Funders may order a free copy of HERBS Hyperlinked EPRI Redbook The Red Book has been recognized for some 25 years as the worldwide industry. kV and Above, Third Edition: The “Red Book”. Extensively updated and expanded (including software), EPRI's flagship reference provides a much- needed. “Red Book” Transmission Seminars are a Hit, More Courses Added by Popular Demand Classroom instruction and field activities complement EPRI's landmark.
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EPRI Perspective The EPRI report, Transmission Line Reference Book, kV and Above (ELR1), was originally printed with a red cover and quickly. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) – Third Edition Transmission Line Reference Book (Red Book) kV and Above. Title printed on CD-ROM: HERBS hyperlinked EPRI redbook (Transmission line reference book kV and above (red book applets)) software (HERBS).
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Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Palo Alto, Calif. Print book: Overhead electric lines. Electric lines -- Mathematical models. More like this User lists Similar Items. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Details Document Type: Find more information about: Whether the increased end-fitting temperatures associated with the power arc current result in long-term degradation of either the polymeric rubber material or the FRP rod is unknown.
Hence, it is advisable to remove such insulators from service. Conductor Motion Due to Fault Currents While normal transmission line construction, with widely separated phases, does not appear to be significantly impacted by conductor motion due to fault currents, it is an important consideration for compact transmission lines EPRI, Two parallel conductors, each carrying current, will be subject to a force of attraction or repulsion, depending on current direction.
The magnitude of the force on each conductor is eqn. If the current flow in each conductor is in the same direction, the force will cause attraction; and, conversely, if the current is in opposite directions, the force will cause repulsion. For short-circuit currents, these forces may be sufficient to cause significant conductor movement, particularly where conductors are closely spaced such as in Extra High Voltage EHV EHV is generally considered to be kV and above conductor bundles or in adjacent phases of a compact line , because of the inverse relationship of conductor spacing and the resultant force.
The actual movement of a conductor, considering inertia, is a function of both the magnitude of the current and the time it is applied, and is therefore dependent on circuit-breaker interrupting time.
A phase-to-phase fault will cause current in the two affected phases to flow in opposite directions. The two conductors will then be repelled and, on interruption of the fault current, will swing together. If the current is due to a fault on the line section under consideration, the electrical consequences of conductor motion even clashing are generally unimportant as that section will be tripped out anyway.
However, if the fault is on an adjacent line section, the motion may be serious as it might cause interruption of the unfaulted section. Even though such currents on the compact line may be less than the maximum fault currents attainable on the system, they may be sufficient to be determining in the selection of phase-to-phase spacing or in establishing the need for insulating spacers.
The motion of conductors subjected to electromagnetic forces is similar to that of weighted, stretched strings, with the complication that the string is usually a compound conductor, such as an aluminum conductor, steel reinforced ACSR. Relatively simple analyses of conductor motion of both vertically and horizontally spaced conductors can be shown to give results well within line design accuracy requirements. It is assumed that the forces to which each catenary span of the conductor is subjected will cause the span to swing in a plane, as shown in FIG.
The plan projection of each catenary is again a catenary FIG. This assumption, supported by experimental results, simplifies the calculation technique.
The most severe fault is phase to phase on adjacent phases, which impresses a cyclic separating electromagnetic force. Since all spans of a line contributing to a through-fault will behave similarly, the net pole-top force along the span, and therefore motion, will be zero.
Consequently, each span can be assumed to be rigidly terminated. For a catenary, At , where is the span length i. Resolving tangentially, the force accelerating conductor swing is eqn. Using a step-by-step analysis, the conductor velocity 7 Effect of Conductor Stretch As the conductor deflects under load, the effective weight per unit length changes. Resolving perpendicular to the conductor in the conductor plane, using the terminology of FIG.
Calculation of Fault Current Motion for Vertically Spaced Conductors As a conductor span moves upward owing to fault current forces, the tension is reduced and the acceleration is restrained by the increase in the effective conductor weight.
Conversely, as a conductor moves downward owing to these forces, the acceleration is inhibited by an increase in conductor tension. Because of these effects, it is important that the modulus of elasticity be considered in calculations.
As a simplifying approximation, it is assumed that the forces to which each conductor is subjected will cause an increase or reduction in sag, but that the conductor will retain a catenary shape.
This assumption is supported by experimental results for low currents applied for long durations. The assumption is even more accurate for high fault current levels and short durations, where most of the kinetic energy is imparted to the conductor before the conductor can move appreciably. The terminology used in analyzing the vertical case is the same as for the horizontal case.