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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Joanna Sudyka. Sudyka AAR 5, 1—? The scope of the paper is to give an up-to-date account of general features of a unique cultural phenomenon which is the South Indian Iron Age. The distribution, chronology, material cul- ture, funerary customs, including the typology of megaliths, and socio-economical issues are outlined. The studies on the material culture of South Indian Iron Age communities revealed its huge complexity. This cultural phenomenon, which had originated around BC, prob- ably in the northern regions of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, and spread across the vast space of Indian subcontinent, amazes by its simultaneous diversity and uniformity. Ke y words: Iron Age, South India, megalithic, black and red ware Received: Introduction The Iron Age culture was for a long time known only through so called megalithic monuments.

Double burials were determined chiefly by the number of skulls in secondary burials, but primary burials of whole skeletons in the extended position were also observed for instance at Mahur- jhari and Yeleswaram.

The majority of megalithic burials was multi- ple, fractional and secondary. There were no instances of interments of three or more full skeletons in a single grave, however in some cases one full skeleton was accompanied by other fractional skeletons Rai- gir. The commonness of multiple burials might have been imposed by economic approach to grave construction.

The enlargement of sepa- rated burial space within one grave could be achieved for instance by introducing a transeption to the cist. It can be postulated that only the richest members of society could afford single burials. The burials of children are extremely rare and many of them were accommodated in pots Rao , — The question whether all members of the society were buried in megaliths remains open.

According to Moorti , the monuments were meant to entomb a restricted number of individuals, the interment was rarely performed, perhaps once or twice for a generation.

It is very likely according to him that megaliths were a privilege of the upper segment of the society. Such theories are however hazardous due to insufficient amount of excavation works.

Usually, the excavation comprises only few selected the biggest, most prominent burials. There is a need for precise examination of all graves within one site to assess differentiation in funerary assemblage.

Socio-economic conditions The studies on the material culture of South Indian Iron Age com- munities revealed its huge complexity. This cultural phenomenon, which had originated around BC, probably in the northern re- gions of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, and spread across the vast space of Indian subcontinent, amazes by its simultaneous diversity and uniformity.

In consequence, increased defor- estation and loss of wildlife forced the remaining hunter-gatherers to assimilate agricultural activities Misra , Indeed, popula- tion growth as well as diversification and expansion of agriculture oc- curred, but not to such an extent to deprive people of various habitats.

Keeping mixed economy was still possible. The multiple evidence for specialised agro-pastoral economy does not exclude the existence of other modes of subsistence. The settlement pattern regarded as a network of habitation loci and the record of its activities is still an undiscovered field in South Indian archaeology. It has been generally observed that the location pattern of the Iron Age habitation resembles the modern one i.

The investigation in the Upper Gundar Basin for instance revealed that the habitation size varied from 0,75 to 3 ha and no hierarchy was noted Selvakumar , The habitation pattern of the whole area is perceived as conglomerations of small settlements of approximately a few hundred people Rao , In the Dharmapuri region the survey brought the conclusion that each locality of a 5 km radius had its own connected cluster of sites Rajan a, 21 creating a specific microregion, where resources could be shared by inhabiting communities.

It was noticed that the location of a settlement was generally con- ditioned by the availability of resources, especially water, minerals and arable land. It may be said that the settlements were the reflection of the allocation of resources, and on a smaller scale of social relation- ship to the geographical features. The difference between burial and village landscapes is affirmed. The habitation sites are located in the vicinity of perennial water supply, which is not necessary for cemeter- ies Deo , In the case of burials the raw material for construc- tion was the limiting resource, but the rock type was not important Sundara , The paucity of known settlements in relation to graveyards is con- spicuous.

Out of the known Iron Age sites merely yield set- tlement Moorti , This situation may also be illustrated by the Vidarbha example. The whole region yielded eighty sites Joshi , , but only eight revealed habitation vestiges.

In the case of the Dharmapuri region the fig- ures state burial sites, 9 habitation sites and 26 habitation-cum- burial sites. One of the reasons for this paucity may be the covering of the Iron Age deposits by rapid accumulation of sediments washed out from other localities, typical of the monsoon climate Joshi , Anther cause is connected with the location of habitation, mak- ing it more prone to fluvial modifications, which could lead to great- er destruction when compared to graveyards on elevated terrain por- tions Prakash, Gopikrishna , But the most probable reason for this situation is the insufficient state of exploration combined with the difficulty to spot habitation deposits in the densely inhabited area of present South India.

References Allchin B. The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. New Delhi. Banerjee N. Excavation at Amirthamangalam, District Chingleput. Ghosh ed. A Review. New Delhi, 20— Amirthamangalam A Megalithic urn-burial site in dis- trict Chingleput, Tamilnadu.

Ancient India 22, 3— Bauer A. Asian Perspectives 46 1 , 3— Chakrabarti D. An Archaeological History. Palaeolithic Beginnings to Early Historic Foundations. Childe V. Ancient India 4, 4— Darsana S. Man and Environment 23 2 , 51— Deo S. The Megalithic Economy in Vidarbha.

Ray and S. Mukherjee eds. A Dialogue Between Archaeologists and Historians. New Delhi, 73— Dikshit K. Iron Age and Peninsular India. Fukao J. Gau- ravam. Recent Researches in Indology.

New Delhi, 66— Ghosh A. An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology 1. Gururaja Rao B. Megalithic Culture in South India. Jain V. Prehistory and Protohistory of India. An Appraisal. Palaeolithic- Non- Harappan Chalcolithic Cultures. Perambra, New Light on Kodakkals of Malabar. Shar- ma ed. New Perspectives. New Delhi, — Joshi P. Vidarbha Megaliths: Sundara ed. Government of Karnataka, — Krishnaswami V. Megalithic types of South India. Ancient India 5, 35— Leshnik L. The Pandukal Com- plex.

Leshnik and G. Sontheimer eds. Wiesbaden, 40— McIntosh J. Dating the South Indian Megaliths. South Asian Archaeology Naples, — Misra V. Prehistoric human colonization of India. Journal of Biosciences 26 4 , — Moorti U. Megalithic Culture of South India: Socio-Economic Perspectives unpublished Ph.

Morrison K. Brahmagiri Revisited: South Asian Archaeology 1. Paris, — Nagaraja Rao M. Earliest Iron- using people in India and the Megaliths. Nagaraja Rao ed. Delhi, 25— Nagaraju S. Chronology of Iron Age in South India. Agrawal and Chakrabarti D. Essays in Indian Protohistory. Delhi, — Narasimhaiah B. Excavation at Banahalli, District Kolar. Joshi ed. New Delhi, 42— Excavation at Cheramangad, district Trichur. Maha- patra ed. New Delhi, 33— Pleiner R.

Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica 2, 5— Possehl G. Radiocarbon dates for South Asian archaeology. Prakash P. The impact of Geomorphological Changes on Archaeological Sites: Man and Environment 23 2 , 45— Radiocarbon Radiocarbon date for Takalghat, District Nagpur. New Delhi, Radiocarbon date for Apukallu, District North Arcot. Thapar ed. Radiocarbon a. Radiocarbon date for Polakonda, District Warangal. Radiocarbon b. Radiocarbon dates for Vallam, District Thanjavur.

Radiocarbon date for Kodumanal, District Periyar. Ma- hapatra ed. Radiocarbon date for Watgal, District Raichur. Bisht, C. Dorji and Arundhati Banerji eds. A Re- view. Radiocarbon dates for Adam, District Nagpur. In Hari Manjhi, C. Indian Archaeology — Raghunath Bhat H. Megalithic Remains of Uttara Kannada Region: A Note. Rajan K. Archaeology of Tamilnadu Kongu Country. A Preliminary Report. Some issues and reflections.

Social Scientist 36 1—2 , 40— Catalogue of Archaeological Sites in Tamil Nadu 1. Rajendran P. Prehistory of Kerala. Kusuman ed. Thiruvananthapuram, 1— Ramachandran K. Chronology of the Indian Megaliths Some Considera- tions. Radiocarbon dates of Archaeological Sites in India.

Hy- derabad. Archaeology of South India. Tamil Nadu. Rangacharya V. Pre-Historic India. Rao K. Deccan Megaliths. Andhra Pradesh History Congress, 17th Session.

Tirupati, 18— Megalithic Anthropomorphic Statues: Meaning and Significance. Sankalia H. Indian Archaeology Today. Prehistory of India. Selvakumar V. Man and Environment 21 2 , 27— Sharma A. Excavations at Karakabhat. Sharma Y. Rock-cut Caves in Cochin. Ancient India 12, 93— Singh H. Singh U. A History of Ancient and Medieval India.

From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Srivastava K. Community Movements in Protohistoric India. Sundara A. Typology of Megaliths in South India. Agrawal and D. Chakrabarti eds. Menhirs in Mid-western Karnataka: Further Notices.

Sun- dara ed. Tewari R. The origins of iron- working in India: Antiquity 77 , — Thapar B. Recent Archaeological Discoveries in India. Wheeler M. Brahmagiri and Chandravalli Kategoria I: Kategoria II: Kategoria III: Kategoria IV: PQooy Ver. Phone IUiYI. Wllk-D t M f. I nwms, with I double Oe-ds; be clean, well funiislntl ind within a few ulocks of Wcrttlake Park. Vilshln- Tail W. Washinsjton, Jr. Real ]-2state Office r. Main Box 6s? It d-s. Fifth and Bdwg. Wl nfg. Old Gold. Jewelrj liverwao.

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