ppdf. VIDEO GAMES. ORIGIN AND GROWTH. OF THE VIDEO GAME INDUSTRY. The first interactive computer game, Spacewar, was written in by. Overview. ▫ Video games are classified by age appropriateness. Regulation is moving towards a single, mandatory age-rating system for games in physical. and are well established, such as the effects of violent video games on aggression Retrieved from medical-site.info pdf.

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PDF | 2 hours read | Jing Feng and others published How Video Games Benefit Your Brain. Computer and video games are a maturing medium and industry and have caught the attention of scholars across a variety of disciplines. By and large. Video games thus make it possible for players to participate in valued Critics suggest that the lessons people learn from playing video games as they currently .

On the contrary, only one meta-analysis results to be focused on the adult population, and it is restricted to examining the effects of training with a particular genre of games action video games on cognitive skills of healthy adults. Objectives: This systematic review was aimed to identify research evidences about the impact on cognitive [i. Methods: A multi-component analysis of variables related to the study, the video games, and the outcomes of the training was made on the basis of important previous works. Results: Thirty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and were further classified into the different analysis' variables. The majority of the retrieved studies used commercial video games, and action games in particular, which resulted to be the most commonly used, closely followed by puzzle games. Effect sizes for training with video games on cognitive skills in general ranged from 0. Conclusion: Overall, findings give evidences of benefits of video games training on cognitive and emotional skills in relation to the healthy adult population, especially on young adults. Efficacy has been demonstrated not only for non-commercial video games or commercial brain-training programs, but for commercial video games as well. Keywords: video games, computer games, cognitive training, emotional training, well-being Introduction Over the last 40 years, video games have increasingly had a transformational impact on how people play and enjoy themselves, as well as on many more aspects of their lives Yeh et al.

The view we have violent video games. But it should wheel chair after a virtual high speed car wreck. Nor be pointed out that the utilitarian position and their is any spectator, watching a video game player from objection to violent video games may not be as simple the couch in front of the television, in danger of being as this. John Stuart Mill is famous for diverging crushed in a riot, beaten up by fans from the opposing from Bentham on just this point about the comparison side, or victimized by looting and fires.

While children of pleasures. According to Mill, there are different, may get in a fight over who gets to play the Nintendo higher and lower, capacities for pleasure and pain, game next, neither they nor anyone who is watching and that there are some higher pleasures and capa- their game faces the risk, harm, or danger associated cities that are more valuable than the lower ones. It violent video games. According to Mill, the ability to does not appear that the utilitarian can or will have experience pleasure and pain is commensurate with any substantial grounds on which to morally criti- intellectual sophistication and the kind of capacities cize playing violent video games.

They are faced by one possesses. First, the utilitarian needs the same as those of a fish.

Furthermore, these capa- to demonstrate that violent video games are risk cities in humans can be lost or refined and developed, increasing activities. Carefully controlled empirical depending upon the sort of treatment a person gets. As studies can identify the causal link, if there is one, a result, Mill remarks that the, between playing the games and doing harm to oneself or others.

These studies should also reveal important capacity for the nobler feelings is in most natures a facts about how much playing is connected with how very tender plant, easily killed, not only by hostile much harm or tendency to do harm.

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Second, if utili- influences, but by mere want of sustenance; and tarians wish to argue that violent video games are in the majority of young persons it speedily dies morally objectionable with the results of these studies away if the occupations to which their position in in hand, they need to also argue that the overall life has devoted them, and the society into which it increased likelihood to do harm outweighs the benefits has thrown them, are not favorable to keeping that derived from the activity.

And it is this second hurdle higher capacity in exercise. But this objection is weakened by on, despite the fact that there are rather substantial the rejoinder we considered earlier. At best, this sort risks of harm to oneself and others associated with of objection is arguing for moderation, balance, and an these activities. At the very least, gamers are having equal development of human talents.

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If we take it as a a great deal of fun playing violent games, so the blanket condemnation of the so-called lesser pleasures, utilitarians who would object to them will have to video games are just one of a long list of activities that rethink their attitude towards many of our risky activ- we will be forced to avoid. And as we said before, ities, or argue that violent video games are significantly a plausible moral theory should include reasonable different in kind.

I have doubts, as do many gamers, accommodations of sports, games, and recreation. I have even stronger 6 Mill, John Stuart. Oxford Univer- doubts that the critic of violent video games will sity Press, , p. The example of other types of games we play sheds some light on the Kantian case as it did with What about deontological or Kantian theories of utilitarianism.

The Kantian argument gives us a way to ethics? Can they produce plausible reasons for arguing identify a phenomena that we are all familiar with, the that playing violent video games is morally objec- person who is a bad sport. Deontological theories of ethics judge the A person who wins a game is a bad sport when she rightness of wrongness of acts according to their gloats, or demeans or insults her opponents, or when conformity with duty.

Kant gives two characterizations she is otherwise disrespectful. A person who loses a of duty that are relevant to this discussion. The extent to you can at the same time will that it should become which we fail to respect others, whether in a game a universal law.

If a person commits unjusti- point in the categorical imperative is to emphasize that fied violence against another person, she is failing to being moral is about recognizing that other people are treat that person as an end in herself. The bad treat them as mere means to an end.

And committing sport is too self-focused, wallowing in self-pity over a violence against someone is possibly the worst way to loss, or gloating in arrogance over a win, and refuses to reduce them to the status of an object or a mere means. When we play violent video games with other To answer the question, it should be noted that there people, we cannot do any real physical harm to them, are video games that involve other people and there despite the heavy plasma blaster firepower we might are games that do not.

In some video games a player bring down on their game character. But we can be pits herself against automated opponents. The game bad sports towards them. We can demean them with is programmed to provide monsters, characters, or our actions, we can be disrespectful of their humanity, opponents that the player fights or competes against.

And while being a bad sport is not a other people as mere means to an end because there very serious moral crime for Kant it is not murder, are no other people involved. We will return to the after all , he would say that one should strive to be a possibility that an activity could indirectly contribute good sport. The problem here A rapidly increasing portion of the video game is not confined to playing violent video games.

We market is for games that allow play between people. Playing video games over against people. So there is the potential for violations the Internet does have a peculiar problem. Foundations of the Metaphysics of humans. We are all prone to say or do things to people Morals. Akademie, p. It is not uncommon for 8 Ibid. And all too often, these comments have a animals or humans. So we must be vigilant against nasty sexist or anti-homosexual ring to them, making it.

Blasting someone into We can see the application of similar reasoning bloody pieces with a rocket launcher and then typing, to the violent video game case for Kant. The Kantian might well argue that The general connections between violence and since it is people we are playing the games against, many of our games deserves comment from Kantian we are increasing our risk of violating our duty to grounds.

While violent video games make a game out them. Cultivating cruelty and indifference with regard of simulated acts of violence, connecting violence with to virtual suffering and death encourages the same playing a game is not unique to them. Many of the towards real suffering and death, we can imagine Kant games that humans play make sport of doing harm. We saying. The language of warfare should consider a difficulty.

In the case of animals, and violence permeates our descriptions of football, Kant has taken it as obvious that cruelty to animals rugby, and even chess. It would be unreasonable for this point by arguing that it is far from obvious that a moral theory to condemn game playing outright on pulling the joystick trigger similarly makes it easier to these grounds, and uncharitable to read Kant as doing pull the real trigger.

Playing a game, whether on the so. At the very least, we should accept a recommen- computer or on the rugby field, is not the same as real dation from Kant that should not be confined to violent life.

And beating your opponent, the gamer continues, video games: We should take in real cruelty on real animals. Far from disrespecting special care in our activities, including our recreation, and dehumanizing each other, participants in many to esteem their personhood. As far as duty.

But it does not follow yourself and you find yourself participating in a riot that any treatment of them is acceptable; we still have against the opposing fans, the Kantian might justifiably an indirect duty to other humans through the animals. Whether or not such behavior makes one more 9 Kant, Immanuel.

Lectures on Ethics. But we have yet to focus our and non-game players are prone to do. And even if attention on what harm might become of the person it turns out that Kant is right and engaging in some that is playing the game. Notice that Kant does not argue that out what might be bothering us about simulated acts no one should be a butcher or a surgeon, even though of violence.

Many people are familiar with the holo- it has a detrimental effect on the performance of their deck on the Star Trek series. In the holodeck an moral duties. Kant recognizes that some activities elaborate computer system is able to holographically have a value that outweighs their negative side effects.

Holographic projectors, force field generators, allows that the perhaps less vital role of butcher is and advanced artificial intelligence programs make a morally acceptable we could all be vegetarians, after simulation of a beach at sunset or the east end of all , as long as we are aware of the problems associated 19th century London look, feel, smell, and sound with the occupation. The only real persons or things So we have a number of questions to ask about the in the holodeck are the human participants.

The Art of Videogames (New Directions in Aesthetics)

Someone Kantian account. First, do activities like being cruel might complain that there are physical and mechanical to animals or playing violent video games make it constraints that would make building such a device more likely that people will violate their moral duty physically impossible.

But for the purposes of our to others? Second, if some activities do make duty example, it will suffice that such a device is logically violations more likely, at what point do the negative possible.

We can see the holodeck is a plausible exten- side effects of the activity justify avoiding or morally sion of the improvements in video game technology condemning the activity? And what I have argued that are currently allowing more and more realistic is that playing violent video games will most likely participation in computer games. And it would the holodeck that allows him or her to commit holo- be unreasonable to disregard the benefits that are also pedophilia with a simulated holo-child.

The sophis- derived from many activities that may have a lesser tication of the program and the hardware make it negative impact as well. Furthermore, it does not possible for the every aspect of the act to be portrayed appear that the Kantian account can say anything that in perfectly realistic detail.

Similarly, someone could isolates participating in simulations of immoral acts commit holo-genocide, holo-rape, or holo-murder. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in.

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Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. This article proposes a theoretical explanation for the popularity of violent video games among adolescent male gamers. The author uses theories about media and emotion as well as theories about emotion as a process to develop a model for the unfolding of emotion in violent video games.

It is argued that violent video games provide a gratifying context for the experience of emotions. The fact that gamers are largely in control of the game implies that they can voluntarily select the emotional situations they confront.

This freedom is attractive for adolescents who are in the midst of constructing an identity. For them, the violent game is a safe, private laboratory where they can experience different emotions, including those that are controversial in ordinary life. Gamers may deliberately select emotions that sustain dominant masculine identity e. Consequently, in the current review, we will describe experimental studies that have been conducted between and , with the aim to identify research evidences about the impact on cognitive and emotional skills of video games training in the adult population.

Video game

Specifically, a multi-component analysis of variables related to the study, video games, and outcomes of training was made on the basis on important previous works Connolly et al. Search strategy With the objective of providing an overview of the experimental studies that have been conducted to test the benefits of different categories of video games used as training tools of cognitive or emotional domains for the adult population, a computer-based search for relevant publications was performed in several databases.

Selection of articles for inclusion in the review To avoid the risk of bias, PRISMA recommendations for systematic literature analysis have been strictly followed Moher et al.

Two authors Federica Pallavicini, Ambra Ferrari independently selected paper abstracts and titles, analyzed the full papers that met the inclusion criteria, and resolved any disagreements through consensus. Selected papers have to: a include empirical evidences on the impact and outcomes of video game based training; b have been published during the last 5 years namely from January to August , in analogy with several other relevant previous works i.

Coding of selected studies, video games, and training outcomes The papers selected on the basis of the inclusion criteria were coded from the data extraction pro-forma that was developed by Connolly Connolly et al.

Furthermore, the categorization was included in order to analyze the efficacy of ad hoc developed games, about which an ongoing debate about their effectiveness still persists e.

Secondly, the classification of video game genres was considered because of the fact that, under many points of view, not all video games are equal and their effects strongly depend on specific characteristics of the game itself Achtman et al. In addition, it has been reported that combinations between the neurological stage of the participants and the precise features of each video game produce unique results in a matter of benefits on mental skills Ball et al.

There is no standard accepted taxonomy of genre, although one of the most adopted is the Herz's system Herz, , while others studies seem to simply divide action games from any other kind, often defined as casual games as a whole e. Here, we propose the above categorization, which resembles the present commercial classification as much as possible, defining ten different genres of commercial video games. Thirdly, new technologies such as mobile devices and online games have recently expanded the ways in which games have traditionally been played, their medium of delivery and the different platforms available.

Platforms of delivery represent important information about video game training, primarily because they are the way in which the training itself can be accessed Aker et al. Variables Related to the Study: The sample included in the study sample size, mean age, or age range ; the research design used categorized as a Randomized Controlled Trial or Quasi Experimental ; the measures used for the assessment of outcomes self-report questionnaires, cognitive tests, fMRI, physiological data, etc.

The sample, study design, and measures of training outcomes have been included as relevant variables in analogy to what has been done in previous reviews Boyle et al. An indication of mean age or age range has been provided in order to identify studies conducted on young vs.

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