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An annual anal Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: This means that you must do in that county or city what may only be recommended in some other area. The office that issues building permits will either sell you a copy of the code that's enforced in that county or tell you where the code is sold. These two articles have the basic information that will make the rest of the NEC easier to understand.
Article defines terms you will need to understand when you apply the code.
Article gives the general requirements for electrical installations. Read these two articles over several times until you are thoroughly familiar with all the information they contain. It's time well spent.
Once you're familiar with Articles and , you can move on to the rest of the code. There are several key sections you will use often in servicing electrical systems. Let's discuss each of these important sections.
Wiring and Protection Chapter 2 of the NEC discusses wiring design and protection, the information electrical technicians need most often. It covers the use and identification of grounded conductors, branch circuits, feeders, calculations, services, overcurrent protection, grounding and surge protection. This is essential information for any type of electrical system, regardless of the type. Chapter 2 is also a "how-to" chapter. It explains how to provide proper spacing for conductor supports and how to size the proper grounding conductor or electrode.
If you run into a problem related to the design or installation of a conventional electrical system, you can probably find a solution for it in this chapter.
Wiring Methods and Materials Chapter 3 has the rules on wiring methods and materials.
The materials and procedures to use on a particular system depend on the type of building construction, the type of occupancy, the location of the wiring in the building, the type of atmosphere in the building or in the area surrounding the building, mechanical factors and the relative costs of different wiring methods.
The provisions of this chapter apply to all wiring installations except remote control switching Article , low-energy power circuits Article , signal systems Article , communication systems and conductors Article when these items form an integral part of equipment such as motors and motor controllers.
There are three basic wiring methods used in most modern electrical systems. Nearly all wiring methods are a variation of one of these three basic methods: Sheathed cables of two or more conductors, such as NM cable and AC armored cable Articles through Raceway wiring systems, such as rigid and EMT conduit Articles through Busways Article Article in Chapter 3 gives a complete description of all types of electrical conductors.
Electrical conductors come in a wide range of Sizes and forms. Be sure to check the working drawings and specifications to see what sizes and types of conductors are required for a specific job. If conductor type and size are not specified, choose the most appropriate type and size meeting standard NEC requirements. Articles through give rules for raceways, boxes, cabinets and raceway fittings.
Outlet boxes vary in size and shape, depending on their use, the size of the raceway, the number of conductors entering the box, the type of building construction, and the atmospheric condition of the areas.
Chapter 3 should answer most questions on the selection and use of these items. The NEC does not describe in detail all types and sizes of outlet boxes. But manufacturers of outlet boxes have excellent catalogs showing all of their products. Collect these catalogs. They're essential to your work. Equipment for General Use Chapter 4 of the NEC begins with the use and installation of flexible cords and cables, including the trade name, type, letter, wire size, number of conductors, conductor insulation, outer covering and use of each.
The chapter also includes fixture wires, again giving the trade name, type, letter and other important details. Article covers the switches you will use to control electrical circuits.
Article covers receptacles and convenience outlets used to connect portable equipment to electric circuits. Get the manufacturers' catalogs on these items. They will provide you with detailed descriptions of each of the wiring devices. Article covers switchboards and panelboards, including their location, installation methods, clearances, grounding and overcurrent protection.
Article on lighting fixtures is especially important.
It gives installation procedures for fixtures in specific locations. For example, it covers fixtures near combustible material and fixtures in closets. The NEC does not describe the number of fixtures needed in a given area to provide a certain amount of illumination.
Article covers electric motors, including mounting the motor and making electrical connections to it. Electrician's Exam Preparation Guide Articles through cover air conditioning and heating equipment, transformers and capacitors. Article gives most requirements related to battery-operated electrical systems. Storage batteries are seldom thought of as part of a conventional electrical system, but they often provide standby emergency lighting service.
They may also supply power to security systems that are separate from the main AC electrical system. These are areas where the sparks generated by electrical equipment may cause an explosion or fire. The hazard may be due to the atmosphere of the area or just the presence of a volatile material in the area. Commercial garages, aircraft hangers and service stations are typical special occupancy locations.
Articles through cover the different types of special occupancy atmospheres where an explosion is possible. The atmospheric groups were established to make it easy to test and approve equipment for various types of uses. Section covers the installation of explosion proof wiring.
An explosion-proof system is designed to prevent the ignition of a surrounding explosive atmosphere when arcing occurs within the electrical system. There are three classes of special occupancy locations: Class I Article : Areas containing flammable gases or vapors in the air.
Class I areas include paint spray booths, dyeing plants where hazardous liquids are used, and gas generator rooms. Class II Article : Areas where combustible dust is present, such as grain handling and storage plants, dust and stock collector areas and sugar-pulverizing plants. These are areas where, under normal operating conditions, there may be enough combustible dust in the air to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. Class III Article : Areas that are hazardous because of the presence of easily ignitable fibers or flyings in the air, although not in large enough quantity to product ignitable mixtures.
Class III locations include cotton mills, rayon mills and clothing manufacturing plants. Articles and regulate garages and similar locations where volatile or flammable liquids are used.
While these areas are not always considered critically hazardous locations, there may be enough danger to require special precautions in the electrical installation. In these areas, the NEC requires that volatile gases be confined to an area not more than 18 inches above the floor. So in most cases, conventional raceway systems are permitted above this level. If the area is judged critically hazardous, explosion-proof wiring including seal-offs may be required.
Article regulates theaters and similar occupancies where fire and panic can cause hazards to life and property. Drive-in theaters do not present the same hazards as enclosed auditoriums. But the projection rooms and adjacent areas must be properly ventilated and wired for the protection of operating personnel and others using the area.
Chapter 5 also covers residential storage garages, aircraft hangars, agricultural buildings, service stations, bulk storage plants, health care facilities, marinas and boat yards, mobile homes and parks, and recreation vehicles and parks. Special Equipment Article covers electric signs and outline lighting. Article applies to cranes and hoists. Article covers the majority of the electrical work involved in the installation and operation of elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators and moving walks.
The manufacturer is responsible for most of this work. The electrician usually just furnishes a feeder terminating in a means of disconnect in the bottom of the elevator shaft.
The electrician may also be responsible for a lighting circuit to a junction box midway in the elevator shaft for connecting the elevator cage lighting cable and exhaust fans. Articles in Chapter 6 of the NEC give most of the requirements for these installations.
Article regulates electric welding equipment. It is normally treated as a piece of industrial power equipment requiring a special power outlet. But there are special conditions that apply to the circuits supplying welding equipment. These are outlined in detail in Chapter 6 of the NEC. Article covers wiring for sound-recording and similar equipment. This type of equipment normally requires low-voltage wiring.
Special outlet boxes or cabinets are usually provided with the equipment.
But some items may be mounted in or on standard outlet boxes. Some sound-recording electrical systems require direct current, supplies from rectifying equipment, batteries or motor generators.
Low-voltage alternating current comes from relatively small transformers connected on the primary side to a volt circuit within the building. Other items covered in Chapter 6 of the NEC include: X-ray equipment Article , induction and dielectric heat-generating equipment Article and machine tools Article If you ever have work that involves Chapter 6, study the chapter before work begins.
That can save a lot of installation time. Here is another way to cut down on labor hours and prevent installation errors. Get a set of rough-in drawings of the equipment being installed. It is easy to install the wrong outlet box or to install the right box in the wrong place. Having a set of rough-in drawings can prevent those simple but costly errors.
Special Conditions In most commercial buildings, the NEC and local ordinances require a means of lighting public rooms, halls, stairways and entrances.
Exit doors must be clearly indicated by illuminated exit signs. Chapter 7 of the NEC covers the installation of emergency lighting systems.
These circuits should be arranged so that they can automatically transfer to an alternate source of current, usually storage batteries or gasoline-drive generators. As an alternative, you can connect them to the supply side of the main service so disconnecting the main service switch would not disconnect the emergency circuits. See Article How to Prepare for the Exam This book is a guide to preparing for the journeyman or master electrician's exam.
It isn't a substitute for studying the recommended references and it won't teach you the electrical trade.
But it will give you a complete knowledge of the type of questions asked in the electrician's exam. It will also give you a "feel" for the examination and provide some of the confidence you need to pass.
Emphasis is on multiple-choice questions because that's the style that nearly all tests utilize. Questions are grouped into chapters. Each chapter covers a single subject. This will help you discover your strengths and weaknesses. Then when you take the two "final" sample exams in the back of this book, analyze the questions you miss. You'll probably notice you are weaker in some subjects than others.
When these areas have been discovered, you will know that further study is necessary in these areas. If the minimum wire size permitted under the NEC to carry 20 amperes is No. The preparatory questions in the front part of this book have the answer after each question. When reading a question, cover the answer. Read the question carefully. Mark your answer on a separate sheet of paper before looking at the correct answer.
Check to see if your answer is correct. If it isn't, read the code responses to find out why it is wrong. How to Study Set aside a definite time to study, following a schedule that meets your needs. Studying a couple of hours two or three nights each week is better than studying all day on, say, Saturdays. The average mind can only concentrate for approximately four hours without taking a break.
There's no point in studying if you don't retain much of the information. Study alone most of the time, but spend a few hours reviewing with another electrician buddy before exam day.
You can help each other dig out the facts and concepts you will need to pass the exam. Try to study in a quiet, well-lighted room that is respected as your study space by family members and friends. If it's hard to find a spot like that in your home, go to the local library where others are reading and studying. Before you begin to study, spend a few minutes getting into the right frame of mind.