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Additional information can be found on the VAM Services website or the VAM. Running Book. c. Drift. The drift is the guaranteed internal diameter of both pipe. BOOK 18February Introduction Congratulations on selecting pipe threaded with VAM connections. VAM connections were first developed in the early. The Hours of Louis XII was one of the greatest French illuminated manuscripts of the Renaissance. A prayer book, it was decorated by Jean Bourdichon for the.
Snakes curtain weights: a small chain of lead weights sewn in to a tube of fabric can be rested on the pages to keep the pages open without damaging the spine suppliers: Preservation Equipment or Conservation By Design. How the foam wedges are used depends on whether you're at the beginning, middle or end of the book because the shape of the spine changes as you read. Use additional flat foam blocks to support the book in its natural shape if it is opened towards the beginning or end.
Alternatively, you can roll up clean, dry hand towels to support a book without foam wedges. On modern hardbacks and older books, particularly large books, the boards are bigger than the text block.
When they are stored upright on a bookshelf, the text block is unsupported and will slowly 'drop' down to the shelf. In the beginning, this process distorts the spine: the top of the spine flattens, the bottom of the spine is pushed outwards and eventually the joints between the boards and spine begin to tear. This damage can be prevented by storing the book horizontally or, if vertically, within a book 'shoe'.
Book shoes are tailor made by conservators to fit an individual book. They are made from archival material and incorporate a text block support to compensate for the gap between the text block and the shelf. Slip cases, which are like a book shoe but enclosed on the top, are not recommended because they make it difficult to remove the book without pulling on the joint and don't support the text block.
Packing and storing books Avoid storing books in attics and basements and keep boxes slightly off the floor and away from the walls. This prevents damage from minor flooding and the airflow will help avoid insect damage and mould. When packing books in storage boxes, make sure the spine is supported otherwise the boards, spine and textblock can come apart from each other.
Lay books flat, reverse spines, with largest at the bottom and smallest at the top, ensuring not too many in a pile, or pack books spine down with similar sized books together. Do not pack books on top in any left over space.
Phase box. Though expensive, the box should be an exact fit for the book and help protect it from damage caused by light, heat, humidity and pollution. Phase boxes are individually tailor-made from archive quality box board. They are the cheapest way to keep books you value in good condition.
They can be good for books that have fittings such as metal clasps or decoration that would otherwise rub or catch on neighbouring books.
Diecut boxes are commercially produced, come in standard sizes which may not fit your book exactly and are delivered flat packed. They are made from archival quality folding box board and can be useful for magazines and comics.
However, some sizes can only be downloadd in large quantities. Four flap enclosure. Four flap enclosures are a cheaper and simpler method of protecting smaller books, paper pamphlets and brochures etc that are vulnerable or have loose pages.
These can be simply made from an archive quality Manila or Kraft paper or thin card as for the wrappers below. Wrapping is the cheapest option; it acts like a dust jacket and is a good choice for damaged books, e. Wrap a book in a sheet of heavy weight archival quality paper or thin card, for example Kraft gsm , Manila gsm or Cover gsm paper, depending on the size of the book.
Choose paper that is lignin free, acid-free, buffered, and with a pH of 7—8. Where boards have become detached and none of the above are feasible, you can use linen tapes to tie the boards back on and prevent damage to the text block. Leather bindings Leather has been chemically processed tanned so that it does not putrefy when it gets wet. Alum tawed leather has only been partly tanned by treatment tawing with alum.
In the right conditions, it is very hard wearing and durable. However, if it gets damp or wet it will deteriorate and be damaged. Untanned skin such as parchment or vellum, which has been limed, stretched and dried, can also be hard wearing and durable. However, if it gets wet it will contract and begin to putrify. Avoid using leather dressing on books.
It doesn't help preserve the leather and can in fact be very damaging, particularly when too much has been applied. Dealing with red rot This describes leather that appears powdery, orange-red and brittle. This is caused by a combination of the original tanning method vegetable tanning and pollution.
Sulphur dioxide pollution reacts to form sulphuric acid that attacks the leather from within. Once the damage has occurred, the only thing you can do is try to limit the damage caused by handling. You may wish to box or wrap the book with materials that absorb any acids that the deteriorated leather gives off.
Using leather dressing or other materials such as Vaseline will not help and may cause more damage because the problem is not on the surface but deep within the leather itself. Regular book maintenance Removing books from shelves once or twice a year to dust them will keep them clean and is a good way of noticing problems with mould or insects before too much damage is caused.
Set up a table with some clean paper on it, outside if it is a warm, dry day. Take each book in turn, hold it firmly closed by the fore edge and using a soft bristled brush, for example an old-style bristle shaving brush, lightly brush off the dust. Work from the spine edge to the fore edge, otherwise you will end up pushing the dust down the spine.
Avoid using a vacuum cleaner because of the risk of sucking off any loose fragments. This method isn't appropriate if the pages are badly distorted, cockled or damaged because dust can get into the pages.
Vacuum or wipe down the shelves before replacing the books. If the paper is in good condition, it may be possible to remove dust and dirt from the margins of the pages using a Chemsponge, also known as a chemical or smoke sponge suppliers: Conservation By Design or Preservation Equipment.
They work by trapping dirt in the surface of the sponge. When this happens, simply cut off the dirty surface to expose clean sponge. A Chemsponge will not remove mould damage, foxing or stains and is not a good idea if the paper is brittle or torn, or if the surface of the paper looks 'fluffy'.
Clean only the margins, and take care not to clean printed areas or illustrations because you may smudge or remove the ink. Leave annotations, notes and doodles in the margin as they may be historical evidence that adds monetary value and interest to your book.
It is important to wash and dry your hands regularly whilst cleaning otherwise you will transfer more dirt than you remove. Cut off a small piece of the Chemsponge, about 25 x 25 x 10mm. Stroke this over the dirty area of the margin very lightly. If a Chemsponge doesn't remove the dirt, you could consult a conservator. If fragments of paper are removed, stop immediately. If you find pieces of paper in the book, they should be stored in an envelope with a note saying where the fragment was found within the book.
Cleaning mouldy books Mould growth is caused by high relative humidity or dampness, combined with poor air circulation. In terms of caring for your antiques, what matters is relative humidity.
Relative humidity measures the amount of moisture that is in the air relative to the maximum amount of moisture that the air could hold at that temperature. If you have mouldy books, try to locate the source of the dampness, e. Assess whether the mould is active or dormant by testing it carefully with a fine brush. If the mould is dry and powdery it is likely to be dormant, whilst if it is soft and smeary it is probably active. Paul Getty Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum, both institutions have collaborated to re-assemble its surviving parts from collections in Britain, the United States and France.
It is accompanied by a fully-illustrated publication, with essays on the manuscript, its genesis, techniques and history, by Janet Backhouse, Thomas Kren, Nancy Turner and Mark Evans. In he succeeded his master, the celebrated Jean Fouquet, as Peintre du Roi. Bourdichon was highly regarded by Charles VIII, who appointed him as valet de chambre, and provided dowries for his daughters. Although documented as a panel painter, designer of coins, stained-glass and silver and gold plate, he is best known as a manuscript illuminator.
On the basis of this manuscript, a significant oeuvre of illuminations has been attributed to Bourdichon. The Hours of Louis XII was probably made to celebrate the king's coronation in , and its opening miniature depicts him kneeling on a pillow decorated with fleur-de-lys, under the protection of four patron saints of France: During his reign, the French court was re-established as a principal centre of European art and culture, and its royal imagery was translated into a Renaissance mode: She may have brought it with her when she returned home as a widow in The manuscript was definitely in England by the end of the 17th century, when its complement of around three dozen large miniatures was removed, and its text broken up.
Fragments gradually found their way into various collections, including those of the naval administrator and celebrated diarist Samuel Pepys — and King George II — In , its text leaves are mentioned in the Bibliographical Decameron of the prolific bibliophile, the Reverend Thomas Frognal Dibdin — XL there is a thin folio volume of Hours, of exceedingly delicate vellum, with a noble bottom and side margin, having a small text of only 18 lines…. With characteristic acuity, he attributed it to Jean Fouquet or a follower of his.
The Scottish landowner John Malcolm of Poltalloch acquired the miniatures of The Virgin of the Annunciation, Pentecost and Job on the Dungheap now British Library in —3, and a few years later they entered the British Museum with the rest of his superb collection of Old Master drawings. The calendar leaves for February, June, August and September were bought from a London bookseller in by the Philadelphia lawyer John Frederick Lewis, whose widow gave his collection to the Free Library of Philadelphia.
Six more miniatures from the Hours came to light in England between the Second World War and the early s: The Presentation in the Temple J. Its dramatic full-page miniatures are startling in their originality, with three-quarter length figures which seem to burst forth from their painted frames, like those of oil paintings.
These are inscribed, in capital letters, with the opening line of the prayer which continues overleaf in the body of the text. It is now clear that this long-dispersed manuscript provided the model for the Grandes Heures of Louis' wife, Queen Anne of Brittany, finished in , for which Bourdichon received payment of 1, livres tournois: The Queen's book has long been recognized as a principal work of French Renaissance manuscript illumination.
In comparison, the Hours of Louis XII was less ornate, and the disposition of its full-page miniatures, which mostly faced the closing page of the previous section of text, rather than the opening words of the following prayers, was not entirely satisfactory. However several of the miniatures in the Hours of Anne of Brittany repeat, with little variation, compositions from the King's book. In these cases, the doll-like figures in the later manuscript lack the vigorous monumentality of such earlier compositions as The Virgin of the Annunciation, Saint Luke Writing and The Flight into Egypt.
The lighting effects in the King's book are brilliantly orchestrated, attaining a high point in its miniature of The Nativity. Here, the golden divine illumination is echoed in the starry sky and highlights the figures, background landscape and structure of the manger, in purposeful contrast to the flat beam of mundane white light thrown by Joseph's lantern.
Its most startling miniature is the voluptuous image of Bathsheba Bathing, which exemplifies a distinctly northern aesthetic of the nude. The Hours of Louis XII heralds a new departure in Bourdichon's stylistic development, at the moment when French court painters were directly confronted by the novelties of Italian art.
Treasures from the British Library , exhibition catalogue, New York , pp. Kren, Thomas with Evans, Mark ed. Tanis, James R. It is best to start in high gear with a low speed as cross threading will cause the tong to stall before damage has occurred. Once the threads are engaged then a higher speed can be used until the torque starts to increase as the threads interfere.
At this point low speed and low gear is required to take the make-up to the correct torque in a controlled manner.
Any early torque increase is indicative of a problem in make-up such as a cross threading or galling. If this occurs rotation must be stopped and the connection broken-out fully and inspected.
Although not necessary for all connections it is recommended to use torque turn monitoring equipment which is described in the next section. After the connection is made-up check the monitoring system for the 'VAM Signature'. When the make-up is finished and the signature is accepted, disengage the power tong. If the string is not open at the bottom as it is run in hole it will be required to fill it from the top at regular intervals. If this is not done the external pressure can collapse the string.
Care must be taken to ensure the casing fill up tool does not damage box connections or leave drilling or completion fluids or debris on the connections. Many modern rigs can have more than one derrick allowing stands of pipe to be made up 'offline' and racked back in a spare derrick until required. Running pipe into a well in stands is much quicker than doing it as single joints as fewer make-ups are required over the well. Final torque must be between minimum and maximum as per the torque tables.
Some end users may require the final torque to be between optimum and maximum. A visual guide make-up triangle is used to ensure Big Omega is made-up correctly. Refer to the connection specific sections in this book for more detail about these connections.
As a guideline delta turns turns between shoulder and final torque are expected to be within the following parameters.