“The most poetically satisfying and intense of all Atwood's novels.” “In The Handmaid's Tale, Margaret Atwood has written the most chilling cautionary novel of. But as to myself, having been wearied out for many years with offering vain, idle,. not being Handmaid's Tal The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood. PDF | 85+ minutes read | Margaret Atwood is a prolific and versatile writer. Her literary career began in with the publication of her first.
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Margaret Atwood'sThe Handmaid's Tale by Mary Ellen Snodgrass, medical-site.info Handmaid's Tale 1 Editor: Gary Carey, M.A. The Handmaids Tale. Home · The Handmaids Tale Author: Atwood Margaret. downloads The Warrior's Tale. Read more · The Warrior's Tale. The Handmaid's Tale by. Margaret Atwood. I. Night. 1. We slept in what had once been the gymnasium. The floor was of varnished wood, with stripes and circles.
Keifer-Boyd, K. MacCallum, G. Putterman, T. Stillman, P. Anne Johnson. Wan Yahya, W. International Journal of Education and Research 1. The sector is operating in a rapidly innovative industry.
The significant changes that have occurred in the financial sector have increased the importance of performance analysis of banks. The CAMEL rating system has proved to be an effective internal supervisory tool for evaluating the soundness of a financial firm. The focus of this paper is the twenty-four 24 deposit money banks in Nigeria within the period The paper also employed qualitative data collection techniques, correlation and multiple regression analysis.
The study revealed that the CAMEL ratings as used by the regulatory bodies did not capture adequately the true situation of banks in Nigeria within the study period. The banking sector is an important component of the financial system Khatun, The sector mobilizes resources for productive investments and contributes to the economic growth of the country. Banking business depends on trust despite the complexity of transactions and vulnerability of customers due to imperfect information.
Banks are expected to observe certain ethical principles of banking profession and organizational ethics, such as honesty, integrity, social responsibility, accountability and fairness, while working under the principles of profitability and productivity.
Banking business in Nigeria has, however, encountered a number of fraud and fraudulent incidences that have affected its performance. Performance is an approach to determining the extent to which set objectives or goals of an organization are achieved in a particular period of time.
The objectives or goals can be financial or non-financial. Thus, bank performance is the capacity to generate sustainable profitability. The CAMELS rating system is an international bank-rating system where bank supervisory authorities rate institutions according to six factors namely Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Management quality, Earnings, Liquidity and Sensitivity to Market risk Investopedia, This paper considers five of these factors: Dang sees capital adequacy as the capital expected to maintain balance with the risks exposure of the financial institution such as credit risk, market risk and operational risk.
Capital adequacy effectively takes care of sensitivity to market risk. Dang avers that CAMEL has proved to be an effective internal supervisory tool for evaluating the soundness of a financial firm, on the basis of identifying those institutions requiring special attention or concern. Bank supervisory authorities, therefore, assign each bank a score on a scale of one best to five worst for each factor. Thus, if a bank has an average score less than two, it is considered to be a high-quality institution.
On the other hand, banks with score greater than three are deemed to be less-than-satisfactory institutions. The CAMEL rating system helps the supervisory authority identify banks that are in need of attention. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to assess the relationship between the incidence of fraud and bank CAMEL ratings in Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem Banks facilitate the proper utilization of financial resources and serve as backbone to the financial sector of a country. Khan and Monnin and Jokipii found a positive association between financial development and economic growth. Serwa and Park , on the other hand, discovered that crisis, volatility and corruption in the banking sector have negative implications for the growth of the banking industry.
The banking sector is operating in a rapidly innovative industry. This makes it mandatory for them to create more specialized financial services to meet the varied needs of their customers. Banks, in the bid to outdo each other, granted credits indiscriminately without proper appraisal Phillip, Sanusi and Owojori et al note that the increased number of banks overstretched their existing human resources capacity which culminated in problems such as poor credit appraisal, financial crimes, accumulation of poor asset quality, adverse ownership influences and other forms of insider abuses.
These contributed to the distress in the banking industry in Nigeria and the eventual liquidation of some. Banks are exposed to a variety of risks that are growing more complex every day Dang, The economic downturn of which resulted in bank failures worldwide also had its negative effect on the banking sector in Nigeria. In the light of the banking crisis in recent years worldwide and to cope with the complexity and a mix of risks confronting the banking sector in Nigeria, it is necessary to evaluate the overall performance of banks by implementing a regular banking supervision framework.
The paper, thus, investigates the use of the CAMEL rating system as a tool to ascertain the safety and soundness of banks and to mitigate the potential risks which may lead to bank failure in Nigeria. Literature Review Banks are involved in the financial intermediation activities of a country and also serve as catalysts to the financial sector.
Banks operate in a dynamic business environment and are confronted with a lot of challenges including fraud and fraudulent practices. Though banking business should be conducted on trust and confidence derived from competence, the sector is experiencing some measure of malpractices and unethical behaviors.
Bank frauds are a worldwide problem. Both developed and developing countries experience the incidence of bank frauds and other forms of financial malpractices with increased magnitude French, ; Rhoads, ; Adewunmi, and Xinhua, Coughlan notes that incidences of fraud and fraudulent practices are not limited to the banks and other organizations in the private sector.
They are equally manifest in the public sector and other areas of the economy. The incidence of fraud in the banking industry was, however, exacerbated by the influx of banks into the industry from as a result of the deregulation of the financial system in Nigeria.
Banks gave out loans indiscriminately without proper appraisal. This created many problems such as bad debts, financial crimes and poor asset quality. The significant changes that have occurred in the financial sector of Nigeria have increased the importance of performance analysis of banks.
As observed by Casu et al. Bank rating is a supervisory tool which enables supervisors to evaluate the performance of banks and serves as an early warning signal for detecting emerging problems. To properly rate a bank, both quantitative and qualitative factors are considered. Quantitative assessment is usually based on either the CAMEL or LACE approach, while qualitative assessment is based on such factors as compliance with laws and regulations and control environment.
The effectiveness of bank rating is further enhanced, if it allows for comparison, both horizontally and over time. Horizontal comparability in bank rating is achieved by categorizing banks with similar characteristics into peer groups. Peer group analysis is undertaken to ascertain whether an individual bank is performing in a significantly different way from its peers and the reason for such a difference, which may attract supervisory concern.
The analysis is also used to examine trends in the banking sector as a whole, or in a particular segment of the banking sector, and to carry out a systematic analysis across the selected field. In a limited form, it is used for performance stress testing and scenario analysis.
Table 1: NDIC Quarterly, vol. The analysis also depends on the data reported in the statutory returns and annual accounts.
The integrity, timeliness and quality of the processing of data as well as sound accounting practices are a pre-condition for the analysis to be effective. Peer rating of Nigerian banks is based on assets size. The banks are grouped as follows: N5 billion and below, above N5 billion to N10 billion, above N10 billion to N20 billion, above N20 billion to N billion, and over N billion. Group averages are calculated and applied in the final rating. The assessment of group performance is also facilitated by comparing the group averages with the industry average.
The choice of assets size is informed by the fact that it allows for better comparison of performance indicators than any of the other criteria. But for purpose of analysis, the paper condensed the ratings into two - Sound and Unsound banks.
Sound banks comprised banks that had been given ratings of very sound, Sound or Satisfactory. The condensed unsound category then comprised banks that had been rated Marginal or Unsound by the supervisory agencies.
Capital to risk asset ratio 15 ii. Adjusted capital ratio 5 iii. Capital growth rate 5 25 Asset quality i. Non-performing risk assets to total risk assets 15 ii. Reserve for losses to non-performing risk assets 5 iii. Profit sector tax to total assets ii.
Total expenses to total income 5 iii. Net interest income to total earning assets iv. Interest expenses to total earning assets 5 5 5 20 Liquidity i. Liquidity ratio 5 ii. Maishanu and Mous used ratios to appraise bank performance. Maishanu employed a univariate model for predicting failure in commercial banks.
The financial ratios used had variables of profitability, liquidity, leverage, turnover and total assets. However, the changing nature of the banking industry calls for more flexible alternative forms of financial analysis. In evaluating the performance of 60 Missouri Commercial Banks between using DEA with an intermediary approach of inputs interest expenses, non-interest expenses, transaction deposits, and non-transaction deposits with outputs interest income, non-interest income and total loans , Yue found that while five of the Missouri banks were technologically efficient, they were not operating at the most efficient scale of operation.
They provide a tool for organizations to manage progress towards achieving predetermined goals. According to Uboh , performance can be based on results, output or outcomes such as competitiveness, profit and determinants of results such as prices or products.
Studies have shown that performance measurement interlinks financial indicators such as the use of financial ratios, as suggested by Sagar and Rajesh These measurements aid in interpreting bank performance while serving as crucial policy-making tools in reacting to the dynamics of the market for financial services.
Other drivers of success in banks are non-financial measures such as process efficiency, human resource development, leadership effectiveness, customer retention and growth, product and service innovation, brand image and reputation, customer and employee satisfaction, innovation and quality.
The balanced scorecard measures include market share, changes in intangible assets such as patents or human resources skills and abilities, customer satisfaction, product innovation, productivity, quality, and stakeholder performance. It directed banks to maintain a minimum of 7. It is estimated that, on the average, banks in Nigeria were at risk of losing one million naira every working day due to the incidence of fraud which comes in different forms.
In response to this, commercial banks have almost universally embarked upon an upgrading of their risk management and control systems. Also, it is in the realization of the consequence of deteriorating loan quality or profitability of the banking sector and the economy that this research work was motivated.
The negative impact of moral hazards and price shocks on the financial system can be reduced by good regulation and supervision. Consequently, this will minimize bank failure and financial system distress. NDIC, in , highlighted inadequate manpower as one of the challenges confronting its supervisory function.
In , the CBN reiterated this problem when it noted that the ability of CBN to perform its regulatory role in the past had been affected by inadequate manpower both in terms of quality and quantity. Okeke contends that ethics and good conduct were sacrificed for deposits and professionalism thrown overboard.
A peculiar unethical practice in the Nigerian banking industry to mobilize funds was the debasement of womanhood. This practice manifested itself in the use of young female bankers as baits for deposit mobilization. The young girls were employed and given fantastic remunerations but unrealistic targets for deposit mobilization.
Thus, in an effort to realize these targets, they girls engaged in unethical practices that debased womanhood and tarnished the banking profession. The implication is that in an effort to attract deposits by all means, these bankers may even contravene the provisions of the Money Laundering Act by collecting deposits from questionable persons. This implies that when performance goals set by management are overly outrageous and unrealistic, fraud and unethical practices will occur. This used a weighted rating based on Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Management quality, Earnings and Liquidity to assign ranks to banks as very sound, sound, satisfactory, marginal or unsound.
The study also employed qualitative data collection techniques, correlation and multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between the incidence of fraud and CAMEL ratings of banks in Nigeria within the period The amount of money lost to fraud was also negatively correlated with bank efficiency.
As shown in Fig. The improvement in the ratio of non-performing loans to total loans in subsequent years was linked to the download of toxic loans by Asset Management Company of Nigeria AMCON. The banking industry level of soundness declined in CBN Annual Reports Fraud and forgery cases were highest in , though recorded the highest percentage of unsound banks.
There seems to be a lag between the effects of fraud cases on bank soundness. The paper also employed multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between incidence of fraud and CAMEL ratings of banks in Nigeria within the period of study. Table 3: Error Beta T Sig.
This implies that there is no significant relationship between incidence of fraud and CAMEL ratings of banks. Non-performing loans in failed banks have typically been associated with regional macroeconomic problems.
Brownbridge claimed that the single biggest contributor to the bad loans of many of the failed banks was insider lending. He further observed that the second major factor contributing to bank failure was the high interest rates charged to borrowers. The calibre of management also accounted for the difference between failed banks and those that remained healthy or recovered from problems.
The study also revealed that the CAMEL ratings as used by the regulatory bodies did not capture adequately the true situation of banks in Nigeria within the study period. In January , licences of 14 more banks were revoked following their failure to meet the minimum re-capitalization directive of the CBN. Also, given the substantial growth in the quantum of frauds and forgeries within the period of study, it is important that banks strengthen their internal control and security systems to reduce the incidence of frauds and forgeries.
Ethics in the financial services business. Regulation and efficiency of banking in a transition economy. Available www. Brownbrigde, M. Casu, B. Introduction to banking. Prentice Hall Coughlan, J. Journal of Management Accounting, 64, Dang, U. Arcada University of applied sciences. Retrieved July 22, from theseuskk. French, M. Thriving business under false pretenses.
Euromoney publications plc. Investopedia Retrieved July 22, from www. Kaplan, R. Harvard business review. Khan, M. Financial development and economic growth in Pakistan: South Asia Economic Journal, 9 2 , Khatun, F. State of government in the banking sector: Maishanu, M. A univariate approach to predicting failure in the commercial banking sub-sector.
Nigerian Journal of Accounting Research. Monnin, P. The impact of banking sector stability on the real economy. Swiss national bank working papers Available at http: Mous, L. Predicting bankruptcy with discriminant analysis and decision tree using financial ratios. University of Rotterdam. Okeke, The Guardian. Tuesday, June Ogunleye, G. The Nigerian Banker. Owojori, A. The challenge of risk management in Nigerian banks in the post consolidation era.
Journal of Accounting and Taxation, 3 2 , Park, J. Corruption, soundness of the banking sector and economic growth: Journal of International Money and Finance. Philip, D. Panacea to distress in banking. Roads, C. Resuscitating a Virginian thrift company — Essex financial partners. American parker, , Banking Industry Consolidation: Working paper No. Sanusi, J. Central Bank and the Macroeconomic Environment in Nigeria. Quarterly Review, 03 3 , December. Serwa, D. Larger crises cost more: Siems, T.
Quantifying Management Role in Bank Survival. Sinkey, J. Jr Journal of Finance. Uboh, G. University Press PLC. Unegbu, O. Corporate governance in banking and other financial institutions: Venkatraman, N. Measurement of business economic performance: Journal of Management, 13 1 , Wirnkar, A. Zinhua, C. Comtex news network inc. December Yue, P. Data envelopment analysis and commercial bank performance: IC2 Institute, University of Texas.
Abstract This study investigated the growth of the Clarias gariepinus fry under varying concentrations of water soluble fraction of crude oil. Escravos crude oil samples were collected from warri refinery and Petrochemical Company, Delta State, Nigeria and prepared in the laboratory into water soluble fraction using standard methods. Brood stock of two adult female and one adult male for the study were downloadd from a local farm in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria, kept in conditioned aquarium in the laboratory and induced to lay eggs after days.
In the chronic toxicity assay, a set of 60 day old fry were exposed to varying water soluble fraction concentrations of crude oil 0. The experiment was replicated four times. The test solution was replaced daily and fish fed ad libitum with artemia. Swimming behavior and changes in body weight of fry were monitored.
The application factor was 0. The inhibition concentration IC25 and IC50 of the crude oil on the fry were 0. The study concluded that water soluble fraction of crude oil at increasing concentrations adversely affected the growth of Clarias gariepinus fry. According to the National Oil spill detection and Response Act , available statistics in it showed that a total of 9, oil spill incidences occurred between and resulting in about 3,, In the Niger Delta area alone, there have been over reported cases of crude oil spillage since , releasing 2.
The presence of crude oil into the environment through spillage most of the time is accidental, while its deliberate introduction into the environment is often termed sabotage Nwankwo and Ifeadi, It is now a recognized fact that environmental pollution problems associated with oil and gas exploration exist in the Niger Delta area Kori-Siakpere, Oil pollution, which is one of the environmental consequences of crude oil exploration and exploitation activities produce aqua-toxicological effects which are deleterious to aquatic life Kori- Siakpere,;Agbogidi et al; A variety of pollutants including crude oil and its pollutants are known to induce stress conditions which impair the health of fish FEPA, Ekweozor reported that frequent spillage of crude oil and its products in creeks and rivers of the Niger Delta have resulted in marked reduction in the number of both fresh water and marine organisms.
Crude oil can have population effects through destruction of sensitive juvenile stages or through reduction of the prey species Horsefall and Spiff, and contamination of water bodies by hydrocarbons have been shown to produce sub-lethal changes in fish that are both chronically and briefly exposed Sabo and Stegeman, Clarias gariepinus is of high importance in Nigeria fresh water and is widely cultured due to its market price, fast growth rate and ability to withstand adverse environmental conditions especially low dissolved oxygen content Esenowo and Ugwumba, This study is aimed at investigating the growth alterations of the water soluble fraction of crude oil on the fry of C.
Materials and Method i. The mixture was then allowed to stand for a minimum of 3hours to obtain a clear interphase between oil and water. The WSF was then siphoned into dark coloured screw-capped Winchester bottle. Fish collection and hatchling— 1kg female and 1.
The female brood stock injected with 1ml ovaprim and left for a latency period of 8hrs at C. The ripe eggs were then stripped into a clean plastic bowl and the batch of milt collected from the male C. The hatchlings that emerged were then used for the chronic toxicity testing. Chronic bioassay fertilized hatchling subsequently obtained were allowed to acclimatize in the laboratory for 14days and fed ad libitum with Artemia cysts prior to the chronic toxicity.
Five graded concentrations 0. Each concentration and control was in four replicates. Twenty 20 C. The test solution was replaced daily and fish fed ad libitum for 30days.
The number of living fry in the test solution was recorded daily and dead larvae removed. The test was stopped at the end of the 30days exposure. Surviving fry in each test chamber were counted and immediately prepared as a group for drying and weighing to determine changes in body weight. The data was also subjected to linear interpolation for IC25 and IC50 iv. Determination of water physico-chemical conditions - water quality test in the static renewal bioassay was determined for selected parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and temperature at the end of every 24 hour exposure for each test concentration and control.
Results The result of the chronic toxicity test is shown in table 1. During the first week of exposure, the results showed that high mortalities occurred when C. Mortalities ranging between During the third week of exposure, introduction of WSF of crude oil resulted in mortalities ranging between 7. The highest mortality At the end of the 4weeks exposure, 7.
Average weight gain g in the African catfish C. The results also showed that 0. The highest dilution of the WSF of crude oil that the C. Decrease in weight in the fish fry with increase in WSF of crude oil observed in this study agreed with the observation of Omoregie et al who reported that sub-lethal concentration of toxicants in aquatic environments often result in several physiological dysfunctions instead of outright mortality of fish.
This was similar to Esenowo and Ugwumba who reported that growth performance of C. The weight reduction in fry exposed to very high concentrations of WSF could not be attributed to temperature because during the study, the temperature fell between C which were within the limit for optimal growth in tropical fishes.
The overall toxicity recorded for the fry of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was not influenced by temperature which was within the normal range C.
It was established from this study that the maximum concentration at which the crude oil could be present and not toxic to the fish fry was 0. The 0. The chronic toxicity of WSF to the fry has serious implication for recruitment of the young into fish populations.
Recommendation Government as well as oil company in the area where oil are been exploited and process should ensure that petroleum is not spill and if spilled it should be immediately clean from the environment.
Social-economic and rnvironmental impact of crude oil exploration and production on agricultural production. A case study of Edjeba and Kokori communities in Delta in Nigeria. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences 4 2: B and Kaglo H. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 5 1: Discovery and Innovation 3: Growth response of catfish Clarias gariepinus exposed to water soluble fraction of detergent and diesel fuel. Government Press, Lagos.
Principles of Environmental Chemistry, Metropolis Ltd. Kori-siakpere, O. Petroleum induced alteration in haemological parameters of Clarias gariepinus. Petroleum induced alteration in the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus, Niger.
Case studies on the environmental impact of oil production marketing in Nigeria. Environmental Issues and Management in Nigeria Development. Sada, P. Evans Press, Ibadan.
Diversified Resources, Lagos. Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 5: Some metabolic effects of Petroleum hydrocarbons in marine fish.
Physiological response of marine biota to pollutants, verberg F. J; Calabrese A. Thurbury F. P; Boernberg W eds. From now on, these strands remain in parallel. Another corresponding element between the form of thought and the utopian genre and their influence on modern practices of act and thought lies in their demand for change.
The ability to change things is no longer revoked from human activity, but assigned to human agency. A similar idea can be found in those works of architectural theory and drafts of ideal cities that assign architects to the task of solving problems of close living conditions in a rational manner.
However, there is no initially defined architectural structure for literary utopias. While utopias are acting as alternative concepts to their society of origin, the particular architectural models are also standing for disruptions in their respective epoch. Therefore architecture as well as utopias allows conclusions to be drawn concerning specific social and economic situations of upheaval. The talk will address both variants of utopian concept, the archistic and anarchistic architecture tradition, and the corresponding architectural ideas.
By drawing upon known and unknown written texts, drawings, planned and built cities, the talk traces these ideas from the ideal cities of the Early Modern Period to current day architectural designs and built architecture in the Asian Region. The ideal types, architecture build and un-built, can be summed up into two categories.
Compacted large structures like palace buildings, community houses and large-scale housing on the one hand and small structures like the primitive hut, houses in the green belt of a garden city and sustainable building of the late 20th and early 21st century on the other hand. Moriyama House is a miniature town consisting of ten one- to three-storey cubes on a plot of square metres. The miniature houses or room boxes are connected by a labyrinth-like, roofless system of paths and gardens. The roofs of the miniature houses serve as roof terraces.
The network-like system of paths provides semi-public or semi-private places for all inhabitants. Each residential box is equipped with a bathroom and a stove, furthermore there is a communal room. For the roofs of the Xiangshan Campus of the Hangzhou Art Academy he used more than two million tiles which had been saved from demolished traditional buildings in the province. They considered the coconut not only to be food in respect of its milk, its fat and its pulp, also its fibres were supposed to be used for mats, roofs, ropes as well as the wood for furniture and houses.
Der Fluch des Eigenheimes. Japanische Architektur als Vorbild. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Der Spiegel, Aus alten Ziegeln neue Welten bauen. Cologne, Germany: Christian Kracht erinnert noch mal daran, wie gut es uns geht. Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, Gespenst des Nudismus.
Mannhafter geht es nicht: Ein kultischer Verehrer von Kokosnuss und Sonnenschein. Unser Man im Pazifik: In the case of the large buildings in Singapore and Bangkok the architects transfer elements of traditional Indonesian and Malaysian village structures, Kampong. These one- storey, elevated wooden buildings with far protruding roofs as a protection from sun and rain are characterized by their rooms being open and airy, by including shady plants as well as by a combination of private, semi-public and public spaces.
In case of the Moulmein Rise tower block in Singapore, built in , the two architects transferred the air-conditioning techniques of traditional longhouses on Borneo onto a slim, one hundred metres high residential tower, by constructing monsoon windows at the bottom of oriels, so that they may be opened even during extremely heavy rain. The 36 storeys Newton Suites were designed by the architects as sky village segments with four storeys each.
Following the example of village communities, semi-public exploration and open spaces were built, also sky gardens with trees on every fourth floor and one hundred metres high, green-clad walls, which are supposed to improve the micro-climate of the tower block.
It seems as if the end of utopia, which has often been claimed after the failure of Real Socialism twenty years ago and before , did not happen. These renewed approaches of utopian thinking deal particularly with architecture and problems of housing, stimulated — as always when it comes to utopias — by the problems of the society of origin, that is our time.
In how far, however, this way a so to speak ageless constant of the relation between architecture and utopia becomes obvious, when this started to be expressed in which ways, and which elements have been added as a result of the respective contemporary societal changes, shall in the following be discussed from six points of view: It is about the two variants of utopian design, 2. I shall try to answer the question concerning the presence of utopia in contemporary architecture.
Die vertikale Gartenstadt. Politische Utopien der Neuzeit. Introduction to the second edition pp. Bochum, Germany: Winkler; Bermbach, Udo Die Utopie ist tot — es lebe die Utopie! In Richard Saage Ed. Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
The two variants of utopian design For long, utopia research has been working with two models of utopian design: Striving for a cooperative relationship, the anarchistic type of utopia represents a life according to and in harmony with outside nature. There is no need to subdue the latter, but by a natural automatism the humans will be supplied with everything they need for a good life.
We will let you find out for yourself! Nothing is good when it is done without a limit, and Atwood successfully shows it by portraying a world where one worldview overrules the rest. Like this summary? We lived in the blank white spaces at the edges of print. It gave us more freedom. We lived in the gaps between the stories. Click To Tweet Better never means better for everyone It always means worse, for some.
Click To Tweet When we think of the past it's the beautiful things we pick out. We want to believe it was all like that. Click To Tweet You can only be jealous of someone who has something you think you ought to have yourself.
Click To Tweet A rat in a maze is free to go anywhere, as long as it stays inside the maze. Click To Tweet Our Critical Review There are so many more other things happening in the book than what we covered in the summary, and we would not like to spoil it for you. Language plays a big part in its charm as well, the events are not the only thing that is interesting, so summaries do not do the book any justice. As birth master, Aunt Elizabeth supervises Ofwarren during childbirth and smiles as she delivers baby Angela.
Delores—She is a Handmaid-in-training who wets the floor rather than leave an afternoon session of Testifying. Offred suppresses the urge to ask about Luke, whom Alma would have no reason to know.
Limpkin kept a diary in code and, foreseeing his demise, hid it with his sister-in-law in Calgary. A year later, Offred and her mother attend a Saturday rally and porno graphic magazine burning in the park. A par ticipant gives Offred a magazine to burn. Offred and the child run through the woods and are apprehended and separated by unidentified pursuers. Offred will take part in the ritual of public humiliation. Bruises suggest that she resisted arrest. Janine allows a group session to turn her testimony of gang rape at age fourteen into a unanimous accusation of seduction and criminality for having an abortion.
Janine claims to have deserved the pain. May Offred discovers the Commander snooping near her room. She undergoes a mating ceremony and returns to the sitting room to steal something.
Nick interrupts her and informs her that the Commander wants to see her the next night. Back in her room, she fights hysteria and sleeps in the closet. Offred and the Commander take a room, where they have intercourse. That afternoon, the second Ofglen is replaced by a new Ofglen, who divulges that her prede cessor hanged herself after seeing the van coming for her. Serena stops Offred at the steps and accuses her of sluttish behavior with the Commander.
President and members of Congress, disenfranchises women by impounding their credit cards and denying them jobs and education, and sets up Gilead, a repressively conservative state bent on annihilating homosexuals, abortionists, and religious sects other than their own, and resettling Jews, old women, and nonwhite people in radioactive territory, known as the Colonies. Because nuclear and biological warfare has polluted vast areas, the population suffers a sharp decline in viable births and a rise in birth defects.
Consequently, infertile and aged females, as well as homosexuals, are dispatched as clean-up crews in the Colonies. Fertile women involved in illicit liaisons or second marriages are apprehended, indoctrinated, and parceled out to Commanders of the secret police as Handmaids.
Offred, the second wife of Luke and mother of a five-year-old daughter, attempts to escape to Canada. She is apprehended and separated from her family. Her mother, a vocal feminist, disappears.
Virtually alone and friendless, Offred is selected as a potential breeder and indoctrinated at the Rachel and Leah ReEducation Center. The Handmaids-in-training share pared-down barracks—like quarters in a gymnasium surrounded by fences topped by barbed wire. Reunited with her feisty, rebellious college pal Moira, Offred maintains spunk and individuality while pretending to follow the direction of sadistic armed matrons, particularly Aunt Lydia and Aunt Elizabeth.
After lights out, Moira, Offred, and other Handmaids offer surreptitious support, survival tips, and bits of information. Like conspirators, they observe the patrolling Aunts and seize unguarded moments for normal behavior, including gripe sessions, food stolen from the cafeteria, and brief touches of hands between cots. Janine, a compliant stooge, struggles so hard to adapt to the restrictive Handmaid lifestyle that she retreats into a blank stare, evidence of impending mental and emotional collapse.
After one failed attempt to conceive, she passes into the possession of a second official, Commander Fred, whose previous Handmaid hanged herself from the bedroom light fixture. Daily, Offred carries a basket to local markets to obtain fresh food, then returns to a boring incarceration in a cloistered room, relieved only by public prayer sessions, birthings, monthly medical exams, and executions. Once a month she mates with Commander Fred in a pseudo-religious ritual requiring Bible reading, followed by copulation with the Commander in the presence of his aging Wife, Serena Joy.
A spiteful, unhappy former gospel singer, Serena at first disdains Offred, then grows so despondent at their mutual barrenness that she arranges for Offred to conduct a secret sexual liaison with Nick, the family chauffeur.
Unknown to Serena, the Commander has been summoning Offred to late-night visits to his den for companionship, games of Scrabble, kisses, and gifts of hand lotion, fashion magazines, and information about the outside world. Offred divulges a Latin phrase that her predecessor scratched on the wall. The Commander translates it for her. On one of her visits, the Commander presents her with borrowed finery—makeup, high heels, a sequined and feathered costume, and an evening cloak.
Offred locates Moira among the prostitutes and pumps her for information. On a late summer day, Serena confronts Offred with the garish sequined garment and accuses her of treachery. Nick enters her room and hurries her into the custody of two operatives of the Eyes, whom he indicates are double agents for Mayday, the underground liberation group that Ofglen has hinted at.
The unnumbered segments do not establish the existence of a real historical figure, but shreds of data suggest that the voice on the tapes belongs to a single speaker who identifies a real Commander, possibly Frederick R. Waterford, who was eradicated during a state purge of liberals. Pieixoto assumes that Offred lived out her life in seclusion to spare her family from lethal reprisals. The first, from Genesis , cites the crux of the scriptural love story of Jacob and Rachel.
Swift s incredibly objective speaker proposes the raising of children for sale as a food and commodity item in order to alleviate the poverty of poor families who produce more infants than they can afford to rear. The final epigraph, taken from an Islamic proverb, suggests that there need be no laws against the obvious.
Because people were not meant to eat stones, a traveler in the desert would not expect to see a prohibition against such a meal. Commentary Atwood conjoins the three epigraphs by drawing on a controlling metaphor : the images of produce, food, and eating, which create a motif of fulfillment. The final epigraph notes that no one seriously considers eating stones.
To assure proper nourishment in potential mothers, the control of food and the denial of cigarettes and alcohol are crucial factors. Glossary Sufi—a seventh- and eighth-century mystical Arabic sect growing out of Islam. Infused with lyricism and wisdom, Sufism encouraged the faithful to seek God out of love rather than from any desire to gain heaven or avoid hell. Like girls at a restrictive camp, they reach out to their sisters to learn their names and to touch hands.
The women, doubly protected by Aunts, armed with electric cattle prods and whistles, and Angels, or guards, outside the building, receive a brief privilege—twice-daily walks in pairs on an adjacent football field. The inmates fantasize about making deals with the guards, employing sex as a bartering medium. Commentary This spare introduction sets up powerful motifs that permeate the novel. Floating through the grim, Byzantine setting are afterimages of the past, when teams played basketball on the court.
Atwood infuses the scene with sights and smells and sexuality of teenagers of the past era by emphasizing sense imagery. The method failed to delete the original text, which cropped up in words and letters that recalled fragments of a former message.
A second significant motif is the juxtaposition of innocence and brutality. Sleeping inmates lie under fuzzy flannelette and military blankets, a blend of images suggesting the dystopian fusion of gentleness with militarism. Their names imply an answer—Alma, which is Latin for nurturing, or kindly; Delores, which comes from the Latin word for grief, and June, reflecting the Roman Juno, goddess of marriage and the family. Likewise, Janine and Moira are romantic versions of John and Mary, two names so enduring that they conjure images of stability and normalcy.
Like the stripes and circles that outline the basketball court, the rules that govern Gilead create an inflexible, authoritarian environment in which punishment for infractions is swift and arbitrary. In later scenes, Offred contemplates the circle on the ceiling over her bed, where a chandelier once provided light. Glossary Aunts—staff members who blend the prim role of academy schoolmarms with the sadism of prison matrons. Angels—a euphemism for soldiers, or guards. Her red habit, matched with stockings and gloves and topped with white blinders, isolates her from society as she shops daily for groceries.
She sets her goals at unattainable levels—not to think too much so that she can survive repression. Undercurrents of murder, assault, and stillbirth float by in the gossip of Marthas, females who guard the household. Her reaction is a blend of annoyance and caution. She could report him for insolence, but she fears that he is an Eye, or police spy. At the corner, Offred joins Ofglen, a pious, pro-army disciple of Gileadism who, two weeks earlier, replaced a Handmaid who disappeared inexplicably.
Checkpoint guards authenticate street passes by punching in identification numbers on Compuchek. The town, so over-regulated and devoid of humanity that it looks like a miniature city, lacks crime, sidewalk litter, and a semblance of normal human habitation.
The austere landscape sets Offred on a memory tour of the past, when she shopped with her earnings and wore nail polish and her own clothes.
As a treasured future mother, she enjoys a bland, but nutritious diet and the constant vigilance of guards, who protect her sexual integrity at the same time they prevent her from taking a subway into the city. As a potential failure, she lives under a sword of Damocles, an unnamed punishment that will fall on her after three years of failed attempts to conceive. Many of them ultimately resorted to prostitution, turning their rented chambers into brothels.
A heavy style, the Victorian touch runs to red brick, imposing, fortress-like facades, and an absence of beauty for its own sake.