UML Bible. Home · UML Bible Author: Tom (Bible (Wiley)). OpenSolaris Bible (Bible (Wiley)). Read more Read more · UML 2 for Dummies · Read more. 2. Session Objectives. ▫ After completing this session, you should be able to: > Identify the different UML diagrams. >Describe the purpose of each diagram. UML 2 builds on the already highly successfull UML 1.x standard, which has 2. UML 2 Activity Diagram. Activity Diagrams. In UML an activity diagram is used.
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UML Bible Comprehensive coverage of all aspects of UML (Unified Modeling Language), including Thoroughly covers executable UML and testing UML diagrams, making coding more efficient Chapter 2: UML Architecture. Take a look at the analysis level models in either PDF format or the original MagicDraw Interaction Overviews. Communication Diagrams. Message Labels. Using Communication Diagrams. Relevant Changes in UML 2. Modeling Language. Overview of architectural views and UML 2 diagrams Not all components of. UML 2 are supported by modeling tools yet. Some tools still use. UML .. UML Bible by Tom Pender. ▫ UML Distilled by Martin.
X, the first versions of the language pre- UML 2. The Structure ambiguous specification. These ambiguities in the diagrams represent static application structure. To automate these steps, some as structure diagrams. The Use Case diagram, vendors defined more precise semantics, but the Activity diagram, and State Machine diagram problem was that these semantics varied from represent general types of behavior.
Four interac- vendor to vendor. Recently, a major revision of tion diagrams, including the Sequence diagram, UML was coordinated by OMG and the new ver- Communication diagram, Timing diagram, and sion of the language UML2 was defined, with Interaction Overview Diagram, represent different enhanced semantics.
The main objective of this aspects of interactions. UML2 diagram types position. The relationship can be bidirectional or tion of the system with users and other systems. The State Machine of objects that can be linked. Object diagrams al- diagram describes the state transitions and actions low the representation of the relationship between that a system or its parts perform in response to instances of object classes. These diagrams are events. This diagram also represents the states available since the initial version of UML.
The that an object may be and the transitions between Component diagram allows one to represent the those states. This diagram is not and shows the internal structure including parts new, and has been used to model usage scenarios, and connectors of a structured classifier or col- the logic of methods, and logic of services.
The laboration. The ordering of the environment for the components to execute in. The Communication diagram scription of functionality that is achieved through formerly known as Collaboration diagram until interaction among systems or system parts. It UML1. However, differently from the case study Sequence diagrams, its primary focus is on object relationships and associations between classes In order to better illustrate the concepts underly- that are required for exchanging messages, and ing the UML language, we have developed a case not in the ordering of messages.
The crane moves a dynamic behavior that could be described by a load to some desired position by moving the car Sequence diagram. Once the user defines a position Overview diagram are new artifacts also added to for the load, the control system should activate UML2.
The Timing diagram shows the behavior the motor and move the car to the desired point. Special care must be taken with speed and position When considering only one object, the Timing dia- limits while the crane is moving, to guarantee the gram can be similar to the State Machine diagram, safety of the transported load. Therefore, constant because it can be used to represent the states that monitoring is needed to avoid unexpected situ- an object can be.
However, differently from the ations. This system incorporates hard real time State Machine diagram, it indicates the period of constraints and presents mixed behavior. Figure time during which the object is in each state.
Instead of activi- mentation through the Use Case diagram, where ties, the nodes within the diagram are frames. Once a diagram is encap- each use case represents a specific functionality sulated in a frame, it has a name, a type e.
The Use Case diagram for for Sequence diagrams, cd for Class diagrams, the crane system is presented in Figure 3. Usually, etc. The name defined in the each use case also includes a textual specification frame enables one to nest this diagram inside to detail its related responsibility, which due to another diagram or frame. In the Interaction space limitations is not presented in Figure 3. Overview diagram there are two types of frames: To describe the communication among objects the interaction frames, which depict any type of that participate in each use case, the interactions are UML interaction diagram Sequence diagram, further detailed using UML interaction diagrams.
Communication diagram, Timing diagram, and Figure 4 illustrates the Communication diagram Interaction Overview diagram or interaction called collaboration diagram before the UML2 occurrence frames, which indicate an activity or used to represent the NominalOperationMode operation to invoke.
The interaction occurrence use case of the crane system. This diagram rep- frames are of type ref. The concept of a frame resents the communication among objects that allows a diagram to reference another diagram are responsible to perform the crane control in described in another frame, indicating that refer- the NominalOperationMode.
The message num- ence through the combined fragment ref. For instance, the messages 3. The classes AngleSensorInterface and objects that compose the system are presented, as PositionSensorInterface represent the interface well as the relationship between them. The main to cable angle and car position sensors, respec- classes are Initialize, Sensorchecker, Controller, tively.
ConsoleInterface models the user interface and Diagnoser. Initializer initiates several objects used to define the desired position. The classes that compose the system when the system is turned MotorInterface and BreakInterface represent the on.
The Sensorchecker encapsulates a procedure interfaces to the motor and break of the Crane responsible to check the position sensors respon- system, respectively. Other classes are used to sible to indicate the car position, including the represent other resources used by the application, check whether the car is in the lower or upper limit as for example DesiredPosition that represents of the track.
The Controller class encapsulates the the position indicated by user, while PosCarMin control algorithm for the crane system, which is represents the lower limit for the car. The or an object, a State Machine diagram know as Diagnoser runs in parallel to the control algorithm, statechart or state diagram before UML2 can and observes the position and angle sensors, set- be used. In this case study, the instance of the ting EmergencyStop or EmergencyMode if some Controller class has an associated State Machine conditions are not satisfied.
UML use case diagram of the Crane system control method from Controller object, we have model presented here.
In the same way, the main used an Activity diagram Figure 7 , which allows routines encapsulated by Diagnoser and Control- one to describe a flowchart with conditions, loops ler objects should be performed in parallel, but this and concurrency.
This method is responsible to model does not specifies these objects as being compute the voltage to supply the Crane motor concurrent.
Nebel, Although UML provides a rich notation for uML Modeling Limitations system modeling, as shown in the case study, it does not provide support to the detailed design of UML was proposed as a general purpose modeling real-time and embedded systems.
Aspects related language. However, it is not possible to define a to timing and concurrency of the crane system language that can support all kind of systems that cannot be expressed using the default UML nota- one can possibly design. UML is known as being tions.
Hence, this proposal is named D-UML. A tions on Activity diagrams or statecharts. Since comparison among the D-UML, UML and a the UML does not define an action language, the functional-block approach is presented in Briso- continuous aspects are outside of the auspices of lara et al. However, it is necessary to indicate in D-UML is not yet the appropriate way to solve the model which component should be associated this limitation. To solve the same problem, Green to a continuous behavior.
Axelsson even in the crane example shown here, embed- proposes an UML extension to represent ded systems present a mix of several models of continuous time relationships, such as continu- computation. Moreover, besides the heteroge- ous variables, equations, time, and derivatives. UML class diagram of the Crane system real-time constrains soft or hard that should be approach and the MOF architecture, the definition specified in the system model, detailing aspects of profiles or domain-specific modeling languages as concurrency, timing and usage of resources has become easier, what represents the strength required for the embedded application.
As exem- of current UML-based approaches. Following, plified by the case study, UML does not provide we present the extension mechanism provided notations to model those aspects, what indicated by UML and also the main profiles developed by the need to extend the language for the real-time OMG for different domains. As stated before, UML was defined for general uML Extension Mechanism purpose software systems and cannot fully support modeling and design for any kind of systems. Usu- UML provides a mechanism for defining domain- ally, specific domains require additional modeling specific models by extending the language through features, thus domain-specific languages must be a profile.
According to Pender , an UML adopted. In order to allow the use of UML in a profile is a set of stereotypes, constrains, and wide range of domains, OMG provides mechanism tagged values that work together to extend the to extend the language through the definition of a language for a specific domain.
Once the UML profile.
UML state machine diagram of the Controller object all model elements of the language, a profile is deadlines, throughput or period for a periodic task allowed to contain specialized versions called when modeling a real-time embedded system.
Constraints are properties or tags attached to these elements, used to add new rules, or modify existing ones, Douglass, Additionally, constraints can in order to extend the UML semantics. Usu- be used as extension mechanisms to enable one to ally, constraints are represented using the Object refine the semantics of a UML model element. A natural language like English to which the model element must conform.
Using stereotypes defined by OMG that are related to the embed- defined by a profile, a designer can indicate that ded systems domain. In the Modeling embedded an object is of a specialized type, applying a dif- systems with UML section, an example of the use ferent treatment for that. Tagged values are used of a profile defined for the embedded systems to add an additional property for any kind of ele- domain is presented.
A tag-value par indicates the property and the value for that, being useful to specify, for example, timing information like 10 UML as Front-End Language for Embedded Systems Design Figure 7. UML activity diagram of the control method uML Profiles used to make quantitative predictions regarding schedulability, performance and time.
Addition- As stated before, a profile is a meta-model of some ally, the use of this profile enables the specification particular domain of interest, which is expressed of timing and concurrency aspects like deadlines using a coherent set of UML stereotypes Doug- for tasks and period for periodic tasks, as well lass, These stereotypes can have associated as schedulable objects.
UML-SPT supports both tagged values that are used via constraints, and are timing and performance requirements specifica- possibly accompanied by a model library specific tion. In a complementary effort, the UML Profile to the domain s of interest. In ments — performance, timing, power consump- SysML, the activity diagram is extended to support tion, and cost. The Require- ered by these profiles, which are important when ment diagram was introduced to provide a bridge designing embedded systems, such as explicitly between the typical requirements management modeling of applications and architectures, map- tools and the system models.
The satisfying and time Operation System services. Although these verifying relationships allow a modeler to relate services are not fully implemented, their main a requirement to a model element that satisfies or features and necessities can be modeled and be verifies the requirements.
For the system structure used as input for a synthesis tool, able to create specification, SysML also modified the UML2 the appropriate services, based on the require- structure diagrams defining the block definition ments of a given application.
The Parametric short MARTE OMG, a , which is a major diagram, a new type of internal block diagram, revision over them for embedded and real-time was defined in SysML in order to provide a rep- systems modeling and analysis and adds capa- resentation of constraints equations between bilities to UML for model-driven development system property values such as performance and of Real Time and Embedded Systems RTES.
As a consequence, for supporting the modeling and specification of models for computation and communication can System-on-a-Chip SoC using UML.
These have be analyzed for schedulability and performance. In the UML profile eling of embedded platforms.
This profile Another effort from OMG defined a new visual provides the following representation capabilities: language called Systems Modeling Language a hierarchical representation of modules and SysML , which was standardized by OMG in channels, which are the fundamental elements The SysML language of diagram.
Structure diagrams are extended in provides graphical representations with a semantic this profile and are the most used diagram for foundation for modeling system requirements, SoC design. Even convenient for many char- 12 UML as Front-End Language for Embedded Systems Design acteristics of SoCs modeling, this profile lacks time MoC, but also sequential logic programs some important aspects in SoCs modeling such as to describe several available applications e.
Such requirements adoption for more Models of Computations. The contrast with the characteristics of UML, which main reason for this gap is that the proposed SoC was originally designed for the specification of profile targets SystemC-based applications, and event based systems.
This comparative present in the official documentation are based on analysis demonstrated that UML is more suitable SystemC. The main effort that has motivated this to be used in a platform-based embedded system profile was launched by a Japanese project with the design methodology. It is a test modeling UML; iii UML is modeled by a meta model, so language that can be used with all major object that the conformity of models exchanged between and component technologies and applied to test tools is ensured.
UML does not depend on any systems in various application domains. The UML particular methodology, allowing one to use it Testing Profile can be used in stand-alone mode together with an appropriate methodology.
More- for the handling of test artifacts, or in an integrated over, UML provides all benefits from the object manner with UML for the joint handling of system oriented paradigm like modularity, encapsulation, and test artifacts. Embedded systems are usually perspective. Model-based design processing, control flow, and continuous time, tools should take special care on non-functional in order to capture and express their behavior.
For example, the specification of a mobile phone Additionally, embedded systems are ever more requires not only digital signal processing for the being required to execute in real-time, indicat- telecommunication domain, which is a discrete ing the need to model timing aspects such as 13 UML as Front-End Language for Embedded Systems Design deadlines, task period and throughput. Moreover, domain. The allocation concept is used to indicate entities takes place as communications that can that an application element is allocated into a be fully asynchronous, blocking, or hand-shake processing platform element.
This class of properties for hardware resources components that time abstraction can be used for hardware and can be later useful for analysis purposes.
Physical time models can also be applied concerning both model and analysis. Modeling to synchronous model, for instance to derive the support provides mechanism stereotypes and admissible speed of a reaction. For OMG, This profile defines the language model-based analysis support, MARTE provides constructs and provides model libraries with ad- facilities to annotate models with information vanced types, and does not force specific execution required to perform specific analysis.
The profile models, analysis techniques or implementation definition especially focuses on performance and technologies. For instance, there is no support for software characteristics. However, to all these embedded system modeling and analysis. Figure aspects one needs to add a semantic, allowing 8 and Figure 9 illustrate the class diagram for the an executable model of the entire system to be crane system and the communication diagram for created, simulated and checked against the ap- the NominalOperationMode use case.
Differently plication constraints. To that, specific tools and from the Class diagram depicted in Figure 5, the methods still have to be defined. The same AngleSensorInterface and ConsoleInterface are application is used here as a case study to show schedulable resources. Since Controller is bounded the clock process, or a thread. Comparing Figure 9 to Figure 4, one can represent a shared resource, which is dynamically observe that the diagram in Figure 9 differs from allocated to schedulable resources by means of an the other by the application of stereotypes in the access policy.
This stereotype is used to indicate Crane object and messages. The message run invoked from the during the application design cycle. In this sub-profile, stereotypes are defined functional requirements required when specifying to cope with semantics related to resources speci- real-time embedded systems, allowing the build- fication, ability of resources to be shared, policies ing of a more complete model that can be used as for scheduling and schedulability analysis if a input for analysis and synthesis tools.
The profile component is schedulable or not. In the SAM sub- provides modeling constructs covering the devel- profile Processing and Communication resources opment process of real time embedded systems, are also defined, so application tasks resources including features categorized into qualitative can be mapped to them, during analysis, in order parallelism, synchronization, communication to deploy the system solution.
The stereo- Following the Crane example, the SAM sub- types applied to the diagrams make explicit how profile was applied to the class and communication useful a profile can be during the specification or diagrams, as can be observed in Figures 8 and 9. Without the These stereotypes of the profile add the necessary semantics added by the profiles, it would not be semantics required by the model to be observable possible for a designer or a tool to interpret the by a designer or by a tool.
A tool can then be used exact meaning of some functionalities or how the to extract relevant informations and proceed with object should behave during execution. Schedulable objects synthesis from dedicated Models are allocated to processing resources, being subject to a scheduling policy. The book is laid out very well, starting with a review of UML and provides thorough and detailed descriptions of all the diagrams and notations. I'm using this nearly exclusively to help me model projects, and is on my desk instead of on my bookshelf.
The author clearly understands UML and takes the reader effectively through the distinctions between the many notations. Pluses - Excellent description on the differences between UML 1.
Duff's comments on the target audience - I'm fairly experienced with Object Oriented programming and with design work, but when I tried to read this, I started getting confused and very sleepy.
I started out with UML for Dummies and this made life much easier. Second, the author included an early chapter and 50 pages throughout the book to the architecture and formal definition of UML. Frankly, I'm not sure who is really interested in the definition of the UML 1. I didn't gain anything except a headache by reading about it earlier in the book.
Third, although he is very clear about it through the book, the version that I have came out before the final specification. This may cause some things to be different from his version to the final specification.
However, he details those specifically, gives the likely outcomes, and the detailed areas are in the hinterlands of UML. In addition, an early chapter is devoted to explaining object-oriented concepts, so the UML is put into the right context and not just treated as a notation. Because of the thorough comparisons made between UML 1.
The chapter on OCL is very readable and makes this difficult topic a little easier for most people to appreciate. The chapter on XMI is really just an introduction to the topic, but this chapter does include a very nice introduction to Diagram Interchange, a cool addition to UML 2. Other highlights of UML Bible: See all 10 reviews.
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