PDF | 2 hours read | On Jan 1, , Bello R. S. and others published Workshop Technology & Practice. All Rights Reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or. transmitted, in any form or by any means. most of the syllabus of manufacturing processes/technology, workshop technology and work- On completion of the book 'Introduction to Basic Manufacturing. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www. medical-site.info Workshop Technology & Practice Book .
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WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY. The book has been written in a logical sequence so that the students can move on to complex manufacturing processes after. INSTRUCTOR IN FITTING AND MACHINE SHOP, AND FORGE. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NOTTINGHAM. WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY. WILLIAM ROBINSON . Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Process & Workshop Technology Book (PDF) By Rajender Singh – Manufacturing and workshop practices are crucial for the.
Forging Hot Working of Metals Cold Working Welding Sheet Metal Work Fitting Metal Cutting Lathe Machine Drilling Machine Shaper, Planer and Slotter Milling Powder Metallurgy Inspection and Quality Control Index. In the year , he joined as a Faculty Member in Department of Mech. Rajender Singh is an author and Co-author of more than 36 papers published and presented mostly in International Journals and International conferences respectively based upon his research work. He has received number of grants from various research sponsoring agencies to support his research activities.
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Welcome to EasyEngineering, One of the trusted educational blog. Operate safety equipment e. Use of protective wear. Observe al l safety rules and regulations. All tools are dangerous if used improperly or carelessly. Working safely is the first thing the student should learn because the safe way is the correct way. Most of the safety practices mentioned in this section are general in nature. Safety precautions for specific tools and machines are described in detail in the chapters along with the description of the equipment.
Study these carefully and be on the alert to apply them.
Basics Always listen carefully to the teacher and follow instructions. Do not run in the workshop, you could cause an accident.
Know where the emergency stop buttons are positioned in the workshop. Always wear an apron as it will protect your clothes and hold loose clothing such as ties in place. Wear good strong shoes. Training shoes are not suitable. When attempting practical work all stools should be put away. Bags should not be brought into a workshop as people can trip over them. When learning how to use a machine, listen very carefully to all the instructions given by the teacher.
Ask questions, if you do not understand. Do not use a machine if you have not been shown how to operate it safely. Always be patient, never rush in the workshop. Always use a guard when working on a machine. Use hand tools carefully, keeping both hands behind the cutting edge. Personal Protective Equipment Personal protective equipment PPE includes all types of equipment used to increase performing individual safety while potentially hazardous hard any tasks.
This may include safety glasses, hats, gloves, lab coats, respirators, or equipment used to protect against injury or illness. Fig 1. Examples of operation requiring the use of eye protection include, but are not limited to: Chipping, grinding, and impact drilling. Welding or helping in welding of any type. Riveting, grinding, or burning metals. Foot Protection Non-skid shoes shall be worn where floors may be wet or greasy.
Where there is reasonable probability of foot or toe injury from impact and compression forces, safety footwear shall be worn. Body Protection Loose fitting clothing, neckties, rings, bracelets, or other apparel that may become entangled in moving machinery will not be worn by machine operators or their helpers.
Hand Protection Multi-use gloves shall be worn to protect the hands from injuries caused by handling sharp or jagged objects, wood, or similar hazard-producing materials. Head Protection Hard hats shall be worn by all personnel working below other workers and in areas where sharp projections or other head hazards exist. Hearing Protection Appropriate hearing protection shall be used where employees are in designated hazardous noise areas with operating noise sources, or using tools or equipment which are labeled as hazardous noise producers.
Proper Lifting Techniques Before lifting, take a moment to think about what you're about to do. Examine the object for sharp corners, slippery spots or other potential hazards. Know your limit and don't try to exceed it.
Ask for help if needed, or if possible, divide the load to make it lighter. Know where you are going to set the item down and make sure it and your path are free of obstructions.
Then follow these steps. Stand close to the load with your feet spread apart about shoulder width, with one foot slightly in front of the other for balance. Squat down bending at the knees not your waist. Tuck your chin while keeping your back as vertical as possible.
Get a firm grasp of the object before beginning the lift.
Begin slowly lifting with your LEGS by straightening them. Never twist your body during this step.
Once the lift is complete, keep the object as close to the body as possible. As the load's center of gravity moves away from the body, there is a dramatic increase in stress to the lumbar region of the back. Hand and Power Tools Tools are such a common part of our lives that it is difficult to remember that they may pose hazards. All tools are manufactured with safety in mind but, tragically, a serious accident often occurs before steps are taken to search out and avoid or eliminate tool-related hazards.
Hand Tools Hand tools are non-powered. They include anything from axes to wrenches. The greatest hazards posed by hand tools result from misuse and improper maintenance. Basic Rules for Hand tool Safety Safety is a state of mind. Always think when using a tool: Is it in good condition? Is it sized right for the job? Is it in the proper working condition?
Every tool was designed to do a certain job. Use it for its intended purpose. Tools subject to impact chisels, star drill, punches, etc. Keep them dressed sharpened to avoid flying spalls. Use tool holders. Secure your work in a vise whenever possible.
Never hold small work in your hand when using a screwdriver. Should not have broken claws or handles. Cutting tools should be kept sharp to ensure good smooth cutting. Always use proper handles. Screwdriver points should not be badly worn and handles should be in good condition. Use the proper size and type of screwdriver for the job. Appropriate personal protective equipment, e. Power Tools Power tools can be extremely dangerous if they are used improperly.
Each year, thousands of people are injured or killed by power tool accidents. Common accidents associated with power tools include abrasions, cuts, lacerations, amputations, burns, electrocution, and broken bones. These accidents are often caused by the following: Touching the cutting, drilling, or grinding components Getting caught in moving parts Suffering electrical shock due to improper grounding, equipment defects, or operator misuse Being struck by particles that normally eject during operation Touching hot tools or work pieces Falling in the work area Being struck by falling tools fig 1.
In additional to general shop guidelines, follow these guidelines for working with power tools: Use the correct tool for the job.
Occupational hazards Apart from accidents caused by carelessness and recklessness, workers are exposed to certain hazards in the course of their undertaken, a form of risk associated with the work that somebody does.
This is known as Occupational Hazards or Job Risk. Occupational diseases and illnesses Occupational disease is a major category of environmental hazard, and refers to illness resulting from job-related exposures.
Risk and consequences of risk taking Risk Risk is defined as any human venture or engagement with the likelihood of causing a specific harm or injury to persons or damage to property. The tendency of working at such height and not sustaining any injury is there, however the consequence is grave when an incidence of hazard occur.
Hence risk can be defined as the combination of the probability or possibility of an event happening and its consequences. Consequences of risk taking There is an element of risk in every activity that man is associated with. Risk is present when we eat, sleep, walk and wherever we work.
In as much as we are companions with risk, efforts should be made to keep the risk under i. Accident Accident is an unforeseen occurrence with negative consequence as a result of sudden impact, system malfunction human error or as a result of carelessness when we undertake unsafe acts.
Accident results in pains, loss of body member or death to victims, a waste of time, money, materials and damage to equipment. Consequently, it is of interest to devise measures to prevent or reduce accidents in all operations to the barest minimum. Physical injury harm results from contact between people and harmful objects, substances, or other things in their surroundings. Common types of physical injury include broken bones, cuts, bruises, brain damage, poisoning and burns.
Some physical injuries are the intended result of acts by people: Injuries not intended are often described as accidental injuries. Examples of causes of injury include being struck by a car, being cut up in a moving machine part, being cut by a knife, bitten by a dog, or poisoned by inhaled fuel or other dangerous chemicals. Nature of body injury The occurrence of accidents in workplaces often results in one or more of the following injury types: This is injury which results from caught-in hazard point within machinery 2.
This is injury to bone resulting in breakage of the bone as a result of impact 3. This is a type of injury resulting in muscular stress or joint dislocation 4. Bruise or laceration: This is the peeling off of outer skin layer thereby exposing some blood vessels. The inner tissues are not affected. Scalding and burn: This is as a result of sudden exposure of body part to hot vapour or heat resulting in skin peeling off scalding or suffering some degree of shin damage burn.
This could be as a result of impact on body casing internal bleeding or rupture of blood vessels without visible cut and blood flow 7. Superficial injury: Injury occurring at the skin surface such as bruise, minor cut, or scratches and lacerations. This is a case of fatal injury which often result from caught-in and struck-by accidents, 9. This is a situation in which life flows out of the body as a result of injury sustained.
Such case is regarded as a fatal injury case. Definition of Safety Safety in its simplest form is a state of being at little or no risk of injury resulting from a harmful external impact, inhalation, or contact. It is a holistic approach to a state of wellbeing that requires people to feel they are free from being harmed in addition to actually being safe.
To be safe in any work environment, you must think about the nature of your job and plan ahead to avert hazards that could be associated with it. In the field of safety, it is generally recognized that consequences are only negative and therefore the management of safety risk is focused on prevention and mitigation of harm.
This approach involves three steps as follows: Identify hazards to which a person at the workplace is likely to be exposed; Step 2 Evaluation: Assess the risk of injury or harm to a person resulting from each hazard if any is identified in step 1; and Step 3 Control: Consider the means by which the risk may be reduced.
It takes effort to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards. If you do not recognize, evaluate, and control hazards, you may be injured or killed by machinery, electricity, electrical fires, or falls. If you use the safety model to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards, you will be much safer.
Workplace health and safety laws The aim of the Workplace Health and Safety Act is to prevent death, injury or illness caused by a workplace, relevant workplace area, work activities, plant or substances for use at a workplace. Improving health and safety in workplaces reduces human and financial cost of injury and disease. Workers, their families, employers and the community benefit from improved workplace health and safety.
The Workplace Health and Safety Act sets out the laws about health and safety guidelines for all relevant workplace areas, work procedures or activities by machinery or substances for use at workplaces as well as safeguarding workers.
All health and safety laws place specific duties of care or legal obligations on various parties in the chain of machinery design, supply and use. Workers, their families, employers and the community benefit from these obligations. Improving workplace health and safety in workplaces reduces the human and financial cost of workplace injury and disease. Workplace partners and responsibilities The following human elements have been recognized as the workplace partners in any such organization.
An employee is in the payroll of an employer. He is a job provider the employer as well as the employee. He takes care of service provided and job delivery Duties of self-employed persons: This is an employee with special skills and mastery in his field required to offer specialized or expert advice or direction on efficient job delivery.
Duties of supervisors: A supervisor shall take such measures as are practicable to ensure that the workplace, or the means of access to or egress from the workplace, as the case may be, are such that persons who are at the workplace or use the means of access to and egress from the workplace are not exposed to hazards.
Safety obligations Every workplace partners has an obligation to ensure safety at every stages of their involvement. You can have more than one set of obligations stipulated under the Safety Act. For example, if you are an employer and a principal contractor a sole proprietor at the same time within the same workplace. In this case, you would have two sets of obligations - those of an employer on one hand and an employee on the other. You must meet all the obligations under the Acts.
This can be done through the following ways: Issue regulations that either prohibit exposure to a risk or prescribe ways to prevent or minimize exposure to such risks and you must comply with such regulations.
Codes of practice: Code of practice is a document which gives practical advice about ways to manage exposure to risks identified as typical in workplace. This document states ways to manage exposure to risks within workplace and job practices. To meet your obligations under the Act, you must follow codes of practice or adopt another way that offers at least the same.
Examples of such codes include Tractor Code, Where there is no regulation or code of practice about exposure to a risk, you can meet your obligations by choosing any appropriate way to minimize exposure to a risk and you must take reasonable precautions and exercise proper diligence in making sure the risk is managed.
To properly manage exposure to risks, the risk management process must be undertaken to identify hazards and determine appropriate control measures. Such processes are set out in a document called the risk management code of practice 4. Safety planning. Plan your work and plan for safety. Take time to plan your work, not alone, but with others. Safety planning is an important part of any task.
It is hard to take the time to plan for safety. But, you must plan. Plan to be safe! Health and safety policy A written health and safety policy is an important documentary part of safety rules for managing health and safety in your workplace and an important step in demonstrating management commitment.
A health and safety policy explains: