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The Sun would rise due East and set due West Fig. It is summer. In fact, this happens only st on two days in each year March 21 and September 21st. In the summer, the days are longer than the nights. And in the winter, the nights are longer than the days the Sun rises at South of due East and sets at South of due west.
This is because, the axis of rotation is not at 90o to the direction of the Suns light. As the Earth revolves around the Sun, its axis of rotation is as shown in the Fig. It is winter. In positions B and D in Fig. Moon is not a luminous body; it gives out no light of its own. We can see it, because it reflects light from the sun. It rotates about its own axis and also revolves around the Earth. For both motions, the time is same, We can see only one side of the moon.
The other side cannot be seen Fig. During the motion of the moon, if both the Sun and the moon are in the opposite part of the sky, we can see the moon.
It is because, the reflected light from the moon comes to us. Now that moon is called Full moon Fig. As the moon revolves around the Earth and if both the Sun and the moon are in same part of the sky, we cannot see the moon. It is because, that the reflected light from the moon does not come to us. Now, that moon is called New moon Fig. So far as we know, the Earth is the only planet in which life exists. No proof for life has been found in any other planet. Our Earth is a medium - sized planet.
The presence of atmosphere, water, rich variety of animals and plants makes our Earth unique from other planets. Seen from space, Earth can look mostly covered by ocean and clouds. Land covers only one quarter of the surface.
If the Earth is compared with the football, the highest land like Himalayas could be represented as the coat of paint on the ball. Imagine how big our Earth is? Table 1. Mountains, deserts, oceans, rivers and land are available on the surface of the Earth. What about its inside? Is it solid like a cricket ball or hollow like a foot ball?
The interior of the Earth can be broadly divided into three different layers. These layers are known as crust, mantle and core Fig. From pole to pole through the centre 12, Km; Across the equator through the centre 12, Km. The crust contains materials like water, rocks and soil. Limestone, common salt, coal, petroleum, metals like iron, copper, aluminium and gold are the different types of minerals found in the Earths crust. The mantle The layer in between the crust and outer core is called the mantle.
Its thickness is nearly Kilometres. The mantle is made up of hot rocks. The temperature and pressure is more than in the crust. The mantle layer is in semi-molten state. The crust The crust is the Earths solid outer layer. It is upto 30 Kilometres thick under the mountains, but only. The core The core is divided into two parts as i outer core and ii inner core. It is kilometres thick. This outer core is made mainly of metals.
It is under enormous pressure and so hot. The metals are in molten state. Four-fifth of the outer core may be iron and nickel. The rest one-fifth is probably silicon. It is about kilometres thick. Like the outer core, it is also made up of iron and nickel. The temperature is about oC. It extends up for hundreds of kilometres. The atmosphere consists of gases like. Plants need carbon dioxide for preparing their food. About 78 percent of air is nitrogen about 21 percent is oxygen and the remaining one percent consists other gases Fig.
This layer of atmosphere is known as troposphere. This is the layer nearest to the earth. At 30 to 50 kilometres above Earths suface, a layer of hot air at a temperature of 42oC is available.
The hotness is due to the absorption of heat from the Sun by the ozone layer. Ozone is the special form of oxygen. This ozone layer protects us from the most harmful Ultraviolet rays of the Sun.
Without ozone, we could not stand the Suns light. Hence, we have to preserve the ozone layer. As we go higher and higher, the air becomes thinner. This is why mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders with them. The oxygen in the atmosphere helps in burning. The nitrogen in the air keeps the burning under control. The atmosphere allows only a part of light and heat from the Sun to reach the surface of the Earth.
The suitable temperature of the Earth is only due to the presence of atmosphere. This helps in the existence of life on Earth. Water vapour in the air makes surrounding as cool. Human beings and animals need oxygen. Activity 1. Fill it with water. Candle should not be submerged in water.
Now, light the candle. Then, place a glass tumbler upside down such that it must cover the lighted candle. What happens? The candle needs oxygen to burn. The air available in the tumbler has oxygen.
With this oxygen the candle burns. After sometime, the candle blows out. This is because, the entire oxygen has been used up. No more oxygen is available. You can see. Ocean currents are like rivers of water flowing through the ocean. They are warmer or colder than water through which they pass. Various kinds of plants and animals fish, shark, whale are living in the ocean. There is a soft; Oozy mud covering the floor of the ocean down to a depth of metres.
Many useful materials are in the ocean. Most important among them are the common salt and iodine. Tides occur in the ocean. What are tides? Tides are the regular movement of the water caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. Water is essential for all living things. This shows the presence of oxygen in air.
Most of the water is available in the oceans and seas. Near the north and south poles, the oceans are in the form of ice. In some parts of the world there is only just enough water for people to survive. Each year the farmers wait anxiously for the rain to supply water for their crops.
In a bad year, there is not enough rain and plants, animals and humans die. All living things contain water. Water melan plant has 97 percent water.
About half the mass of a tree is water. About two-third of your mass is water. Many minerals found in the soil get dissolved in water. These minerals are useful for plants in preparing their food.
Water transports substances through a plant, carrying minerals from the soil to the stem and leaves. Oxygen dissolved in water is used for marine life. Blood in your body, which is mainly water, carries minerals to all the cells. The blood in your lungs dissolves the gases into the air and carries them round your body. Waste products are removed away through water.
Everyday you lose some water in urine and whenever you breath out. The water cycle Atmosphere plays an important role in the water cycle.
During the summer, the water is not found in the lake. Where did the water go? A part into the ground. Water changes into water vapour. The process of. Heated by the Sun, water on the surface of lakes, rivers and oceans evaporates and become water vapour in the atmosphere.
It joins with the water vapour released from the leaves of plants and forms clouds. When the clouds are lifted by upward motion of air, they cool. This can make the water vapour to condense into tiny water droplets. Often they freeze into tiny ice crystals and start to fall. They are too heavy for the air to keep them up. They reach ground as snow or melted as rain after melting.
Some of the water runs along the surface in rivers. The rest sinks into the ground. But again it will be back. This process of circulation of water to water vapour then clouds and again rain is called water cycle Fig. The water you drink today may have been drunk by someone thousands of years ago! Nature has been crumbling the rock into tiny fragments called soil. This is done in many ways.
The frequent change in heat and cold, cracks off surfaces of rock. Blow of wind converts rocks into sand. Glaciers scrape rock surfaces.
Waves beating against a shore converts rocks into smaller and smaller pieces. The soil in which plants grow is a complex substance which contains mineral salts, decayed organic materials and decayed living organisms.
The value of the soil depends on its power to supply plant food, air and water to the root of plants. Water rises in soil just as water rises in a sponge. The rising of this water keeps the plants growing. Soil is the shelter to a number of insects, reptiles and other animals. There must be a right temperature. All living things must remain with certain limits of temperature. Another condition is water. All living things require water. Light is essential for green plants. Animals need a source of food.
They cannot exist in places where the food is not available. Plants use carbon-di-oxide present in the air and sunlight in preparing their food. We cannot live without breathing. We get oxygen from the air. Animals living in water like the fish get the oxygen from water. The oxygen is dissolved in water. Hence, for plants carbon di oxide and for animals oxygen are essential.
So atmosphere must have oxygen and carbon-di-oxide.
Water, atmosphere with oxygen and carbon dioxide, suitable temperature and food are available. Hence, life exists only on the Earth.
In the other planets the above said things are not available. So life is not possible in other planets. Choose the correct answer. How many planets are in the solar system?
Write the name of the planets. Day and night changes alternately in the Earth. Give the reason. What is the time taken by the Earth to complete one rotation? If the day is longer than night, then is it summer or winter? If the night is longer than day, then is it summer or winter?
Is our Earth like a solid cricket ball or hollow foot ball? What are three layers of Earth? What is called atmosphere? Give the composition of air. What is the use of Ozone layer? Which gas is essential for burning? Name the useful important materials available in the ocean.
What is called water cycle? How is soil formed? State the requirements that are essential for the existence of life on Earth. In which layer of the Earth do you expect to find petroleum? If you breathe out over a glass plate, why the glass plate appears misty for some time? What happens to water when wet clothes dry? List out the uses of soil. From where do the fish get oxygen?
Measurement Measurement is necessary in everyday life. If we go to the textile shop to download the cloth for stitching shirt, we do not ask the seller to give one cloth. If we go to the vegetable shop, we do not ask to give a little amount of potato. If we go to the provision store, we do not ask to give a little amount of sugar.
What is the journey time of the bus from your village to town? In the textile shop, we ask for 1 metre cloth and the seller measures it using a scale. In the provision store, we ask for 1 kilogram or 2 kilograms sugar and the seller measures it using a balance. The journey time of the bus is 30 minutes.
In the above cases, we measure the quantities like length, mass and time using a metre scale, a balance and the time watch.
Hence measuring quantities with units like metre, kilogram and hour or minute plays an important role in our daily life. What is the size of your science book? At what distance your school How much milk do you want? What is the area of your class room?
What is your mass? What is the time taken by you to complete metre running race? Measurements are necessary to answer such questions. Without measurement we cannot make a correct judgement. A guess or a rough estimate may give a wrong answer. Science is concerned with finding out about the world, Why things happen? How things work? Early scientists, the ancient Greeks relied almost entirely on their senses. They were good at observing and at suggesting explanations of what they saw, but without doing experiments.
For example, Aristotle believed that heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects. But we know it is wrong. Measurements have helped scientists and engineers to understand motion, how aeroplanes fly, how satellites behave, how machines work. Measurements make it easier to describe observations. Careful measurement is an important work of any scientist. What is measurement? See the blackboard in your class room. What is its length?
Let your answer be 2 metres. Here 2 is the number and metre is the unit of length. That is the length of the blackboard is two times the length of the fixed quantity metre called unit. Let your answer be 30 kilograms.
Here 30 is the number and kilogram is the unit of mass. That is, your mass is 30 times the mass of the fixed quantity, kilogram, called unit. Thus, every measurement consists of a number and a unit. The comparison of an unknown quantity with some known fixed quantity of the same kind is called measurement. The known fixed quantity is called unit. Different units. Long ago, the lengths are measured with the units derived from some parts of the human body.
For example, width of four fingers, handspan, a cubit, a pace or a footstep and yard Fig. But these units were not reliable because the lengths of body parts are different for different people.
For example, your teacher measures the length of the classroom in cubits. Let the answer be 15 cubits. If you measure the same length, the answer may be 20 cubits. For the same length of class room, two different answers are given, if we use the unit cubit. Hence, cubit cannot be a standard one.
Each measurement must mean the samething to every one. Therefore, everyone must use the common units of measurement called standard units like metre, kilogram and second. SI is the abbreviation of The system International D units. In the S I system i the unit of length is metre The unit of force is newton The unit of work is joule. Symbol for 30 kilograms is 30 Kg It should not be written as 30 Kgs Symbol for 2 metres is 2 m It should not be written as 2 ms Symbol for 10 newtons force is 10 N It should not be as 10 Ns.
Symbol for metre is m It should not be as m. Symbol for second is s It should not be as s. Let the answer be 2 Km. Eventhough the distance, that is length is measured by the unit metre, we do not use metres. What is the length of your pencil? Let the answer be 15 cm. What is the thickness of the coin?
Let the answer be 2 mm. Eventhough the length is measured in metre, it is convenient for us to express in millimetre. Hence greater distances are expressed in kilometres and smaller distances are expressed in centimetres and in millimetres.
That is, in multiples and submultiples of metre. Hence the mass is also expressed conveniently in terms of ton, and quintol, gram and milligram, which are respectively the multiples and submultiples of kilogram.
For example, in Fig 2. Therefore, the length of the object is 6. To measure the length we use a metre scale or a measuring tape. In these devices, the two successive divisions are separated by a millimetre. To measure anything, we have to use the scale carefully. Otherwise, the measurements may not be accurate. The important precautions are: In some scales, the ends may be broken. Hence, zero mark may not be seen.
In such cases, you should use any other mark of the scale say 1 cm Fig 2. Then you have to subtract this mark from the reading at other end. Position of eye A is correct. Position of eye B and C are wrong. The reading corresponding to B and C will give parallox error. We can measure the length of a curved line using a thread Fig 2.
Activity 2. How is it possible? Take your text book. By pressing it, measure the total thickness of the book using a scale. Divide that value by the total number of papers in the book. You can get the thickness of a paper. Distance km Arrange 10 coins one above another as shown in the Fig. All the coins must be similar 25 paise coins.
Measure the height of 10 coins using a metre scale. In what way this reading is useful in measuring the thickness of one coin?
It is simple. If you divide the value by it gives the Fig 2. Now arrange the same 25 paise coins, but this time use 20 coins. Can you confirm the thickness of one coin? What exactly are we trying to compare? We compare the surface of the class room and the playground. That is about the area. Area is the measure of a surface of an object. Each little square in the graph is 1 square millimetre. How many little squares are there? Mark the boundary of the surface in the graph using pencil. Remove the object.
Count the number of little squares within the boundary. Do not count the square, if it is less than half. You know, that each little square is 1 mm2. Hence you can calculate the total area by multiplying number of squares with 1 mm2. Like this, you can measure the area of a leaf also.
The area of smaller objects can be expressed in the unit of mm2 or cm2. The area of bigger objects can be expressed in the unit of m2 or km2. The space occupied by a football is more than a cricket ball.
The space occupied by an object is called volume. An object like a match box or book or The volume of cuboid is calculated if you know its length, breadth and height.
The volume of liquid is expressed in litre L. How much is one litre? Let us find out. You might have seen a one litre pack of milk or one litre pack of edible oil or one litre water bottle. Take a glass vessel of length 10 cm, breath 10 cm and height 10 cm. Pour any one of the liquid mentioned above into the vessel.
You can see, that the vessel is completely filled by the liquid. Hence one litre milk can occupy a space of cm3. We call this cm3 as cubic centimetre, simply cc. You must have seen some of the vessels used for measuring volume of liquids as shown in the Fig. As in the Fig 2. Brick Geometry box Science book Class room Almirah length breadth height volume. But many solids are irregular, for example, a stone. How to find its volume? One way to find the volume of a stone is shown in the Fig.
Pour water into a measuring cylinder, so that it is about half full and read the volume. Then put the stone into the water. The water level will rise. Read the new volume. The difference between the two readings gives the volume of the stone.
They do not have a definite length, breadth and height, but take the shape of the container in which they are poured. Pour the liquid, whose volume you want to know, into a container as shown in the Fig 2. Measure the internal length, breadth and height. Multiply all three together and you have the volume of liquid. It is because the quantity of matter in brick is more than that of sponge.
The quantity which measures the amount of matter in an object is called mass and it is measured in kilograms kg. Mass and weight are It is unfortunate that people use the word weight when they mean mass. You might have seen a packet of sugar marked as net weight g.
It is wrong. It has to be marked as net mass g. Mass is the quantity of matter inside the body. Weight is the pull of gravity on the object. Weight of a given object is variable from place to place and planet to planet. Let us discuss, further about this idea in the chapter 'force and motion.
It is commonly measured with the help of a beam balance. Fig 2. Shopkeepers use many types of balances for weighing vegetables and provisions. You can see it in your school physics laboratory. Long ago, people did not have clocks. They used various events that occurred at regular intervals to count time intervals. One such event was occurrence of day and night. Our Earth rotates about its own axis and it takes a time of 24 hours to complete one rotation, we call it as one day.
The Earth also revolves around the Sun; it takes days to complete one revolution, we call it as one year. The moon revolves around the Earth and it takes The In the provision stores, we can see the balance as shown in the Fig 2. In the jewellory shops, to measure the mass of jewels we are using the electronic balance Fig 2. To measure the accurate mass. A simple sundial is made of a horizontal circular board with a triangular plate of metal fixed vertically on it. The plate is fixed along North-South direction.
The shadow of the plate falls on the board. The edge of the shadow falls at different angles at different times of the day. The position of the shadow was used to note the time of the day. It cannot be used after sunset. In a sand clock, sand flows from one glass container to other through a small hole connecting them as Fig. In a fixed interval of time, one hour, the entire sand in the top container flows down to the container at the bottom.
A can of water helps to measure time. Make a tiny hole at the bottom of the can. The can is filled with water and placed at certain height Fig 2. The water flows out and collected in another can. Everytime you fill the can, it will take the same time to empty.
Around B. Sumerian people, living in what is now Iraq, made the first shadow clock as shown in the Fig. Each swing always took the same length of time. That is, the time interval is fixed. Later, the boy, whose name was Galileo Galilei became one of the greatest scientists. He used this principle to measure time and made a pendulum clock. In this type of clock, a pendulum makes oscillations. The movement of the pendulum is connected with the movement of second, minute and hour hands of the clock.
Nowadays, to measure the short time intervals accurately, stop clocks and stop watches are used Fig 2. See the clock in the Fig 2. That clock does not have hour, minute and second hands. These clocks display time directly in digits called as digital clocks. Tie a solid ball metal with a hook to a thread and hang it as shown in the Fig 2. Now, pull the ball to one side and leave it to go.
It will come to its original position and continue to move to the other side. It will stop and start its return journey. This back and forth motion is called oscillation. The time taken by the pendulum to complete one oscillation is fixed. In a pendulum clock In the modern clocks most accurate one is atomic clock.
Based on the time interval of an energy change in a caesium atom second is second. Name the unit of length, which you would like to use while expressing the distance between Chennai and Madurai. How many Kilograms are there in one metric ton? Name the unit of length, which should be used to express the thickness of a paper.
What is the circumference of a one rupee coin? What is meant by volume of an object? State the unit in which volume of liquids is expressed. How many millilitres are there in one litre? What is mass? Name the two types of clocks used in earlier days. Draw the diagrams of the vessels used to measure the volume of liquids. What kind of watch is used to measure the time in metre race? Why a cubit or handspan cannot be used as a standard unit of length? Arrange the following in the decreasing order.
Kilometre, millimetre, centimetre, metre. The value of one division of a measuring cylinder is one ml. Water is poured into it, so that its level is at 50th division. When a stone is put in the cylinder, the level of water rises to 75th division.
What is the volume of the stone? Identify the mistake and correct it. State True or False a Hand span is a standard unit for measuring length. What is the area of a rectangular field m long by 60 m wide? What is the volume of a block of metal 6 cm long, 5 cm wide and 4cm high?
What is the volume of the metal cube with side 5 cm? Name the balance used in science laboratory. State two examples for periodic motion. What is the necessity of standard units in measurement? What are the conventions used in writing the unit and their symbols of SI system? State two precautions, which should be taken while using a metre scale.
How will you measure the thickness of a coin? How will you measure the volume of a stone? The milkman gives you a half litre pack milk. How will you verify the volume of milk? Find out the area of your science book?
Find out the volume of your science book. Estimate the area of the blackboard in your class room in square metres. Estimate the floor area of your class room in square metres. Estimate the volume of your class room in cubic metre.
Nature of matter We see many living and nonliving matter around us in this Earth. You will study about living things in Chapter In this chapter you are going to learn about non-living matter. In our day-to-day life we see and use many non-living things like stone, sand, table, iron rod, water, milk, air etc.
So learning about these things is quite necessary. Fill it with dry sand and lift it again. You feel it heavier now. Don't you? From this you understand that sand has mass Fig. Now try to add more amount of sand into the bucket. The sand begins to fall out. The bucket cannot hold any more amount of sand as it is already full. The sand has occupied the entire space. From this you understand that sand occupies space. The space occupied by matter is called as volume. Lift an empty iron bucket and feel its weight.
Fill it with water and lift it again. From this you understand that water has mass Fig. Now pour more amount of water into the bucket. Water overflows. The bucket cannot hold any more amount of water as it is already full. Water has occupied the entire space. From this you understand that water occupies space. Take a deflated ball and keep it on the left pan of a balance.
Add some sand on the right pan gradually till the pointer comes to zero.
Now take the ball and inflate it with air. Place it again on the left pan. Now you can see the pointer moving to the left side. Add more amount of sand to the right pan till the pointer again comes to zero Fig. From this you understand that 'air has mass'.
Now allow the air to get out of the ball. Ball shrinks in size. Doesn't it? From this you understand that air occupies space. What is matter made up of? Matter is made up of very tiny uniform fundamental particles. These particles cannot be seen with our eyes. The particles are held together by an attractive force. The nature of the fundamental particles and the strength of the attractive forces among them vary from one substance to another. These fundamental particles may be atoms, molecules or ions.
Solid Book, chair, pen, stone, sand and ice are in the solid state. The particles in a solid are packed very closely to each other and are held together by strong attractive forces Fig. We conclude from the above activities that matter substance like sand, water and air have mass and can occupy space. Feelings like sorrow, happiness and pain have no mass and cannot occupy space.
So these are not considered as matter. Activity 3. Take a glass tumbler and plunge it into the water as shown in the Fig. Water does not enter the glass tumbler beyond a level. Now tilt the tumbler slowly to a slanting position. You can see the air bubbles coming out of the tumbler and Air Air Bubbles.
Liquid Milk, water and fuels like petrol and diesel are in the liquid state. The particles in a liquid are not very close to each other. The distance between them is greater when compared to a solid Fig. The attractive force between them is also weaker. Solids have definite shape and volume. When the temperature remains constant, they do not change their shape or volume.
Observe the shape of water. It has the shape of the beaker. Transfer this water into a ml conical flask. Now the water gets the shape of the conical flask Fig. But the volume of. Gas The air we breathe is a gaseous substance. The fundamental particles in a gas are held together by weak forces of attraction.
The distance between them is also greater than that in a liquid Fig. The stone has a definite shape and volume. Now place the stone on the floor. It has the same volume and shape. Place it in a glass tumbler. Now also you do not find Liquids like water and oil have definite volume.
But they do not have definite shape. They get the shape of the containers in which they are kept. Since the force of attraction between the particles in a liquid is weaker, they are capable of moving.
So they can change their shape. The two inflated balloons differ in shape. The air inside the two balloons get the shape of the balloons Fig. I cannot download bookback questions. Please publish all in english also. Many of them are in tamil only kindly publish in english also 6th to 10th.
Dear Winmeen team, 9th 2nd and 3rd term science and social science book back questions and answers upload panunga pls.. Pls upload study material on inside book one marks i got only tamil model question pls upload for science also social science for 6 to 10 std.
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