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Aipmt Biology Notes Pdf

Tag Archive for: aipmt biology notes pdf download. Home aipmt biology notes pdf download. WhatsApp + [email protected] grade 11 & grade 12 Biology notes for NEET, MCAT,AIIMS and state board CET exams. Our esteemed faculty knows exactly how you should prepare for Biology in order to crack NEET (AIPMT). All our study material, question bank, mock test papers.

The word science is derived from a Latin word scientia , meaning , to know. Science is a process that is used to answer the questions about nature. Science is a body of knowledge derived from observations and experiments, which are directed to determine the principles underlying what is being studied. Steps of scientific method: Observation 2. Formulation of Hypothesis 3. Testing of Hypothesis 4. Developing theory 1.

An exceptionally talented person Aristotle relied on observations and contributed much in biology. About 90 percent of his writing are on scientific subjects, mostly on biological ones. Classified animal species and arranged them into hierarchies.

His mode of classification was reasonable and in some cases strikingly modern. Formulated the concept of the Great Chain of Being or Scala Naturae a chain of progressive change in nature. This corresponds to a sort of evolution. Dealt with over five hundred type of animals and dissected nearly fifty of them. Studied the developing embryo of a chick and reported that sharks give birth to live youngones viviparous but do not develop a placenta like mammals.

Observed the placenta in dolphins as a means of nourishment to the foetus. Based on this similarity with mammals he classified dolphins with mammals. Emergence of Contemporary Biology The earliest record of scientific approach in biology is that of a Belgian scientist Andreas Vesalius In this book, he has mentioned that the human body is composed of many complex subsystems each with its own function. Andreas Vesalius is honoured as the Father of Anatomy.

William Harvey , a British scientist, first demonstrated that the heart pumps blood and the blood circulates. His monograph was named as Anatomical exercise on the motion of the Heart and Blood. Robert Hooke , a British scientist, first coined the term cellulae in and this term is synonymous to cells. His book was named Micrographia. In , a Dutch cloth merchant turned into a scientist.

Antony van Leeuwenhoek , observed the real living cells with the aid of a simple microscope made by him. He is regarded as the inventor of simple microscope. He was the first to draw a diagram of bacteria in Aristotles work on classification went unchallenged until when Carolus Linnaeus , a Swedish naturalist, published another book Species plantarum.

Also he published another book Systema Naturae in Linnaeus introduced the method of naming of plants and animals known as the Binomial Nomenclature. Aristotles Scala Naturac was the all to explain the cause of diversities of the living things. Georges Leopold Cuvier , a French palaeontologist, first rejected the traditional Scala Naturae as a unifying concept of evolution.

He was also the first one to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology, the study of fossils, as a branch of biology. Cuvier also made major contributions in comparative anatomy.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck , a French naturalist, was the first to discard the idea of fixity of species. His book Philosophie Zoologique was published in Charles Robert Darwin , a British naturalist, is the pioneer in the field of biology in the nineteenth century.

His monumental treatise on the Origin of species by means of Natural Selection: The Preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for life was published in In , Louis Pasteur , a French scientist, countered the prevailing concept of spontaneous origin of life.

He established the Germ Theory of disease. Gregor Johann Mendel , is regarded as the Father of Genetics. According to this theory, every organ of the body produces minute hereditary particles called pangenes or gemmules. Darwin suggested that these gemmules were carried through blood from every organ of the body and were collected together into the gametes.

Lamarcks concept of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics and Darwins theory of Pangenesis were rejected with the discovery of the Theory of Germplasm in by August Weismann , a German Biologist.

Waismanns experiment on rate established that the germ sex cells are set apart from the body somatic cells early in the embryonic development and it is only the changes in the germplasm that can affect the characteristics of future generations. Misuse of Biology i Amniocentesis is the removal of amniotic fluid via a needle inserted through the abedomen into the uterus and amniotic sac, in order to gain information about the foetus. The amniotic fluid contains cells amniocytes of the amniotic membrane and some foetal skin cells.

The centres for genetic counseling offer amniocentesis on request of women for chromosome analysis. The amniocentesis technique has been developed for detecting foetal abnormalities by analyzing chromosomal defect or aberration of the foetus.

With the realization that the test could reveal the sex of the foetus, people are seen to take the test the mostly for knowing the sex of the foetus instead of the possible genetic anomalies. Such misuse includes the development of antibiotic-resistant micro-oranisms with increased infectivity. For example, anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Spores of B. If a cloud of anthrax spores is released at a strategic location to be inhaled by the individuals under attack may act as an agent of effective weapon of bioterrorism.

Important points: Fleming discovered penicillin in the culture of the bacterium , Staphylococcus. The penicillin found by Fleming was a toxic product of the blue mould Penicillium notatum that contaminated his culture of bacteria and was destroying the bacteria. Cuvier was the first to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology. Lamarck first discarded the idea of fixity of species.

Schlieden the first statement on cell theory. Darwin proposed natural selection as a mechanism of evolution of species. The concept of spontaneous origin of life was countered by Pasteur, who proposed the germ theory of disease.

James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick discovered the structure of Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid DNA in and this triggered a new ear of molecular biology. Astbury, a British scientist, first used and defined the term molecular biology in Holley and Marshall W. Nirenberg for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. Norman Ernest Borlaug won Nobel Prize in for his green revolution. Ian Wilmut and Campbell produced the first live, healthy sheep clone, Dolly, form fully differentiated adult mammary cells in In an attempt to reap the fruits of genetic engineering , the U.

Human Genome project in The project aims to identify all the approximate 30, genes in human DNA determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DAN. The scientific classification of organisms, including their naming and identification is called Taxonomy or Systematics. Morphology is the aspect of biology that deals with the study of form, shape, size and structure of plants and animals.

The study of morphology of internal systems or organs constitutes what is called Anatomy. The historical change in the properties of a population of organisms over generations is called organic evolution and this branch of biology is considered as Evolutionary Biology. The study of fossils is called Palaeontology. The study of the structure and composition of cells and tissues under the microscope is called Cytology and Histology respectively.

The branch of biology that deals with the mechanism of functioning of the life processes is referred to as Physiology. Management of farms and the science of crop production. Soil Science: Study of soil and its conservation. The science dealing with the nature of diseases, their causes, symptoms and effect. To produce improved varieties by selective mating. Veterinary medicine: Science dealing with the diseases of domesticated animals and their health care.

A branch of zoology deals that with the structure, habits andclassification of insects. The occupation or industry of catching fish or other products of the sea, lakes or rivers. Poultry Science: Science dealing with domestic fowls, such as chickens, Ducks and geese. The breeding and treatment of silkworms for producing raw silk. The rearing of bees, beekeeping for commercial purposes. The science of developing and conserving forests.

The science dealing with the structure, function, uses of microscopic organisms. Food technology: Processing and preservation of foods. Biomedical Engineering: Production of spare parts for man implants, artificial limbs, heart and lung machines etc. The science of treating diseases with drugs or curative substances. Study of grasses Algalogy: Study of algae. Branch dealing with practice of anaesthesia induction of inability to feel pain.

Study of blood vascular system including arteries and veins. Anthology Bessey: Study of flower and flowering plants. Study related to origin, development and culture of present and past races of humans. Study of spiders. Cultivation of trees and shrubs. Study of joints. Study of growth Bacteriology: Study of bacteria.

Science connected with chemistry composition, chemical nature, mode of formation, functioning of living matter. Flow of energy and energy transformations. The art and hobby of growing dwarf form of trees and shrubs in pots. Study of bryphytes. Study of heart Chirology: Communication system for deaf and mute by sign language.

Study of cartilages Cnidology: Study of coelenterates Craniology: Study of skulls. Study of populations. Care of teeth including cure, removal, filling and replacement. Study of skin and other body coverings. Study of endocrine glands, hormones and their effects.

Study of enzymes and their functions. Study of distributions, causes and control measures of infection diseases. Study of animal behaviour. Cultivation of plants for their flowers. Study of alimentary canal or stomach, intestine and their diseases. Science of earth. Treatment of disease in the aged. Study of ageing and senescence. Study of female reproductive organs. Study of blood. Study of parasitic worms. Study of liver. Treatment through hypnotism. Study of fishes.

Study of immunity or resistance to disease. Science dealing with inter-relationship of anatomy and physiology with respect to movements. Study of larynx. Study of leprosy and its cure. Study of lichens.

Study of various aspects of malaria and its cure. Study of mammals. Study of breasts including teats. Study of development and loss of body pigments. Study of monera. Study of fungi. Myology Sarcology: Study of muscles. Study of nervous system. Study of teeth and gums. Study of cancers and tumours.

Study of eyes. Study of birds. Diagnosis and repair of disorders of locomotory system bones, joints, etc.

Study of bones Paediatrics: Branch of medicine dealing with children. Study of parasites. Evolutionary history. Treatment of body defects through massage and exercise. Study of protests. Science dealing with X-rays and other imaging techniques for medical diagnosis. Study of nose and olfactory organs.

External alteration of nose through surgery. Study of serum; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood. Ultrasound imaging. Study of hearing. Study of harmful effects of drugs and other substances. Study of hairs. Science dealing with structure, functions and disorders of urinary tract urinogenital tract in males. Study of viruses. Origin and development of animals.

Study of geographical distribution of animals. Study of animal diseases. Patau Penicillin A. Protoplasm is the physical basis of life.

The basic features of living organisms: The hierarchy of biological organisation reveals that atoms are the lowest unit at the molecular level while the cells are smallest unit at microscopic level. With in the ecosystem, an individual forms the smallest unit.

A larger unit then ecosystem is the landscape, which is a geographical unit with history. Organisation is Regulated by four Processes: Coming together e,g. Partners of an aggregate are influenced by one another. Development of coordination or stability e. Breathing by various organs.

A new product or structure e. In nonliving world the organisation level is upto the level of molecule and compounds they aggregate to form mixture, colloids and crystals.

Biology notes

The building blocks of matter are atoms. Atoms aggregate and constitute elements. About 98 percent of the mass of every living organism , be that a bacterium or a human being is composed of just six elements, such as carbon C hydrogen H , nitrogen N , oxygen O , phosphorous P and sulphur S.

Elements that are required by an organism in minute quantities are considered as trace element. Ca, K, Na,, Mg, I etc. Micromolecules and Macromolecules About types of biomolecules are found in living beings, which are divided in two categories.

They are small in size and have low molecular weight. They are large in size, have high molecular weight and are complex molecules. They are formed by the condensation or polymerization of micromolecules.

Proteins, Polysaccharides, nucleic acids. Water is the Polar Molecule Molecules that exhibit charge separation are called polar molecules because of their magnetic poles. Water is a polar molecule. In liquid water, the negatively charged oxygen atom of one molecule of water is attracted to the positively charged hydrogen atom of another molecule of water. The bond resulting from this attraction is called a hydrogen bond. Weak hydrogen bonds are of great advantage in the biological systems.

The reason is that the contact between the molecules becomes very brief. The molecules separate immediately after reacting with one another.

CBSE Class 11 Biology Revision Notes Chapter 20 - Locomotion and Movement

About two-third of our body is formed of water. Water is an effective solvent because it is capable of forming hydrogen bond. Before it can take part in chemical reactions, CO2 needs to get dissolved in water. The thin aqueous film covering almost every cell is sufficient to dissolve CO2.

The dissolved CO2 then reacts with water and forms carbonic acid. CO2 and H2O are the raw materials from which plants produce many complex essential organic compounds.

Macro molecule Large and complex assemblies of simple biological molecules are called macromolecules. Macromolecules are traditionally grouped into four major categories: This is a type of lipid that contains four carbon rings.

The steroid cholesterol is present on most of the animal cell membranes. Terpenes, component of many biological pigments e. Rubber is also a terpene. Prostaglandins are formed of 20 carbons and are modified fatty acids. Prostaglandins act as local chemical messenger in many vertebrate tissues. All proteins are formed of sub-units called amino acids. It is the chemical properties of the side groups of amino that determine the types and functions of proteins If the side group is polar or ionic, the amino acid is soluble in water and if it is nonpolar at a pH 6.

The amino acids building blocks linked together by covalent bonds called peptide bonds. These bonds form a chain of amino acid units which is called polypeptide chain. Protein molecules often consist of more then one polypeptide chain. About 50 percent of the dry weight of living matter is protein. Most organisms have between and 50, proteins. The nucleic are linear polymers of repeating monomer subunits called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is formed of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base purine or pyrimidine.

Energy is the capacity to do work. It exists in several forms Eg. All the thing Living or nonliving contain energy in some or the other forms. The Energy Transfer Devices of Life Cellular activities such as growth, motion and active transport of ions the cell membrane require energy. No cell manufactures energy but all organisms take in energy and transform it into other kind to do many kinds of work. Green plants and bacteria take in solar energy to produce their own chemical energy food.

Energy is often Transferred with Electrons All atoms possess energy. It takes work to keep the electrons in the orbital of an atom. Virtually, all the energy for living organism comes as radiation in the form of photons from the and is captured by electrons. During chemical reactions electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The loss of an electron is called oxidation, whereas the gain of an electron is regarded as reduction.

Oxidation- reduction redox reactions play a key role in the flow of energy through biological systems. What is Enthalpy and Free Energy? In a biological system, the total energy including usable energy that can do work and unusable energy that is lost to disorder is called enthalpy. The amount of usable energy that is available for doing work temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system is the free energy.

It is free because it is available for work under certain conditions. Activation Energy: Spontaneous Reactions: Exergonic Reactions: An Exergonic reaction has an endergonic first step because for two molecules to combine, they must come unusually close and one or more pre-existing bonds must break frequently.

Endergonic Reaction: How Energy Flows: First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy keeps changing from to another form. Radiant energy into chemical energy in photosynthesis. Chemical energy of cell is transformed into various forms of energy. Second Law of Thermodynamics or Law of Entropy: Any system like this universe when left to itself tends to increase Entropy. Entropy means disorder or randomness. This law states that every transfer or transformation of energy makes the universe disordered.

Energy keeps flowing from higher to lower energy areas, the loss of energy occurs in these energy changing reactions. This loss of energy is always dispersed into unailable heat energy.

This loss energy increase entropy in a system. Free energy from sun minimizes entropy. All living things need a continuous input of energy so as to maintain order. This is taken from sun either directly like green plants or indirectly from food. Energy transfer or energy transformation All matter living or non living contains energy. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. This is the first law of thermodynamics. Whenever work is done energy is either transformed or transferred. Such change in energy occur continuously in a living cell.

Example of energy transformation: Example of energy transfer: When continuous loss of energy takes place then entropy increases i. Therefore in case of high entropy or in conditions of high energy loss, the cell is provided with an extra source of free energy. And the loss of energy is maintained. The free energy decreases the entropy i. There are many sources of free energy for e.

Organisms are Open systems If energy can never be destroyed First law of Thermodynamics then what prevents the recycling of energy? Answer to this question can be found in the Second law of Thermodynamics. The term system denotes any part of the universe containing specified matter and energy and whose energy transformations are studied in thermodynamics. The rest of the universe remains outside the system and is considered as surroundings.

In an open system, such as living cells, matter and energy can be transferred between the system and the surroundings. The very term open refers to the fact that there is exchange of materials and energy between the organisms and their surroundings. Organisms are open systems because they interact continuously with their environment.

A closed system is one that does not exchange matter and energy with its surroundings. For instance, a warm liquid is placed in a thermos flask or a bottle and the lids are tightened. The thermos flask more or less represents a closed system. There is no question of exchange of matter between the internal environment of the thermos flask and its surroundings.

So far as energy is concerned, the liquid remains warm for considerable period of time, dependignupon the efficiency of the thermos flask. During this period, the heat energy of the liquid is not released outside and it moves inside. This keeps the liquid warm. Hence thermos flask represents an example of closed system. The first law of thermodynamics applies to the universe as a whole or to any close system in the universe. Open system, Steady state and Homeostasis Open system: The system which has a continuous inflow of energy direct of indirect is called an open system.

A living organium must have constant access to free energy or also its organisation will collapse over time, leading to death. Steady state: When the rate of input of matter and energy equals to the rate of output of matter and energy it is called steady system.

For e. Without these, the organism can not maintain itself. There must also be an output of CO2, nitrogenous waste and heat which are products of chemical reactions, and which would be harmful to the organism if they are allowed to accumulate.

O2 Cell CO2 Glucose Cell Waste products Nitrogenous compound Homeostasis A function of Regulatory system All organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions different from their environment. For this, many organisms have regulatory mechanisms, which co-ordinate their functions, such as providing the cells with nutrients, transporting substances through the body.

Others simply adjust to the environment by adopting the temperature, salinity and other physical aspects of their surroundings. In any case, maintenance of a dynamic constancy of the internal environment or steady state is termed as homeostasis.

Example of Homeostasis: Within a few seconds you are able to adjust your sight to the dim light and move about. Bu t when we run, the rate of heart beat increases. This is because of the need for increased and faster blood supply to the tissues which have done extra work. But after sometime the normal rate of heart beat is restored. It leads to increased sweating. As the sweat evaporates the body cools and the body temperature lowers down.

Pancreas produces insulin which induces glycogenesis in liver and muscles Glucose Glycogen. Due to this glucose level in blood falls.

This is done by ADH Secreted by pituitary gland. This hormone increases the permeability of the wall of DCT and collecting duct. While in case of excess water ADH is not secreted and dilute urine is passed out. Thermoregulation In the living cells, thermal energy heat is produced during exergonic reactions of metabolism. The vast majority of vertebrates fishes, amphibians, reptiles and plants lose most of their thermal energy to their environment.

Such animals are called ectothermic. These organisms often depend on their environment for temperature regulation. Their skin may appear as either cold or warm, depending on the environment from which they have been taken for examination. If any one of them is picked up from a hibernaculum or caught beside a cold body of water, it is likely that the skin will be cold. This is the reason for calling them as poikilothermous.

Alternatively, if an animal is examined during warm afternoon while it was basking in the sun, its skin will appear warm. Actually, these animals save energy for utilizing it in other functions like reproduction.

Mammals, birds and a few fishes e. They have developed insulating devices, such as fat, hair, feathers, etc. They are endothermic. Their body temperature remains relatively constant, which is usually higher then that of the environment. For this reason they are called homeothermous. Mammals, birds and a few fishes are endothermic and homeothermous because they retain thermal energy with the aid of thermoreceptors.

Homeothermy in Humans Being a mammal we are endothermic and homoeothermic as well. To maintain the body temperature, which is 37 0 C This can be compared with the functioning of the thermostat of a room air-conditioner machine.

Usually , the temperature of the thermostat is set at 21 0 C F. If the temperature of the room rises sufficiently above the set point, a sensor present within the thermostat detects the change and activates the effector of the machine.

The air-conditioner then reverses the deviation from the set point of the thermostat. Finally, the room temperature is controlled at the set point of the thermostat. Our skin contains two types of sensory neurons. They are sensitive to the changes in temperature outside our bodies. They are termed as thermoreceptors.

Some of them are sensitive to cooler temperatures and are called cold receptors, while the others are sensitive to warmer temperatures and are called warm receptors. The former set is stimulated by fall in temperature and the rise in temperature. Conversely, warming inhibits cold receptors and cooling inhibits warm receptors. The warm receptors are located immediately below the epidermis skin , while the cold receptors are located slightly deeper in the dermis.

We have thermoreceptors also within the hypothalamus of our brain. These receptors monitor the temperature of the circulating blood and send the information of the bodys internal core temperature to the brain. The thermoreceptors of the skin sense, say for example , any rise in external temperature caused by a perturbing factor like the sun, and send the message to the thermoreceptors of the hypothalamus, which detect the change in the accompanying body temperature.

The hypothalamus now responds by activating the effector, that is, the sweat glands and the blood vessels of the skin. As a result, release of sweat and dilation of the blood vessels are initiated, which cause cooling and diffusion of body temperature. In other words, the set point is defended by the hypothalamus. Since the regulation of temperature is by cooling the body, in this case, it is in the negative side or reverse direction.

This type of control system is called negative feedback loop. Biochemical Pathways are Tightly Regulated: Enzyme activity is sensitive to the presence of specific substances that bind to the enzymes. A substance that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity is called an inhibitor, if it increases the activity of an enzyme it becomes an activator. The regulation of simple biochemical pathways often depends on the allosteric site on the enzyme that catalyses the first reaction in the pathway.

In the metabolic pathways, the product of one reaction may serve as the substarate for the next reaction. When necessary, the final end product of one pathway may become the allosteric inhibitor for the action of the first enzyme of that pathway. This method of regulating mechanism is called feedback mechanism. Thus the regulation of simple biochemical pathways often depends on the feedback mechanism. Adaptation Adaptation to the environment is one of the most distinctive features of living beings.

Adaptation may be defined as any characteristic of an organism, which makes the organism better suited to its environment. Adaptation may be structural, physiological or behavioural in response to the environment. Types of Adaptations: Long term Adaptations: Short term adaptations: They are temporary changes that are produced in response to specific conditions and are meant for adjustment to unfavourable conditions.

It helps in protecting the underlying tissue from ultra violet rays of the sun. In favourable conditions dormancy is broken and the seeds germinate. It keeps its metabolic rate very low. It survives on stored fats. A living individual contains over types of biomolecules. Sodium chloride occurs in concentration of 0. Unit of measurement in cell biology is nanometer or millimicron.

Schiff reagent is specific for DNA. This reagent was developed by Schiff. In ancient India which of the following is regarded as God of Medicine?

Who was the first physician in ancient India who developed the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity? Which of the following is regarded as Father of surgery? Which of the following is honoured as Father of anatomy? A plant classified as dicot but without visible cotyledon is: Science dealing with nose and olfactory organs is 1 Rhinology 2 Radiology 3 Dermatology 4 Kinesiology 7.

The physical sufferings are often caused by bad deeds in the previous birth. It may be called: Herpetology is study of: Lightest wood is: Rediscovered Mendels contribution ii T. Morgan B. Discovered that genes are made up of D. Avery C. Introduced the term genetics iv Hugo de Vries D.

Match the names of branches of science listed under Column I with the fields of study given under Column II. Choose the correct combination of alphabets: Mycology P. Study of bird B.

Ornithology Q. Study of worms C. Herpetology R. Study of fishes D. Ichthyology S. Study of fungi T. Study of nuclcytology is: Chemotherapeutic value of penicillin was given by 1 A. The correct match is: Andreas Vesalius P. Micrographia B. Leeuwenhoek Q. De Humani Corporis Fabrica C. Harvey R. Species plantarum D. Linnaeus S. Philosophic Zoologique E. Robert Hooke T. Anatomical Exercise on the motion of the F.

Scientist associated with Indian Palaeobotany is: Maheswari 2 Birbal Sahni 3 M. Iyengar 4 Swaminathan Circulation of blood was discovered by: Rearing of bees is: Branch of science connected with diagnosis, prevention and cure of mental disorders is: Mexican dwart varieties of wheat were developed by: Genetic engineering is connected with: Utilisation of living organisms for human welfare is: Metamorphosis is studied under: Study of human population growth comes under [Kerla] 1 Anthropology 2 Sociology 3 Demography 4 Geography Scientific enquiry about life in outer space is: In , a scientist discovered the first effective antibiotic.

Scientist and antibiotics are: Choose the correct pair: Prevention of deterioration of human race through reducing birth rate among defective individuals is [TNPCEE] 1 Positive euthenics 2 Negative euthenics 3 Negative euthenics 4 Positive euthenics Which one of the following sequence is correct: Match the columns and pick up the correct combination: Study of ants in: Branch of botany connected with food, fibre and wood yielding plants is: Acarology is study of: For solving a scientific problem which is not correct 1 Suaruta 2 Charaka 3 Dhanvantari 4 Atreya Science of engineering and technology which is applied to life sciences is: Match the column I and II and choose the correct answer: All living beings show: Bending of a shoot towards light is: Physical basis of life is: Fuelgen test is specific for: Which type of organisation is found in only living beings: Organisation formed by individuals of a species is: Number of chemicals found in living cell is: Which one is a micromolecule: Salt concentration of blood is: Glucose concentration of blood for normal body function is: Energy currency of a cell is: This is due to: During nerve conduction, electric energy is produced.

What is the source of this energy: What type of energy is needed to make up the loss of energy in a living system: Use of tail as fifth limb by Kangaroo is an example of- 1 Short term adaptation 2 Homeostasis 3 Long term adaptation 4 Energy transformation Long term adaptation is: Which organ remains functional for a few hours even after clinical death: Sweating is meant for: Ultimate source of energy is: Pox virus contains.

If feedback inhibition a metabolic pathway gets Switched off by: ACTH consists.. Hemocyanin of snail consists of.. An example of short term adaptation is a Accumulation of melanin in the skin b The use of stored fat in animals undergoing hibernation. The species which grow on exposed rocks is: The largest macromolecule is: Who pointed out that Life results due to a relationship of molecules and is not the property of any one molecule: Pauling 4 None of these What is the energy required in calories for formation of energy rich bond between phosphorous and ADP molecule in DNA: Homeostasis refers to: Dodo flightless bird recently got extinct from: The simplest amino acid is: Steroid is: Water protects organisms from thermal shock due to its high: Homeostasis is: Cholesterol is: Maintenance of internal favourable conditions despite changes in external environment is: Total heat content of a system is: A person exposed to cold environment does not show: Which is correct about energy changes in living cells [A.

Animals not possessing a fixed temperature are called: Which one is incorrect: The study of the energy transfer and relationships between all living organisms is known as: On which day we celebrate malarial day? Philosophic zoologique was written by: The book Micrographia was written by: Hooker 5.

Which of the following is connecting link between reptiles and birds? Which organism was used by Beadle and Tatum to proposed one gene-one enzyme hypothesis? Pangenesis hypothesis was proposed by: World AIDs day is organised every year on: This word was produced by A. Candolle in his book Theories elementaire de la botanique Theory of elementary botany Taxonomy includes study of following 4 points 1 Identification - Identification of living organisms 2 Nomenclature - Nomenclature of living organism 3 Classification - Classifications of living organisms in groups 4 Affinities - Study of inter relationship between living organisms Systematics: Branch related with taxonomy 1 The term Systematics was proposed by Linnaeus 2 In includes description of external morphological characters of plants or living organisms.

Morphological characters of Root, Ste, Leaves, Flowers 3 This description is used to know inter relationship among plants or living organisms. New systematics or Neo systematics or Biosystematics: Anatomical characters Cytological characters 3 It is used to know the inter relationship among living organism. New systematics is mainly based on evolutionary as well as genetic relationship experimental taxonomy as compared to morphological characters. Some Informations: Maximum diversity found in tropical rain forests.

Second maximum diversity found in coral reefs Practical significance of taxonomy is Identification of unknown organism.

Polynomial system: According to this system name of any plant consists of many words. A scientist needs to direct the observations that raise question, like what, why, how. Measuring everything is neither wise nor possible. It is also very important to find out the proper method of measurement and keeping record of data.

All data should be preserved because any one of them might be useful in answering any present or future question. Formulation of Hypothesis The next requirement is to develop a number of potential explanations or hypothesis based on the observation.

Suppose, suddenly you realize that a room is dark. As an explanation for this perception, you may formulate several hypothesis , such as the switches are turned off or the bulbs are burnt out or, perhaps, you are going blind. Actually, a hypothesis is a logical explanation that accounts for the observation. This step involves guessing or predicting the plausible answers to a question. A good hypothesis should be as simple as possible.

A hypothetical proposition might stand true or false. Hence, the data that emerge from a set of observations must be analysed which may help to make some kind of coherent generalization. Testing of Hypothesis You need to test the hypothesis. For this, you must devise ways of testing. Generally, the scientists carry out an experiment for testing one or more hypothesis.

Biology Multiple Choice Question Bank For AIPMT

Based on the result of experiment they eliminate or confirm one or more of the hypothesis. This process helps to reject the most unlikely hypothesis and select the most likely one. Considering the hypothesis made earlier for explaining the causes of darkness in the room, first, as an experiment, you may try to switch on the light. If the room is still dark the first hypothesis is untrue and hence it is to be rejected.

The shortcoming of this experiment is that it does not prove the other two hypothesis are true or false. A standard type of experiment is called control experiment. Usually a scientist performs two sets of parallel experiments that are identical in all respects except in one variable.

For example, to test the specific type of nutrient that affects the growth of plant, you may take five pots, each containing the same type of plant. Then add different nutrients to four of them and no nutrient to the fifth pot. This pot will serve as a control for your experiment. In the next step, expose all the five plants to sunlight and water them uniformly.

Observe the differences in growth of all the plants, record your data and formulate the appropriate hypothesis. Developing theory If the repeated experiments to test a hypothesis of the prediction give the same result again and again the hypothesis gains validity. A hypothesis that survives repeated tests over a long period of time and that has central importance to an area of science, may be considered a theory.

Robert Hooke observed the presence of cellulae in Latin, small rooms and hence cells as early as , whereas the actual living cells were observed a few years later by Anton van Leeuwenhoek.

Actually, Hookes concept of cell received the proper recognition in , when a botanist, Matthias Schleiden, carefully studied plant tissues and developed the first statement on Cell Theory. Following this Theodor Schwann reported animal tissues in An important extension of Cell Theory all living cells arise from preexisting cells. It came 20 years later in when Louis Pasteur successfully refuted the concept of spontaneous origin of life.

Today, the likelihood of the cell theory being rejected is almost zero. Any scientific finding should be published. Biology: The Science of Life The living organisms interact with one another as well as with their physical and chemical environment.

Biology Bios : life; logos: to discover is the scince that studies living organisms. Biology and its relation to other science All the disciplines of science are interrelated. The approach of studying biology has presently become multi-disciplinary and more broad based then before. Today a new name-life science is often used in place of Biology, to cover its wide scope.

The study of life science involves the knowledge of other basic sciences, such as physics and chemistry. Biology A science of exceptions Biology, however, is a science of exceptions. This is because it deals with living organisms which show enormous variation and are capable of changes.

Due to evolution living organism show a number of exceptions. Some important exceptions in biology are as follows Mature RBC of mammals are enucleated except camel and llama Nucleated RBC is present Normally the root of plants are positively geotropic but in mangrove plants Rhizophora negatively geotropic pneumatophores are present. Ostrich, Emu, Cassowary and Kiwi are birds which cannot fly. Duckbilled platypus and spiny ant eaters lay eggs like birds but they are mammals cledoic egg Crocodiles and alligators are reptiles having four chambered heart like mammals instead of incomplete four chambered heart of reptiles.

Generally mammals have seven cervical vertebrae while sea cow has six and sloth has nine cervical vertebrae. Fishes have gills for respiration while lung has alveolar sac like lungs. Scope of Biology Biology influences our daily life as well as our future.

The development and use of modern medicine depends on the understanding of structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and organ-systems of the human body. Information about the life-histories of the causative agents of diseases and their relation with man are of much value for prevention and cure of many diseases.

We can also develop the skill to understand the cause of many hereditary diseases and genetic disorders. Biology helps to understand how organisms interact with nature and the significance of maintaining biodiversity.

It helps humans to assess their position in the living world as a part of the earths ecosystems. Anatomy and physiology help people become aware of the structure and function of human body. A biologist can learn things related to economic uses of plants and animals. With modern biotechnology scientists have been able to produce genetically modified GM crops. Geneticists, evolutionists and ecologists, independently or collectively, can work to assess the efficacy of biotechnology and bring forth appropriate enlightenment in the modern society.

The future directions of biotechnology, conservation of biodiversity maintenance of environment and human welfare are in the hands of biologists. Biology in Ancient India Cultivation of rice was most likely achieved at Mehergarh about 6, years ago. Our Vedic literature recorded about plants and animals. The first attempt of classification is observed in Chandyogya Upanishad, which classified animals into three categories Jivaja Viviparous , e.

Jangama mobile , e. Susruta Samhita also mentioned about classification of animals, such as Kulacara those herbivores who frequently visit the river banks. Matsya fish , Janghala wild herbivorous quadrupeds, e. In Vedic time Dhanvantari was regarded as the God of Medicine. Actually, Susruta is one of the earliest scientists who studied human anatomy. He has described in detail, anatomy based on his studies on dead body.

Susruta Samhita is considered as the oldest treatise on surgery. Susruta himself carried out plastic surgery of human nose rhinoplasty. He used non- poisonous living leeches for preventing clotting of blood in the post-operative case. Susruta also specialized in ophthalmic surgery extraction of cataracts. He is therefore acknowledged as the Father of Surgery. Charaka was the first physician to present the concepts of digestion, metabolism and immunity. According to him, a body function because it contains three doshas, namely, bile, phlegm split and wind and illness is caused when the balance among the three doshas in a human body is disturbed.

Charaka knew the fundamentals of genetics. For instance, he knew the factore determinimg the sex of a child. The indigenous system of medicine in india is known as Ayurveda, which is the science of living or longevity. Aristotle: An exceptionally talented person Aristotle relied on observations and contributed much in biology. About 90 percent of his writing are on scientific subjects, mostly on biological ones. Classified animal species and arranged them into hierarchies.

His mode of classification was reasonable and in some cases strikingly modern. Formulated the concept of the Great Chain of Being or Scala Naturae a chain of progressive change in nature. This corresponds to a sort of evolution. Dealt with over five hundred type of animals and dissected nearly fifty of them. Studied the developing embryo of a chick and reported that sharks give birth to live youngones viviparous but do not develop a placenta like mammals.

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