as the wash state, 5 through 7 as the rinse state, and 8 through 10 as the spin state. Activity Diagram The activities that occur within a use case or within an object's behavior typically occur in a sequence, as in the eleven steps of the preceding subsection.
Collaboration Diagram The elements of a system work together to accomplish the system's objectives, and a modeling language must have a way of representing this. The UML collaboration diagram, designed for this purpose, is shown in Figure 1. This example adds an internal timer to the set of classes that constitute a washing machine.
After a certain amount of time, the timer stops the flow of water and starts the drum rotating back and forth. Component Diagram For this diagram and the next one, we'll have to get away from the world of washing machines, as the component diagram and the deployment diagram are geared expressly toward computer systems.
Modern software development proceeds via components, which is particularly important in team-based development efforts. Without elaborating too much at this point, Figure 1. Deployment Diagram The UML deployment diagram shows the physical architecture of a computer-based system. It can depict the computers and devices, show their connections with one another, and show the software that sits on each machine.
Each computer is represented by a cube, with interconnections between computers drawn as lines connecting the cubes. Packages Sometimes, you'll find the need to organize the elements of a diagram into a group.
You might want to show that a number of classes or components are part of a particular subsystem. To do this, you group them into a package, represented by a tabbed folder, as in Figure 1. Notes It often happens that one part of a diagram doesn't present a nonambiguous explanation of why it's there or how to work with it. When that's the case, the UML note is helpful. Think of a note as a graphic equivalent of a yellow sticky. Its icon is a rectangle with a folded corner. Inside the rectangle is explanatory text.
You attach the note to a diagram element by connecting a dotted line from the element to the note. Stereotypes The UML provides a number of useful items, but it's not an exhaustive set. Every now and then, you'll be designing a system that needs some tailor-made items. Stereotypes enable you to take existing UML elements and turn them into new ones. It's sort of like downloading a suit off the rack and having it altered to fit your particular measurements as opposed to creating one out of a bolt of cloth.
Think of a stereotype as just this kind of alteration. You represent it as a name enclosed in two pairs of angle-brackets called guillemets and then apply that name appropriately.
The concept of an interface provides a good example. An interface is a class that just has operations and has no attributes. It's a set of behaviors that you might want to use again and again throughout your model.
Why So Many Diagrams? As you can see, the UML's diagrams make it possible to examine a system from a number of viewpoints.
It's important to note that not all the diagrams must appear in every UML model. Most UML models, in fact, contain a subset of the diagrams I listed.
Why is it necessary to have numerous views of a system? Typically, a system has a number of different stakeholders people who have interests in different aspects of the system. Let's return to the washing machine example. If you're designing a washing machine's motor you have one view of the system, if you're writing the operating instructions, you have another. If you're designing the machine's overall shape, you see the system in a totally different way than if you just want to wash your clothes.
Conscientious system design involves all the possible viewpoints, and each UML diagram gives you a way of incorporating a particular view. The objective is to satisfy every type of stakeholder. Summary System development is a human activity. Without an easy-to-understand notation system, the development process has great potential for error. The UML is a notation system that has become a standard in the system development world.
Consisting of a set of diagrams, the UML provides a standard that enables the system analyst to build a multifaceted blueprint that's comprehensible to clients, programmers, and everyone involved in the development process. It's necessary to have all these diagrams because each one speaks to a different stakeholder in the system. A UML model tells what a system is supposed to do.
It doesn't tell how. The creators of the language prefer "the UML. You've made the point that the UML is a great tool for analysts. The deployment diagram, however, doesn't seem like something that would be all that useful in the analysis stage of system development.
Isn't it more appropriate for a later stage? It's really never too early to start thinking about deployment or other issues traditionally left for later in development. While it's true that the analyst is concerned with talking to clients and users, early in the process an analyst might thinking about the computers and components that will make up the system hardware. Sometimes the client dictates this. Sometimes the client wants a recommendation from the development team. Certainly a system architect will find the deployment diagram useful.
You mentioned that hybrid diagrams are possible. The UML sets no limits. It's usually the case, however, that a diagram contains one kind of element.
You could put class icons on a deployment diagram, but that not be very useful. Workshop You've jumped into the UML. Now it's time to firm up your knowledge of this great tool by answering some questions and going through some exercises.
Quiz 1. Why is it necessary to have a variety of diagrams in a model of a system? Which diagrams give a static view of a system?
Which diagrams provide a dynamic view of a system i. Exercises 1. Suppose you're building a computer-based system that plays chess with a user.
Which UML diagrams would be useful in designing the system? For the system in the exercise you just completed, list the questions you would ask a potential user and why you'd ask them.
Answers for Hour 1 Quiz 1. Any system has a variety of stakeholders. Each type of UML diagram presents a view that speaks to one or more of these stakeholders. These diagrams provide a static view: class, object, component, deployment 3. These diagrams provide a dynamic view: use case, state, sequence, activity, collaboration. These should contain the code answer or the projected result. If this will vary by the user's system or setup, please state so. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system without prior written permission of the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.
This material is provided "as is" without any warranty of any kind. As a way of creating programs, it has a number of advantages.
It fosters a component-based approach to software development so that you first create a system by creating a set of objects. Then, you can expand the system by adding capabilities to components you've already built or by adding new components.
Finally, you can reuse the objects you created for the system when you build a new system, cutting down substantially on system development time. UML plays into all this by allowing you to build easy-to-use and easy-to-understand models of objects so that programmers can create them in software.
Object-orientation is a mindset - a mindset that depends on a few fundamental principles. In this hour, you'll learn those principles. You'll find out what makes objects tick and how to use them in analysis and design.
In the next hour, we'll begin to apply UML to these principles. Objects, Objects Everywhere Objects, concrete and otherwise, are all around us. They make up our world. As I pointed out in the previous hour, modern software typically simulates the world - or a small slice of it - so programs usually mimic the objects in the world. If we understand some essentials of objects, we'll comprehend what has to go into the software representations of them.
First and foremost, an object is an instance of a class a category. You and I, for example, are instances of the personclass.
An object has structure. That is, it has attributes properties and behavior. An object's behavior consists of the operations it carries out. Attributes and operations taken together are called features. As objects in the person-class, you and I each have these attributes: height, weight, and age.
You can imagine a number of others. We also perform these operations: eat, sleep, read, write, speak, go to work, and more. If we were to create a system that deals with information on people - say, a payroll system or a system for a human resources department - we'd likely incorporate some of these attributes and some of these operations in our software. In the world of object-orientation, a class serves another purpose in addition to categorization. A class is a template for making objects.
Think of it as a cookie-cutter that stamps out new objects. Some might argue that this is the same as categorization, but let's avoid that debate. Let's go back to our washing machine example. If we specify the washing machine class as having the attributes brand name, model name, serial number, and capacity - along with the operations add clothes, add detergent, remove clothes we have a mechanism for turning out new instances of the washing machine class.
That is, we can create new objects. NOTE: In Hour 3, you'll see that class names like "washing machine" are written as "WashingMachine" and feature names like "serial number" are written as "serialNumber.
This is particularly important in the world of object-oriented software development. Although we won't focus on programming in this book, it helps your understanding of object-orientation if you know that classes in object-oriented programs can create new instances. Figure 2. Here's something else to be aware of. Remember that the purpose of object-orientation is to develop software that reflects i.
The more attributes and behaviors we take into account, the more our model will be in tune with reality. In the washing machine example, we'll have a potentially more accurate model if we include the attributes drum volume, internal timer, trap, motor, and motor speed.
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