Certain pages from this book are designed for use in a group setting and. Chapter 1. Creativity and Problem Solving. Tony Buzan-Speed Memory. tony buzan THE INTERNATIONAL BESTS EL LING AUTHOR reativi boost your memory The Ultimate Book of Mind Maps® Unlock Your Creativity Boost Your. Buzan mind mapping is an efficient system of note-taking that makes revision a fun thing to do for students. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of Buzan mind mapping as a note-taking technique for the secondary school students. This paper also examines the mind.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|Country:||United Arab Emirates|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
Tony Buzan is a leading authority on the brain and learning techniques, is Chairman of the Brain Foundation. An international media. Learn how to mind map with Tony Buzan who wrote dozens of books on the Learn How To Mind Map By Tony Buzan, and receive a Free mind mapping PDF. The Mind Map Book - Tony Buzan - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free.
Look back at the Mind Map you drew in the previous chapter. The way the branches grow outwards to form another level of sub- branches encourages you to create more ideas out of each thought you add to your Mind Map.
Also, because all the ideas on a Mind Map are linked to each other, it helps your brain to make great leaps of understanding and imagination by association. If you had just drawn up a simple list of ideas about your holiday, it is highly unlikely that you would have come up with the same amount of ideas as you did on your Mind Map.
This is because the information on your list would not have been linked in a logical or organized way and this would have stifled your brain's synergetic way of thinking. Mind Maps are the thinking tool to unlock your brain power: The more you use Mind Maps in your daily life, the easier it becomes to engage both sides of your brain - remember, the more you repeat something, the easier it becomes. Mind Maps help you reinforce the maps of thought in your brain.
Indeed, you should think of them as an externalization of the thoughts in your head: Because the structure of a Mind Map resembles the shape of your thought patterns, the act of drawing them is a natural and memorable repetition.
Now that you know how to unlock your brain's potential, it's time to take a look at how you can use Mind Maps in combination with a foolproof success formula so you can succeed in life again and again and again. Answers to Mini Brain Quiz 1. False - they contain only a few thousand 3. True 4. False 5. False 6. False 7.
False 9. False True In the course of the chapter I will introduce you to two new Brain Principles, one of which is the essence of the formula itself, the second of which will help you improve your stamina and staying power. The focus of this chapter is you as a learning individual: Quick brain-check - failure quiz! Have you ever, in your academic, physical, personal, social, professional, or spiritual lives, had a really good failure?
Have you had more than one? Have you ever made the same big mistake twice? You will be pleased to know that everyone answers 'Yes' to all those questions! The secret of the Learning How to Learn Formula is beginning to emerge Learning How to Learn - the Ultimate Goal In any learning situation, whether it be learning a sport, learning to play a musical instrument, learning communication skills, or learning mathematics, there are certain variables that are common to all.
These include: The degree of your success. The time you have to learn and practise. The number of times you actually do practise or study. These are called your 'Learning Trials' - it is useful to think of them as 'try-als' because they are the number of times you try, practise, and study in your learning progress.
The underlying goal of all learning. Whether you are on your 2nd trial, your 22nd trial, or your 2,nd trial, what is the underlying goal? Jot down what you think is this 'goal of goals'. In other words, as you start your next trial, as you are creating new Mind Map thought patterns, what should you be trying to do?
For 30 years I have asked this question of hundreds of thousands of students from all over the world. The result is amazing. No matter what the person's age, sex, race, country of origin, educational level or primary language, the answer is basically unanimous: Do you agree with the rest of the world, or are you going to establish yourself as a maverick?!
If you chose the route of the maverick, you were correct! The horrifying truth of the matter is that 'to get better with every trial' is not only the wrong formula; it is an extremely dangerous one, concealing the seeds of a self-destructive synergy and an incipient Meta-Negative Thinking Habit.
Over 99 percent of the world's population is using a wrong and destructive formula for every learning situation! I will state categorically that no one has ever been able to apply this wrong formula successfully.
No one ever can do or will do. What then, is the correct formula? Let's explore. Below you will find a graph which plots success rate versus the number of learning trials try-als over time. Sweeping up from the zero-point is a typical average learning curve.
This is the Holy Grail of learning that 99 percent of the world's population tries to emulate. The very fact that this is an average curve. An average curve is the summated norm of all the individual curves.
However, each individual curve is precisely that - individual and unique. It will have its own special pattern, and will tend to look very little like the curve in this graph. Let's see what really happens. Let's imagine that you start learning something at which you are quite confident. You start learning and discover you are reasonably competent. You try and try, passing trial number 25, continue trying and trying up through trial 27, and you are still doing better than average - ahead of the curve.
On trial 27 you have a minor, minor setback, but you are tough- minded so you can handle that. On and on you try, progressing and progressing through trial Trial 96 is represented by the giant black hole in the graph below.
This is the kind of situation where you have completely blown a vital examination, have a quintuple bogie on the final hole of a golf tournament you were winning, get knocked out in the first round, totally mess up a relationship you treasured, and break all your New Year's resolutions in one go! Does everybody have such 'failures? Does everyone have more than one such failure in their life? Of course they do. Does everyone at some time make the same mistake twice?
Of course they do! Verbal Responses to Failure Most people's verbal responses to these 'failure' situations are identical. They are of two major classes. These reactions to 'failure' are globally pervasive. They also are the expression of deep-felt emotions that surround the experience of failure. It is these reactions that reinforce the wrong Mind Map patterns in your head. Failure - the Global Reactions Eight of the most common reaction-to-failure words I have heard are listed below.
They are unremittingly negative. If we examine them, we will see that they provide even more invidious poison to your thinking system than might have at first seemed apparent: This means that failure takes your grace away.
Remember, 1 feeling so, you make it so. Not only your grace, but your dignity is also removed. Made less, smaller, and weaker than you were. Full of shame. This affirmation leaves no room for anything else. Your illusion, your vision, has been taken away.
Your ability has been similarly removed. Your courage has been sucked out, leaving you timid and afraid. Your motivation is your life force; the energy that enables you to act. And what is the underlying fear? The fear of failure - the fear of failure at school; the fear of failure in love; the fear of failure at work; the fear of failure in life; and the fear of life itself!
This fear is the main cause of stress. And stress is the cause of a staggering 80 percent of disease. Faced with such negativity and the actual pain of failure, is it logical for our learning friend to quit? In the context of a learning goal which says that you must get better with every trial, what is the point of carrying on when you have tried 95 times, only to fail abysmally at the 96th hurdle? Individuals in this situation often will give up, and will search for some other area of activity where they can pursue the goal of 'getting better with every trial' more successfully.
At some point they will inevitably hit the big black hole of failure in this area as well, and will conclude that this activity is not for them either. And on and on they will go, searching for an impossible dream. The dream is impossible because the human brain is not designed to get better with every trial! The brain is designed on a far more realistic, experimental, explorative and exciting model: TEFCAS is an acronym made up of the first letters of the six major words that define the fundamental steps your brain has to take while learning anything.
It is establishing successful new Mind Map thought patterns, i. It traces, step-by-step, what steps your brain is obliged to take while learning in the physical universe; the laws of which it must both follow and use to its advantage.
The Scientific Method for thinking is the method for improving your internal Mind Map thought structures - it is the basis of all the great discoveries in science, and is very similar to normal child's play! In the Scientific Method you start with a question or hypothesis. Through a series of investigations you observe the feedback you receive from your actions.
You then check the results against the original question or hypothesis, and conclusions are drawn which either confirm or contradict the hypothesis, or satisfy or do not satisfy the question. Your learning progress is marked by your number of try-als.
When you are learning to juggle you must first throw the ball; when you are learning to dance you must take the first step; when you are learning mathematics you must attempt to derive a new formula; when you are learning to write you must make the first mark. When you have tried, there will inevitably be an: E- EVENT In juggling, the event may be that the ball lands on the floor, or lands on your head, or lands in your hand, or lands in your colleague's coffee cup!
The universe does not really care. If you try there will always be an event. This event will inevitably give you: This is one reason why it is so important to have a healthy mind in a healthy body - so that your senses can provide you with more and more pure information. Your brain will absorb this feedback on both the conscious and para-conscious levels. In the juggling example this will include the sight, sound and feeling of the juggling balls.
It may also include feedback from your colleague if your ball lands in his or her coffee cup! With all this feedback pouring in, your brain will: Continuing with the juggling example: Having done this your brain will: A -ADJUST You will compare your performance against your goal, and make what you consider to be appropriate realignments for the next trial. While considering the element of adjustment, you should always consider the underlying goal.
No matter what you are learning, the vision toward which you are aiming your efforts is one of: From tasks as simple as making yourself a cup of tea, to the far more complex and large life-goals, success is the main beacon. There is, however, a prime danger. The danger lies in the nature of your goal. If I have a negative goal - such as kicking you, or in some other way harming you - 1 still wish to be successful. In this case my warped view of success will probably lead to a feedback situation that is not to my advantage!
This is an exact reflection of Meta-Positive Thinking more on this in the next chapter. There is always more failure than success in a thriving economy? This is because all success is the result of failure - before you succeed you need to try again and again until you get it right.
If as a child you had given up learning how to walk each time you tried and then failed to walk, you'd still be sitting on your butt! Success is of course the ideal outcome of a trial but it is impossible to find success without a process of learning from each failure. Society is able to make progress because we fail and fail again - and then succeed.
Each success contributes to the overall intellectual capital of a society. This is why a society that encourages failure by default encourages success.
The greatest obstacle to progress and success is a fear of failure. Any system or person that punishes failure discourages the people connected to it from making new attempts. Ironically, the person who so fears failure that they dare not fail will end up being a failure. According to Dr Adrian Atkinson, a business psychologist and the managing director of Human Factors International, most entrepreneurs fail an average of five times before they are finally successful.
He also observes that entrepreneurs regard failure as key learning experiences that lead them to success.
Bill Gates, Microsoft's chairman and chief software architect, loves innovation, is an inspirational leader, and has built up an enviable corporate culture which often sees Microsoft scoring high in surveys dedicated to revealing the best and most productive workplaces around the world. What has driven Microsoft's success over the years is an inherent ability to look at a piece of software through objective eyes and recognize its failings as well as its strengths.
Bill Gates, addressing an audience in the US when launching Microsoft's latest software innovations, referred to a past challenge which faced the company and how Microsoft dealt with it: No doubt that first version was a little clunky, a little bit too much of a technologist's dream.
We listened hard. People asked us to change it, and we drove it forward. Gates' attitude to the flaws in his software and his ongoing drive to 'check' and 'adjust' help explain why Gates is such an inspirational - and successful - person. Protest and disruption became familiar themes at ensuing conferences in following years, though not on such a wide scale.
In November Mexico was to host the annual conference in Cancun. Protesters promised disruption on a grander scale than Seattle. The Mexican government and military, in conjunction with the Mexican security company Vitalis, decided to Mind Map all the possible disruption that could take place during the conference week.
They looked at everything that had 'failed' at previous conferences, especially in Seattle, and analysed what they would need to 'adjust'. Some 8, tasks were identified and brought together in a meta-Mind Map. They then Mind Mapped all the possible areas of conflict and the ways in which they could be contained peacefully.
After this, they Mind Mapped the intentions and plans of the anti-globalization protesters, and contacted their organizations. They shared with them these Mind Maps in order to break down the 'them and us' barriers. Rather than have the protesters disrupt the residents of Cancun, the Mexican authorities promised them accommodation and interview time with the media to communicate their case.
What do you think happened next? The event took place without a single act of violence of one person against another The leaders of the anti-globalization movement expressed their appreciation at what the organizers of the conference did for them There was a high level of cooperation between two traditionally opposing factions A page document based on how Mind Maps played a key role in the planning and implementation of the event was drawn up.
This document is now used as an operations manual and blueprint for how to manage other major international events facing a similar threat of violence Mind Maps in combination with the principles of the TEFCAS model are a powerful mechanism for success. The success principle is the culmination of TEFCAS and is your brain's survival-based fundamental mechanism for building successful Mind Map patterns of thought as you progress and succeed through life.
The Principle of Success Brain principle 3 - your brain is a success mechanism As discussed in Chapter Two, your brain operates synergetically and learns and grows through repetition.
A third important principle for you to understand is that your brain is a success mechanism. In the last few decades of the 20th-century psychologists and thinkers described the brain as a trial and error mechanism. This phrase was meant to explain that the brain learned primarily by experimentation, but it contained within it a dangerous Meta-Negative Thought - the brain was error- directed. If the brain were, as the phrase implies, a trial and error mechanism, you would have been born, and tried: The truth of the matter is that you were born and you tried: Check the Feedback and immediately Adjust!
Redirect the goals toward the Success of survival! Your life has been a constant tale of success against the most incredible odds. You are, in every sense of the words, a success story! To check the emotional and meta-thinking accuracy of these findings, repeat to yourself for about a minute: And what effect does it begin to have on your emotions, body, and poise?
Now repeat the affirmation 'I am a success mechanism,' 'I am a success mechanism,' 'I am a success mechanism. Your brain is a success mechanism When you are successful your body and all your senses open. You are designed for success! The Prime Learning Goal - the Correct Formula In view of all of the above, let's look again at the world's most popular goal: Can you now find the fault in this affirmation? It has one fatal flaw: As you now know, it is impossible in the physical universe to learn anything without experimenting.
When you experiment you take risks. And when you take risks, at some stage you are inevitably going to make mistakes!
By setting the goal of getting better with every trial, individuals have doomed themselves to inevitable failure. There must be another way.
If we can't 'get better' with every trial, what must the new goal be? A man 's errors are his portals of discovery. No, it is not! What is it? It is simply another event. Do such events inevitably happen? Yes they do. Are they part of the learning process? Yes they are.
These events are part of the natural learning processes of your brain, and they are inevitably going to occur. Should we fear them? Obviously not. When they do occur should we swear, rant, rave, and get ourselves into a Meta-Negative Thinking spiral?
Again, obviously not. We suddenly enter a Paradigm Shift in thinking about learning where we realize that the entire global reaction to failure, and all the fear, stress, and disease associated with it, are all the product of thought, thought based on a slightly incorrect formula about how the brain should set its goals, and how it should therefore be taught to learn. Rather than falling into despondency, we adjust our verbal response from expletives to the more helpful and positive 'How fascinating!
Many people report that, some time after a major Big Black Hole, they realize that it was this Event that gave them major new insights and strengths. Has it been the same with you? Adjust toward our positive goal of Success and try again. If, however, you persist, you will, also inevitably, suddenly experience the opposite of the Big Black Hole: However, even Success holds its own dangers. Some love this triumph so much that they are afraid to try again, for fear that they will never return to such giddy heights.
Some set their goals too low and too much in the short term, and suddenly, to their despair, find that they have nowhere left to go. He was interviewed after the race, and exclaimed ecstatically: It's fantastic!
I've always wanted to be in the Olympic final! It's my dream come true! What do you think happened to him in the final? Because his brain and body had already done what he had instructed them to do - get him to the Olympic final. The goal was already reached. Once he was in the final it didn't matter what he did - he could have walked - because he was there.
In the final, you could see that all his motivation had gone. Celebrate, obviously, and then, as you did with every other Trial, say 'How fascinating! When you continue to apply the Success Formula and persist in your Trying, you will inevitably create more and more Successes.
Think about the process you went through - this could be the way in which you planned or adjustments that you made to your plan as you put it into action - before you arrived at your successful outcome. Did you realize that you needed to make a few adjustments to your action plan before you could achieve your goal?
What was it? Really investigate what you could see was working and what you thought needed improvement. It will also help you to identify the elements of your success that led to your achieving your goal. This means that you can use them to help you succeed next time and the next and the next. But what about if you haven't had the outcome you wanted? The principle of persistence is designed to help you establish permanent, stronger, and bigger internal Mind Map patterns of thought.
Those who display persistence are often labelled 'stubborn', 'inflexible', and any one of the various 'headeds': Not only is this not the case, the very opposite is true. Persistence is, in fact, the engine of learning and intelligence when it comes to your Mind Maps of thought. It is the engine of all creative effort, and of all genius. Try, try, try and try again!
E F C A S The importance of Persistence was summed up best by the most productive creative mind of the last years, Thomas Edison, who holds the record for the largest number of individual patents registered see Quantity Creates Quality. As well as being famous for his invention of the light bulb among many other things , Edison is equally renowned for his famous quotation about genius: It is the Persistence of regular practice, both on and off the water, which is the 'secret formula' that leads to the Olympic Gold.
Perhaps one of the greatest ever examples of Persistence, into a training discipline and ritual that produced one of the greatest body and mind performances in history, is that of Sir Steve Redgrave, CBE.
Redgrave achieved the almost unbelievable feat of winning gold medals in five consecutive Olympic Games, in one of the toughest of all sports - rowing.
His outstanding achievements represented 20 years of extraordinary commitment to a vision of excellence and to a training ritual of unparalleled intensity. Mind Map Exercise: On your 'TRIAL' branch, add sub-branches about what it was you were trying to achieve your goal - and what it was that you actually tried. What happened? What went wrong? What went plan?
If at this point you gave up it could be that you didn't assess what went wrong. Now you need to. Did you plan the event thoroughly? Were you properly informed? Did you ask other people involved for ideas about why things didn't go to plan? What did they say? Feedback is a vital stage of learning and you need to be as objective about it as possible to ensure success in the future.
What lessons did you learn from the feedback you got? Did you need to brush up on some skills? Did you need to plan better?
Should you have had a back-up plan to respond more flexibly to the outcome? Would you need to train more to be fitter on the day? Will you spend more time learning your material or planning the event?
What are you going to do next time to avoid the pitfalls from the first time you tried? What will you have achieved when you succeed next time? How will you feel about yourself when you do?
What will you have learned? They will help you objectively to assess what is working and what is not, to learn from your 'events,' and to plan for your next success. Keep referring back to it to help you assess where you are on your road to success, and draw your own Mind Maps of the situation in hand to brainstorm your strategy.
In Chapter Two we looked at the key learning principles of synergy and repetition and in this chapter we have investigated the principles of success and persistence through the TEFCAS model.
We have also seen that Mind Maps are an extremely brain- friendly tool that encourage synergetic thinking and make it easy for us to plan for and analyse our successes. The next chapter puts into action this new awareness of our brain and its amazing innate capacity for success.
It will show you how to use Mind Maps to unlock the power of your brain and fulfil your true potential. People write the software. People design the products. People start the new businesses. Every new thinking that gives us pleasure or productivity or convenience, be it an iPod or the tweaks that make a chemical plant more efficient, is the result of human ingenuity. What does it take to come up with the best ideas? A Mind Map is the ultimate creative-thinking tool - it acts as a gymnasium for your creativity.
In this chapter we will explore the essences of creative thinking on which Mind Maps are based. You are inherently creative and if you don't believe this it is probably because the way you were educated or conditioned has made it difficult for you to tap into this ability.
How creative you are plays a vital role in your capacity to come up with new ideas, to solve problems in original ways, and to stand head and shoulders above the crowd in terms of imagination, behaviour, and productivity. If you can fully unlock your innate creativity you will understand that your potential to achieve and succeed is limitless.
So what exactly is creativity? Creativity is your ability to think in new ways - to be original. Creative thinking includes: Fluency - the speed and ease with which you can 'rattle off new and creative ideas. Flexibility - your ability to see things from different angles, to consider things from the opposite point of view, to take old concepts and rearrange them in new ways, and to reverse pre-existing ideas.
It also includes your ability to use all your senses in the creation of new ideas. Originality - this is at the heart of all creative thinking, and represents your ability to produce ideas that are unique, unusual, and 'eccentric', literally 'away from the centre'. Although many people think such a person is 'uncontrolled', exactly the opposite is true: To be original you need to get away from the norm.
Normal means average - it is a level of thinking to which your brain has become accustomed; that which gives you no surprises; that which remains the same; that which no longer shocks, startles, surprises or provokes you; that which does not stretch your imagination.
To create means virtually the opposite: He patented over 1, different inventions in his lifetime! Thomas Edison - creative genius extraordinaire Expanding on ideas - the creative thinker is able to build on, develop, embroider, embellish, and generally elaborate and expand upon ideas.
To liberate your creative potential you need to foster a thinking environment for your brain that liberates its synergetic way of thinking. As you will recall from Chapter Two, your brain does not think linearly or sequentially like a computer, but radiantly and explosively as shown in the diagram below.
Left Brain Right Brain Words Rhythm Logic Spatial awareness Numbers Gestalt whole picture Sequence Imagination Linearity Daydreaming Analysis Colour Lists Dimension Education systems tend to focus on left-brain skills and place less emphasis on right-brain skills, which immediately impacts on our capacity to think creatively.
If your academic background has developed your verbal, mathematical, and analytical abilities but neglected skills such as drawing, painting, and music - or vice versa - the chances are you are only tapping in to a fraction of your creative capabilities. What do you get when you combine the left and right skills of the brain? A Mind Map! A Mind Map includes each aspect of the left and right cortexes and is therefore a suberb whole- brained thinking tool. Creativity is a 'by definition' awareness: If Alexander the Great had fought his battles in the way that all the people before had fought them, he would neither have survived nor would we have ever heard of him.
If Beethoven had composed music in exactly the same style as Haydn, he would now be noted as a minor composer, not a giant among giants. If Elizabeth I of England had accepted the normal restrictions society placed upon women at that time, she would never have become one of the greatest rulers England has ever seen.
If Picasso had painted only like van Gogh, he would have been considered simply as a copyist and irrelevant to the history of art, rather than a towering presence in the pantheon of artistic genius. If the greatest athlete of the 20th century, Muhammed Ali, had boxed like the average boxer, he would, literally, have been knocked out of our consciousness!
Mind Maps are the one tool you can rely on to help you think expansively, to think creatively. Whenever you need to come up with an idea, to plan something with ingenuity, or to unlock your imagination, get out a blank piece of paper and Mind Map your thoughts. In developing his Theory of Evolution, Charles Darwin had a vast task in front of him: How did he do this? With basic Mind Maps! Darwin devised a basic Mind Map form of notes, which was very much like a branching tree.
Darwin used these basic Mind Map forms as the only effective way to help him collect masses of data, to organize it, to see the relationships between the various items, and to create new awarenesses from it. It is reported that within 15 months of drawing his first tree 'Mind Map' diagram, Darwin had worked out all the major components of the Theory of Evolution.
Illustration of Darwin's note-taking method Creativity Test Give yourself exactly two minutes to write down, as fast as you can, in list form, every single use you can think of for a coat-hanger. Then divide the number by two to calculate your number-of-uses-per-minute score. Global Average Results The average-number-of-uses-for-a-coat-hanger-per-minute scores range from 0 and this is with some effort! If people are given as long as they want to think up as many uses as they can for a coat-hanger, the average score is uses.
Recalling all that you have learned so far about your wonderful, amazing brain, doesn't something here strike you as a little odd? Imagine that you are a salesperson, who is trying to convince a customer to 'download brains'. You go through all your sales patter - you tell them that you have the most amazing product in the universe.
You explain that each brain is a super-bio-computer and each has a million million super- bio-computer microchips. You point out that the number of patterns of intelligence your company's brains can make is the number one followed by ten-and-a-half million kilometres of zeros. You go on to mention that these particular brains can remember virtually anything as long as they use special memory techniques, showing off their ability to link any object with any other object.
You throw in that your superb product can think, speak multiple languages, solve mathematical problems, see, hear, smell, taste, touch, and operate its associated body magnificently. Finally you reach the climax of your presentation, and inform the customer that this amazing product can think of four or five uses for a coat- hanger in a minute, and about 25 in a lifetime! Sale closed?! When you have chosen it, jot down the criteria that made you choose it.
You chose it because it was the most. Now check the following list of words and mark the ones you think best define an idea that is creative: If you come up with the idea that you could use a coat-hanger to hang coats on, no one is going to beat a path to your door!
However, if you thought of using it to form sculptures, or to make a musical instrument, people will be far more interested not only in your ideas, but in you too. If you think about it, the great geniuses, by definition, had to be 'removed from the norm'. If Stravinsky had written music like all those before him, we would never have heard of him Similarly if Picasso had painted like his predecessors, instead of in his astoundingly original style, we also would never have known of him.
Your amazing brain began to evolve over million years ago. S Outputting. Your brain controls the way you manage information in different ways.
Even more amazing is the fact that 95 per cent of what we know about your brain and how it works was discovered within the last ten years. The breakthrough discovery is knowing now that we have two upper brains rather than one. While the left cortex is engaged in these activities.
The right cortex deals with: The two sides of your brain. Gestalt that is. Mixed four parts orange with two parts yellow to produce a colour combination which I placed in upper left-hand corner of canvas. And Einstein gave credit for many of his more significant scientific insights to those imagination games. Similarly the great artists turned out to be 'whole-brained'. Spent seventeenth day on painting number six of the latest series.
The numbers. Rather than note books filled with stories of drunken parties. While daydreaming on a hill one summer day. His scientific note books are filled with three- dimensional drawings and images. The other Da Vinci Code One man in the last thousand years stands out as a supreme example of what a human being can do if both cortical sides of the brain are developed simultaneously: Leonardo da Vinci. He could also play.
Fulfilling your mental potential It seems. In his time he was arguably the most accomplished man in each of the following disciplines: Telling examples of just how much left-cortex activity goes into what we normally consider right-cortex pursuits.
Rather than separating these different areas of his latent ability. The more you can stimulate both sides of your brain at the same time. But we need ways that work for us. Speed Reading. Recall after Learning and other core Buzan Study Skills. Tony Buzan's techniques are incredibly powerful and yet simple to learn and I strongly advocate young people being given an introduction to them at school and college.
Eva 'Nobody should ever be told he or she is stupid or that they can't do something. The two sides of your brain do not operate separately from one another. Stimulation for study is going to come in the guise of BOST. Radiant Thinking. Case study. We all have potential and it is vital that every person studying is given the best opportunity to achieve that potential. Using these unique and personally refined study skills. I can be very stubborn.
Tony Buzan's Mind Maps and learning techniques reintroduced that love oflearning which I cherish to this day. She was lucky to find a truly inspirational tutor and her parents were incredibly supportive and had real belief in her.
Eva's tutor taught her Mind Mapping and opened up a new world of learning possibilities. It was her mum who found the tutor who viewed Eva as 'potential' rather than 'work'.
Edmund passed all of his exams with ease and went to the school of his dreams. Edmund was clear in his dream. This was a turning point for him and very quickly. Edmund At the age of 11 years and still at his prep school. Then he created a Mind Map for each subject. The result was a resounding success.
He wanted to go to Winchester College. Nine months before he sat his Common Entrance exams his grades were not high enough and the target seemed far off. But in order to reach this goal. When the exams eventually came. Edmund felt in control and was able to plan his revision and study periods.
His mother. This chapter outlines these common difficulties so that you can accept and overcome your quite rational fears of the exam. He also realizes that if he is going to study it is best to have such small things completely out of the way before settling down to the task at hand.
Most people will have experienced difficulties in studying or revising for examinations. He also notices. He therefore leaves his desk. The key barriers to successful study are: Having everything in place. At this point. He finds the programme. The phone call and texts coming back and forth. Having removed this final obstacle. The obvious and only solution is a light snack. This is disastrous because he realizes that the longer he waits to satisfy the pangs.
I've had a difficult day and it's not too long before the programme starts. At this stage. At this point in the proceedings he actually sits down at the desk. At midnight we find him asleep in front of the TV. Far better at this juncture to watch that other interesting half-hour programme at 10 p. Fear of coming to grips with study is rational. Even at this point. Both the information and publication explosions are still continuing at staggering rates.
The creativity demonstrated in the example of the reluctant student is not applied very usefully. The mental blocks to effective study The preceding episode is probably familiar and amusing. As a result. On one level the story is encouraging because. If he is ever to cope with the situation he must learn not more 'hard facts'.
But the diversity and originality with which we all make up reasons for not doing things suggests that each person has a wealth of talent which could be applied in more positive directions! On another level the story is discouraging because it shows up the widespread and underlying fear that most of us experience when confronted with a study text. At the present time information is being given more importance and emphasis than the individual.
If he studies and does badly. In even more extreme cases many people. It is well known that this threat can completely disrupt your brain's ability to work in certain situations. Faced with this kind of threat.
The number of cases are legion of people who literally cannot write anything in an exam situation despite the fact that they know their subject thoroughly.
He knows that textbooks are 'harder' than storybooks and novels. It is also interesting to note that even those who do make the decision to study will still reserve a little part of themselves for behaving like the non-studier. By doing this. Confronted with having failed a test or exam. The person who gets scores as high as 80 or 90 per cent will also be found using exactly the same excuses for not getting per cent as the non-studier uses for failing.
If he does not study. Outdated study techniques The situations described are unsatisfactory for everyone concerned.
We have surrounded the person with a confusing mass of different subjects or 'disciplines'. It is interesting to note that such a student will often find himself in the position of a leader. One further and major reason for poor study results lies in the way we have approached both study techniques and the information we wanted people to study.
Media Studies.. Technology and Palaeontology. The direction and flow is from the subject to the individual. In each of these subject areas the individual has been and is still presented with series of dates. Rather than bombarding him with books. One common suggestion is that any reasonably difficult study book should always be read through three times in order to ensure a complete understanding.
As can be seen from the illustration. In order to study properly. This approach has also been reflected in the standard study techniques recommended in sixth form colleges. There is an enormous difference between studying a text on Literary Criticism and studying a text on Higher Mathematics. What this really means is that we have been taking a totally lopsided approach to study and to the way in which a person deals with and relates to the information and knowledge that surrounds him.
These techniques have been 'grid' approaches in which it is recommended that a series of steps always be worked through on any book being studied. This is obviously a very simple example. It is obvious that methods such as these cannot be applied with success to every study book. We are also laying too much stress on asking the individual to feed back facts in pre-digested order or in pre-set forms such as standard examination papers or formal essays.
Instead of teaching the individual facts about other things. Students will be equipped to study and remember whatever area of knowledge is interesting or necessary.
But when it comes to the most complicated. Yet another advantage of this approach is that it will make both teaching and learning much easier. Onword One is tempted to note here that the modern student has access to instruction manuals and 'How To Do It' books and websites on virtually anything he wishes to study or research. Each student will be able to range subjects at his own pace.
Things will not have to be 'crammed in'. We need our own 'operations manual' on how to operate our own 'Super Bio Computer'. The Buzan Study Skills Handbook is that operations manual. By concentrating on individuals and their abilities.
You will also need to read and revisit the chapters on Speed Reading. In the following four chapters. The master note-taking technique. BOST is divided into two main strategies: Preparation and Application. It is important to note at the outset that although the main steps are presented in a certain order.
This will improve your memory of what you read. Preparation This first section contains: In the final chapter. The reason for insisting on these two initial steps is not arbitrary.. The browse should be done in the way you would look through a book you were considering downloading in a book shop Others see it as a broken circle but assume that the artist intended to complete it. The browse Before doing anything else The Gestalt psychologists discovered that the human brain has a very strong tendency to complete things In fact the 'circle' is not a circle but a 'broken circle' Before reading on Having done this The first thing to do when sitting down to study a textbook is to decide on the periods of time to be devoted to it Summaries and Conclusions.
In other words Time and amount These two aspects can be dealt with simultaneously because the theory behind them both is similar. Many actually see this broken circle as a completed circle. Enter the name of the shape of each of the items above next to the appropriate number. The audience will automatically find the lecture easier to follow because they have guidelines within which to work.
The difference in attitude and performance will be marked. This has the advantage of enabling the proper linkages to be made rather than encouraging a wandering off in more disconnected ways. In study. A further advantage of making these decisions at the outset is that the underlying fear of the unknown is avoided. An excellent comparison is that of listening to a good.
It is advisable to define physically the amount to be read by placing reasonably large paper markers at the beginning and end of the section chosen. No more than five minutes should be devoted to the exercise. This enables you to refer back and forward to the information in the chosen amount.
If a large study book is plunged into with no planning. Each time you sit down you will be aware that you still have 'a few hundred pages to go' and will be studying with this as a constant and real background threat. If the knowledge of the subject is almost nothing.
One question which will arise is 'what about the difference in my Mind Map if I know almost nothing on the subject or if I know an enormous amount? This last term refers to getting your mind filled with important rather than unimportant information. This will enable you to get as close as you possibly can to the new subject.
From the time limit of five minutes on this exercise it is obvious that your entire knowledge is not required. If you have spent five minutes searching your memory for pertinent information.
As your mind can flash through information much faster than your hand can write it. Why knowledge and aims are important A standard experiment to confirm this approach takes two groups of people who are generally equal in terms of age. Group B is told that they will be tested on two or three major themes which run through the book.
In this way you will be able to keep much more up to date with yourself and will actually know what you know. Group A is told that they are going to be given a completely comprehensive test on everything in the book and that they must study accordingly. This exercise. A Mind Map is the best way to do this see Chapter 6. This involves defining the questions you want answered during the reading.
It shouldn't take much more than five minutes at the outset. Asking questions and defining goals Having established your current state of knowledge on the subject. Each group is given the same study text and is given enough time to complete the whole book. Many prefer to use a different coloured pen for this section. One might also think that in this situation the second group would do better on questions about the themes they had been given.
How to Mind Map this application stage is explained in Chapter 6. In other words the main questions and goals act as associative and linking centres to which all other information becomes easily attached. It should be emphasized that the more accurately these questions and goals are established.
It is much like a situation where a person is given so much choice that he ends up making no decision. To the surprise of many. The reason for this is that the main themes act like great grappling hooks through the information.
The group instructed to get everything had no centres at all to which they could connect new information. Asking questions and establishing goals can be seen. Overview One of the interesting facts about people using study books is that most.
Imagine that you are a fanatical jigsaw-puzzle-doer. Application This second section deals with Application and contains: Here's why. Before continuing. It is not advisable to start reading a new study text on the first page. Now check your own answers with the following list compiled from my students: S Look at the picture on the outside of the box. A friend arrives on your doorstep with a gigantic box wrapped in paper and tied with string.
What is essential in a reasonable approach to study texts This jigsaw analogy can be applied directly to study: Areas of the book to be covered in your overview include: Speed reading is a great aid here. If the eye is unaided. It is extremely important to note again that throughout the overview a pen. The reason for this can best be explained by reference to a graph. If a visual aid is used.
Standard pattern of unguided eye movement on graph causing conflicting memory of shape of graph. Preview To preview something means just that: You need to know the terrain and decide whether to take the long scenic route or if a shortcut will suffice. If you allow your brain to see the whole text before speed reading it by skimming. The overall recall resulting from this practice is far superior to that of a person who reads without any visual guide.
If the text is describing something you know already. BOST" It is interesting to note that accountants often use their pens to guide their eyes across and down columns and rows of figures. They do this naturally because any very rigid linear eye movement is difficult to maintain with the unaided eye.
Previewing should be applied to everything you are studying including communications like exam details and emails. If done effectively it will save you an immense amount of time.
Skim read the text first to discover the core elements. Take effective notes on everything you read so that you can refer back to them in future and use your previously acquired knowledge to assess the relevance of what you are reading. The purpose of previewing material before reading it is the same as the purpose of planning a route before driving from A to B.
Having gained the essence from these sections. If you are studying a short academic paper or a complex study book. Strategies for success The value of this section cannot be overemphasized. By the time he had reached page 4S0 he was beginning to despair because the amount of information he was 'holding on to' as he tried to get to the end was becoming too much. A case in point is that of a student taught at Oxford who had spent four months struggling through a SOO-page tome on psychology.
Results and Conclusion sections should always be read first. In the Preview.. These sections often include exactly those essences of information for which you are searching. In other words. It is not necessarily the major reading. This involves 'filling in' those areas still left. It was a complete summary of the book! He read the section and estimated that had he done so at the beginning he would have saved himself approximately 70 hours in reading time.
Inview the material. Inview After the Overview and Preview. Many people still feel obliged to read everything in a book even though they know it is not necessarily relevant to them.
It is far better to treat a book in the way most people treat lecturers. So in both the Overview and Preview you should very actively select and reject. Most readers will have experienced the examination question which they 'can't possibly answer' only to find on returning to the question later that the answer pops out and often seems ridiculously simple.
Apart from its obvious advantages. The difficult sections of a study text are seldom essential to that which follows them. The block itself is seldom essential for the understanding of that which follows it. This is because it is far better to move over particularly difficult points than to batter away at them immediately from one side only. Once again the comparison with the jigsaw puzzle becomes clear: In the same manner in which the innovator jumps over an enormous number of sequential steps.
Looking at the normal historical development of any discipline.. As they then explained their ideas step by step. The propounders of these giant new steps have in many cases 'intuited' them combining left and right cortex functions.. Galileo and Einstein are examples.
In most cases you will find that not much more than 70 per cent of that initially considered relevant will finally be used Straight line mark for Curved line mark for difficult important or noteworthy or unclear material.. Notes you make in the textbook itself can include: In this stage simply fill in all those areas as yet incomplete. A note on note-taking Noting while studying should take two main forms: Preview and Inview.
The growing Mind Map also allows you to refer back quickly to areas you have previously covered. If the book is a cherished volume. The advantage of building up a Mind Map as you progress through the study text is that you externalize and integrate a lot of information that would otherwise be 'up in the air'.
It will enable you. To learn how to develop and draw your own Mind Maps for different aspects of study. As such it will place you in the creative situation of being able to: If the pencil is soft enough. When you have completed this final stage. This graph can be warped to your advantage by reviewing just at that point where your memory starts to fall.
A review here. This may sound humorous. Once your study programme is well under way. We know that memory does not decline immediately after you have learned something. It also shows how review can 'warp' this graph to enormous advantage. The following three skills-related chapters will impact directly on BaST. To each textbook you will bring the knowledge that. He was of course applying to its extreme. Preview can be eliminated or broken down into separate sections.
In other words each subject. One student found that it was easier to read four chapters of post-degree mathematics 25 times per week for four weeks quickly.
A pictorial representation can be seen below. It should also be noted that although it seems as if the bO.. He thinks he is reading it through once only because he takes in once piece of information after another.. He does not realize that his regressions. By using BOST you will be on average reading most sections once only and will then be effectively reviewing those sections considered important..
By contrast. The following chapters show you how to incorporate Speed Reading. The study techniques that you will learn in this chapter include: Learning how to do it successfully will: The problems to overcome are: Speed reading will improve your study capabilities. There are many advantages for your brain in learning to speed read: A slower reading pace encourages more scope for pauses.
To calculate your speed in words per minute. This has the potential to increase your vocabulary from words to Once you have learned the basics. Self-test your reading speed Why not test your current reading speed right now. In that way. It may be helpful at this point to select a book that you will use specifically for assessing your speed reading progress.
How you read Have you ever stopped to think about how you read and assimilate information? Expressed as an equation. Changing a personal belief about what is possible will help you to understand the process of speed reading. Average reading speeds are not natural. The faster reader will understand more of what is being expressed.
The faster we read. We read for meaning. To which of the following statements would you reply 'True' and to which 'False'? We have the capacity to take in as many as six words at a time and as many as twenty-four words a second. There are many different pathways by which our eyes can travel across a page and still successfully absorb information.
When we read. It is possible to make an immediate improvement in your reading speed by spending less time on each pause. The majority of people would trace each line of text in straight lines from left to right. Your eyes therefore do not move smoothly in one continuous sweep across the page. Stop-start sweeps The average reader takes in approximately words per minute.
When it is still. Test this for yourself by holding a finger in front of your eyes.
Taking in text line by line is an effective way to absorb information. In relation to reading. A speed reader.. This is a critical speed reading concept This reader pauses or fixates on words for twice as long as most people.
That's a time of seven seconds per line Figure C shows that the good reader. Extra pauses are caused because the reader often re-reads words. On a normal page of 12 words per line. They can easily fixate after the beginning and before the end of the line. When your eyes pause If you use a visual aid. Take a look at the diagrams on the next page. Research has shown that. Figure B shows what happens in the eye movements of a poor reader The techniques that follow are designed to overcome the common problems of back-skipping..
Figure A: Diagram representing the stop-and-start movement or 'jumps' of the eyes during the reading process. Figure B: Diagram showing poor reading habits of a slow reader: Figure C: Diagram showing eye movements of a better and more efficient reader. More words are taken in at each fixation, and back-skipping, regression and visual wandering are reduced.
Seven steps to speed up your reading Reading is usually described as 'getting from a book what the author intended' or, 'assimilating the facts, figures and theories'; but I believe it to be more than that: At its core is a process taking place on many different levels at the same time - and it is usually related to the visual aspect of learning, that is, what we can see.
For reading to be informative and for reading methods to be effective, the following seven levels of understanding need to be absorbed. Every level must be further developed if you are to become an effective speed reader.
Recognition Your knowledge of the alphabetic symbols. In the tests the subjects were shown a series of videotapes of a young woman expressing a wide range of feelings.
The scenes depicted hatred and loathing, a jealous rage, peace and tranquillity, asking forgiveness, motherly love, showing gratitude, and passion. In all the videos, the sound was muffled so that no speech could be heard. In addition, in each portrayal, one or more of the channels of non-verbal communication had been blanked out.
For example, in one the body might be blocked out and only the facial expression shown, in another the facial expressions removed while all bodily gestures remained, and so on. The results? A direct correlation was found between being able to read body language and being more sensitive, more well-adjusted emotionally, more outgoing, and, most importantly, more popular. You will be pleased to learn that this popularity was also directly correlated with success in romantic and sexual relationships!
The success generated by possessing Social Intelligence skills is also reflected in schools. The American Psychological Society reported the 20 the power of social intelligence results of tests done with 1, children that showed that those children who were able to read body language were among the most emotionally stable, did better in academic subjects, and were the most popular.
Understanding body language is of vital importance in social communication. A good friend of mine observed that by playing just three minutes of golf with a new acquaintance, you will learn nearly everything you need to know about that individual, including their ability to accept and learn from success and failure, their generosity, their concern for others, their appreciation of nature, their humour or lack of it!
There is a very simple secret to Social Intelligence — smile at people! A human smile radiates warmth, confidence, a positive attitude, happiness and, very significantly, a welcoming openness to others. The thing that first attracts most people to someone else is their smile. Spontaneous smilers have been shown to have a more successful life in personal and career terms.
The universe even rewards us for smiling! It is now time for your first Social Workout — to be approached with a smile on your face! I have slightly adjusted it, and recommend that you read it, pass it on, and immediately begin practising what it suggests! Smiling is infectious; you catch it like the flu, When someone smiled at me today, I started smiling too. I thought about that smile and then I realized its worth, 22 the power of social intelligence A single smile, one just like mine, could travel round the earth.
Smile First Make sure that you greet people with a smile. People remember first impressions most strongly, so this will be what they remember of you. Smiling will get the social interaction off to a positive and uplifting start. M a k e Yo u r A c t i o n s C o n g r u e n t w i t h Yo u r W o r d s When you are describing things, allow your body to be the natural musical instrument and artist that it is. Make sounds that mimic what you are describing. With your hands sculpt the objects and scenes you are describing.
You will often find that they are completely opposite. You can practise this Social Intelligence muscle when watching television, especially news and advertisements. Keep a note of some of the more blatant examples of incongruence - they make good conversation pieces themselves!
I noticed that two businessmen who were supposed to be negotiating with each other were doing an extraordinary dance.
Every time one of them moved towards the other, the second almost immediately moved away. It was as if they were two similar poles of a magnet, where the repelling force prevented them from ever making contact.
No matter how hard the first tried to get closer, which he was obviously trying to do, the second always moved away. On and on they went, until they had snaked and zig-zagged their way around the entire room! They were obviously making each other extremely uncomfortable, and not understanding why.
Later on in the evening, I asked them, separately, where they came from. As you might expect, the first one stood very close to me, the second at some considerable distance! You will not be surprised to learn that the first one came from New York, where closeness to people is part of everyday life, and the second from a vast ranch in Texas, where close contact was very rare.
If you can make people feel comfortable by not invading their personal space, they will immediately be more willing to talk and spend time with you. M e e t i n g a n d G r e e t i n g W i t h Fe e l i n g Be particularly alert to body language when you are meeting and 24 the power of social intelligence greeting people. Remember the two scenarios you imagined before on page 00 and the extreme positions your body took.
Most people will be somewhere between the two. Once again become the body-language-detective, and quickly assess the many non-verbal messages that are being given during those first vital moments.
If shaking hands, play close attention to the energy of the hand you are shaking - it can speak volumes. In the same way, make sure that your own handshake is firm not too firm! Make sure you make eye contact with the other person. Brief eye contact acknowledges the other person as being of interest to you — which will make them more interested in you! Use Appropriate Gestures of Affection Some cultures use hugs and embraces much more than others.
In Russia, for example, hugs are a normal part of greeting people, whereas in Britain, people tend to be more reserved. Hugging breathes fresh life into tired bodies and makes you feel younger and more vibrant. As it is the haemoglobin that carries the vital supplies of oxygen to your heart, brain and body, hugging can be seen both as a life-giver and a life-saver, as well as a reading people — body language and how to master it 25 wonderful expression of Social Intelligence and confidence.
M i r r o r Ta l k Before any social meeting, check yourself - ideally in a full-length mirror. Rather than just casually checking yourself and your appearance, imagine that you are the Costume Director and Producer on a film set. Your function is to make sure that the clothes your star actor is wearing are perfectly appropriate for the role, and to make sure that your star looks so attractive that other people will actively want to make contact.
When you are dressed well and appropriately for the occasion, you and your body feel at ease and confident. It is a constant, entertaining, informative and free! When you see examples of particularly superb body-to-brain communication, mimic them and incorporate them in your own body language. In the next chapter we will consider another vital non-verbal part of communicating with other people — listening to them! My words and actions are increasingly congruent.
I am spreading smiles wherever I go. If someone shows an interest in us and clearly wants to know us better, then we will be more interested and favourably disposed towards them. The best, easiest and most effective way of showing interest in another person is to listen to what they are saying — to really listen, focusing on what they are saying, as opposed to standing there planning our own reposts and anecdotes in turn! This was because I thought that the more brilliant points I made, the more brilliant the conversation was.
This was a very one-sided and limited view. Nature stepped in and taught me a very valuable lesson. Just before an important social occasion, I contracted an irritating throat infection. To my chagrin, I could hardly utter a word. At the party I met someone who was passionate about many things. When we eventually parted I assumed that he would consider me an utter bore, as I had contributed probably less than 5 per cent to the conversation, and he comfortably more than 95 per cent.
How could this be so? The light slowly began to dawn: we had had a wonderful conversation. I realized that listening gave me this wonderful opportunity to be completely relaxed in a conversation, to be entertained with wonderful tales and thoughts, as well as allowing me to give someone else the opportunity to be freely expressive.
This chapter is devoted to helping you listen with hearing! On average half of that communication time is spent in listening.
In schools and colleges the percentage is even higher, and in the business world listening ranks as one of the top three most important necessary managerial skills. Self-check 1 How would you rate yourself as a listener? On a scale from , with 0 representing the worst listener imaginable, and meaning that you listen better than anybody else, how well do you think you listen to people?
Self-check 2 On a scale of , how do you think the following people would rate you as a listener? Your family you may give them individual ratings or a group average 32 the power of social intelligence 2. Your best friend Your other friends Your boss Your work colleagues Any people you supervise at work Most people in fact a staggering 85 per cent rate their listening ability as average or less. On a scale, the average rating is Only a tiny 5 per cent score themselves in the range, or consider themselves excellent listeners.
By the time you have finished reading this chapter, you should be in that top category! When it comes to other people assessing your listening skills, if you gave your best friend the highest score out of the six groups, you will be in the majority!