Aagaard - Inside the Chess Mind (EVERYMAN).pdf. aagaard, jacob - excelling at positional chess ().pdf. Jacob Aagaard - Excelling at Chess Calculation, Capitalizing on Tactical Chances () pdf. Aagaard - Inside the Chess Mind (EVERYMAN).pdf - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. inside the chess mind how players of all levels think about the game Groot tested a lot of top chess players in the late 30s and early 40's (the decades, not.
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Inside the Chess Mind by Jacob Aagaard PDF | 22 Pages | MB How do the thought processes of strong club players differ from that of. DOWNLOAD PDF Inside the Chess Mind: How Players of All Levels Think About the Game Chess Metaphors: Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind. Inside the Chess Mind: How Players of All Levels Think About the Game [Jacob Aagaard] on medical-site.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Inside the.
This makes endgame study efficient and to-the-point. I visualized a conversation, punctuated by diagrams and simple analysis. It was going to be a master talking at length with a young player who already knew all the Trends In The Whatsisname Attack and who could improvise through most middlegames—but who suddenly collapses in the endgame.
I wanted to create. I believe this study regimen is close to ideal for players between A few months ago, I faced an IM in an opening variation I was well prepared for. He forgot the line around move 9 and made a logical developing move instead of the main move.
Yet, he went on to outplay me, winning comfortably. Opening knowledge or not, the better player tends to win. Whenever you analyze your games with a teacher, computer, or even on your own , take note of the areas where you have weaknesses and the types of positions you feel uncomfortable in.
Zero in on these areas. For example: If you keep miscalculating, emphasize tactics. If you find yourself unsure of how to play certain endings, immerse yourself in the games of the great endgame masters of the past.
Use your tournament games to identify your weaknesses. Turn them into strengths. Like, for serious. I got into rook endgames like a college freshman who has just discovered Bob Marley and lava lamps. I bought a bunch of Irving Chernev books for less than a dollar each off site and played through dozens of Capablanca games… Fast forward five years to the Chicago Open.
I go undefeated with four wins and three draws, scoring 5. Five of the games are rook endings: two wins, three draws. It was around this time I started to feel like a magician with my rooks. Even down a pawn in complex scenarios, I was drawing easily. I knew every idea, every in and out, every way to maximize the potential of the ending.
Eventually, I came to terms with studying theory. You can do this after a weekend tournament by collecting your scoresheets and reviewing your games. Even better is to look over a game shortly after it is ended. Why are they different?
One becomes Grandmaster after accumulating a lot of experience over the board and, of course, after a lot of hard work on the game. However, it is not enough to learn openings and understand the main concepts of positional chess. There is something called wisdom, that helps the Grandmaster to make the right decisions in different situations. He can even sometimes play a bad move knowing that this move will be the most difficult to his opponent, even if objectively it is bad.
A bad move, a right decision? Yes, and this is given by the wisdom he has in order to trick his opponent in that moment. After all, chess is about tricking your opponent and winning the game. This Grandmaster wisdom is obtained through experience, after lots of practice, losses, and victories. Inevitably, your level of understanding is higher.
Fortunately for us, there are thousands of books with games collection that can help us through the process of understanding how to think like a Grandmaster. And once the known territory is left behind, the players are on their own. How long would it take a grandmaster to beat me? If you play sensible moves, then no matter how strong your opponent may be, he will not be able to force a quick checkmate.
Expect any mistakes to be punished quickly, and to come under pressure if you play passively. Against a grandmaster, a player below club level would be doing well to avoid serious mishaps in the first twenty moves, and could be proud of reaching move thirty alive. In terms of time taken over the moves, a top-class player could play more or less instantly under these circumstances.
It is only when the players are evenly matched that the course of the game depends on strategic subtleties or long-term plans. However, if your ambitions are to reach a good club or county level, then whatever your age, this is an entirely feasible aim. Those who take up chess relatively late in life can often become successful in correspondence chess, since in the slower form of the game, speed of thought is not so critical as when playing against the clock — positional understanding, which can be learnt, and a methodical approach count for a great deal.
And you can verify everything with a computer, but check the rules of the individual event if you want to have a clear conscience From to it was a rather complicated mess, and there are still some loose ends that could easily become frayed over the next few years. But the good news for chess as a whole is that there is now as I write in late a single, undisputed World Champion: Viswanathan An-and from India.
But before then Thus the formal legitimacy of both players was obtained by successes in FIDE events. Following the breakaway, FIDE disqualified both players.
It did little for the credibility of the FIDE match that both these players had lost matches against Short, who in turn was comfortably defeated by Kasparov.
Most players tended to accept Kasparov as the real champion, but several factors clouded the issue greatly. The match eventually took place in in Elista, after plans to play in Baghdad had caused outrage around the chess world. FIDE subsequently adopted a knockout format for its world championship, which, while an interesting event in itself, held little credibility as a World Championship. After Shirov unexpectedly beat Kramnik, it proved difficult to find adequate sponsorship for a Kasparov—Shirov match.
At the end of , Shirov was left out in the cold, with Kasparov inviting Anand, who had by then established himself as clearly World No. Even for this match, sponsorship proved difficult to find. Various plans and organizations came and went, before Peter Leko qualified through a different cycle again to face Kramnik, and narrowly failed to lift the crown. But the damage to chess as a whole from its highest-profile event being diluted into two rival cycles was evident to all, and the impetus for reunification looked set to sweep all obstacles from its path.
Without going into all the ins-and-outs, Veselin Topalov from Bulgaria won a world championship tournament in This had been intended as the reunification event, but Kramnik refused to play, still leaving two rival champions. Kramnik and Topalov contested a bitter match in so bitter that the reunification process nearly failed , with Kramnik winning eventually.
In , the process called for a further world championship tournament, which was won by Anand, ahead of Kramnik. Those of a traditional frame of mind were disappointed that what had generally been a matchplay title had been decided in a tournament.
They could finally be content when in , An-and defended his title with a decisive match victory over Kramnik: the line of succession was intact, and the title was reunified to the satisfaction of all. Or most, at any rate. Delivering Mate The king is not a very fast moving piece. He can move only one square at a time, and so, even on an open board, has a maximum of only eight squares at his disposal, and at the edge of a board a mere five, while in the corner, he can move to at most three squares.
It is not difficult to mate a king. Likewise, make sure your own king has protection when he needs it — but more on that in the later chapter on attack and defence. If you are an experienced player, I suggest you skip this introduction and the 25 novice warm-up positions. This leaves only three to be covered by other pieces. All of these squares are of the same colour. Next we consider the knight, which makes up for its short-range move by moving in a way that no other pieces can.
Like the bishop, all the squares are of the same colour, though the colour squares that a knight attacks changes each time it moves. It is all too easy to forget that the humble pawn can also participate in mating attack. Let us also not forget that the king itself can also help to deliver mate to his opposite number. If in each case the above comments are not immediately clear, then I suggest you write down a list of the squares attacked by each white piece in the diagrams.
Answers are given on this page. One conclusion we can draw immediately is that the queen is a very powerful mating force in itself, and needs only a little help to deliver mate. A single piece attacking a square next to the enemy king is often all the queen needs. If you think of chess as a medieval war game, then this is the equivalent of needing only the most menial spy in the enemy palace — then a state visit by the queen see here wins the war in itself!
Since the rook attacks squares in a straight line, it can be particularly deadly against a king at the edge of the board. The knight should not be underestimated.
Since it moves in a different way from the other pieces, it is the perfect complement to them. Indeed a queen and knight work together so well that when they are buzzing around a king, there is more often than not a mate.
Two bishops also complement each other well, whether attacking along parallel diagonals or at right angles to each other. This chapter features a series of positions that test your ability to deliver mate. Note that in many of the diagrams that follow, only the pieces relevant to the mating idea are shown; in a real game situation there would be plenty of other pieces present. The Back-rank Mate This is one of the simplest mating ideas, but a tremendously important one.
White plays 1 d8. In games between inexperienced players, it is all too common a sight for the player who has been winning to fall victim to a back-ranker.
The simplest way to avoid all risk of a back-ranker is to move one of the pawns in front of the king one square forward. However, I would recommend this precaution only when the game is fully under control and you can spare the time. While the game is still tense, to play any of the moves At top level, back-rankers are important too. Not generally as a one-move mating attack, but the value of a complex tactical sequence may hinge on a back-rank trick.
See the glossary entry for Back-rank Mate. The idea of smothered mate is by no means new. It is therefore rather rough on him that in common chess parlance the name Philidor is generally associated with this idea.
Then only a few squares need to be denied to the king for it to be mate; none if the king is at the edge of the board. The following are a few examples.
Here a pawn provides the support, and the edge of the board prevents the king from running, so This position has arisen after the moves 1 e4 e5 2 c4 c5 3 h5 a bad move played millions of times by novices One pawn covers the two squares the queen cannot reach, while the other pawn defends the queen. Two knights can suffice to mate a king when he is short of squares: 1 f7 finishes off nicely.
Note that in general knights are more effective when standing next to each other than when defending one another. Here are two examples of a pair of bishops delivering mate: 1 g6 is very light compared to some of the mates we have seen. Now we move on to the positions for solving. I have provided some rather generous clues, to some of the positions, in the above diagrams. If all else fails, consider every legal move.
As a rough guide, strong players should solve each position in just a second or two, while ordinary club players should not take long either. If you have problems solving them, set the position up on a board and concentrate as though you were playing a game. In the solutions, I note any tactical themes that occur in the positions. These ideas constitute an armoury of checkmating ideas that will help you throughout your chess career.
Here are twenty-five rather more complex mates in two. The ideas tend to follow on logically from those we have seen, but are more deeply hidden, or combine various ideas. Nevertheless, experienced players should sail through this test as well. The c4-queen attacks c5, c6, d4, d5, e4 and e6.
Rooks: the e6-rook attacks c6, d6, e4 and e5. The d3-rook attacks d4, d5 and d6. Bishops: the f3-bishop attacks c6, d5 and e4. The d6-bishop attacks c5 and e5. Knights: the f7-knight attacks d6 and e5. The e3-knight attacks c4 and d5. Pawns: the e4-pawn attacks d5.
The d4-pawn attacks c5 and e5. King: the white king attacks c4, d4 and e4. Related ideas can decide games at international level, so look out for them! One knight forces the king into the corner, and the other delivers the killer blow. Note that the king must be mated in a corner on which the bishop can cover the corner square, and that White must be careful not to give stalemate. White could also have won here though not given mate in two by playing 1 d7 and then 2 c8.
Note that the rook must go to b2 in order to prevent the black queen from taking the bishop. When pawns are racing to promote, it is generally good to have your king in front of the enemy pawns — but only if he slows them down or stops them advancing! Otherwise, he might just encourage them to advance at double speed, with checks or even mate. Black has left it a little late in playing the defensive move Here we see the vulnerability of the king in the corner, and the power of advancing pawns, even when promotion is not on the cards.
I hope the rather irrational nature of the position did not distract you from this essentially straightforward idea. The queen just needs to vacate f5 in such as way as to avoid disturbing things too much. Then the knight hops in and finishes the job. Everything is done with double checks, so the attacking pieces being en prise is irrelevant.
Having said that, I caught a strong county-standard player with something almost as bad in a match once! This is a simplified version of an idea that we will see in various traps in the chapters on chess openings. The serious point is, of course, that one must be extremely careful when advancing kingside pawns when undeveloped. The bishop is the only piece stopping c7 being mate, so any means of diverting it must be examined.
When one sees that the knight cannot capture on a7, the picture is complete. It makes no difference here, but I once discovered to my cost in a lightning game that if the rook is on f8 and the knight on f6, there is no mate!
Quite the contrary if all they do is box him in. This is a fairly typical mating net, and shows a potential problem if a bishop abandons its fianchetto position. In the start position, White covers the h8-square twice queen and h1-rook while Black is also on it twice king and bishop.
It matters not that both checking pieces are attacked; they cannot both be taken at once. A variation on this theme has a white bishop controlling the h2-b8 diagonal, mate being delivered by the two bishops alone. This idea is important in practice, as an important defensive idea is to eliminate a bishop attacking along the a2-g8 diagonal. If the battle is close-fought, the attacker will need to seek ways to keep this bishop alive long enough to help land the decisive blow.
This is, I admit, a rather unnatural position, but then the idea embodied in it is a spectacular one.
Indeed, the simultaneous opening of the line for the white rook, and blocking of lines for the black queen and g8-rook is the sort of theme one finds in chess problems. Note that 1 xh8 not only fails to force mate in two, but also loses: Black plays It is worth watching out for knight checks on e7 or by Black on e2 , since the queen and rook can easily be in the right positions to give this mate.
The black king had to be decoyed onto a8 so that when the knight discovered check from the white queen, it also gave check itself.
I ought to apologize for the somewhat unnatural position, but it was mainly to test whether you were sparing a thought for what the opponent could do, rather than just what you can achieve by force. Other bishop moves give White a choice of mates. The fact that tactics in chess are the shortest term factors, upon which the medium-term planning and strategy are based, reflects two things: that chess is quite deep, and that it is a game of complete information, in which executing each move is not a problem.
If, for instance, pool and snooker were not played using cues and balls, but on a computer that executed the chosen shot exactly as it was intended, then the tactics e. Tactics in chess are the interactions between the pieces that are any deeper than simply capturing material that the opponent has blundered away. The purpose of this short chapter is to provide an introduction to the main tactical methods that are important in practical chess.
Checkmate This, of course, is the most important tactical device of all! So White plays 1 xc6!
Then after Another very typical destructive theme is a sacrifice to shatter the pawn cover in front of a king. We shall encounter this many times throughout the book. Tip: try to visualize what might happen if a particular piece did not exist on the board.
The Fork This is one of the simplest and most effective tactical devices. One piece directly attacks two or more enemy pieces simultaneously. Typically a knight is effective for this purpose. Between beginners who have reached the level at which they can avoid getting mated in the first few moves, and do not blunder pieces gratuitously, I would reckon that losing material to a knight fork must be the most common single reason for losing a game.
The unusual way in which these pesky horses move means that their tricks are often overlooked, even by fairly experienced players. Forks can also be made by other pieces.
Consider the position at the top of the next column. The white b5-pawn is forking the black knights, and the black rook is forking the white king and queen. White wins a knight, but Black a queen for a rook. Remember too that for a knight to fork two pieces, they must stand on the same coloured squares. Double Attack Whereas in a fork, one piece attacks more than one enemy unit, in a double attack, two or more pieces are responsible for creating the multiple attacks.
This may come about when a piece moving to make a discovered attack also makes an attack of its own, as in the diagram.
Here White now plays 10 e5. Experienced players would know to look out for this sort of thing. A double attack can also arise from a piece moving so as to add to or reinforce the action of others. In this position, the move 1 a1 opens up a double attack on the two black knights: suddenly, from being attacked once and defended once, they are both attacked twice, and it turns out there is no way to save them both. Discovered Attack This occurs when a piece moves off a line, opening up an attack from a piece that had been behind it.
In itself, this is no more difficult to deal with than any normal attack on a piece, except maybe that it is a little harder to see. The real problem is that the piece that has moved may be able to create some other problem, perhaps giving check and so making it impossible to deal with the discovered attack.
White has just made a horrible blunder by capturing a pawn on c5. Fischer now played After the bishop is taken, the black queen will capture her white counterpart. Tip: always take note of any potential attacks like this. There may be several pieces in the way, but it is amazing how quickly the rubble can sometimes be cleared. Discovered Check This is similar to discovered attack, except that the attack is a check to the king itself.
This means that the piece that is moving is free to do pretty much what it likes with complete invulnerability. In the following diagram Black has carelessly allowed White to give a discovered check from the e1-rook. For one move the e2-bishop can go to squares that would normally be unthinkable, since Black must deal with the check. Tip: allow a discovered check only if you are absolutely certain it is safe to do so, and if you are able to give a discovered check, be sure to extract the maximum value from it.
Double Check This is an off-shoot of the discovered check, in which the piece that moves also gives check.