THE TEN BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE. TRANSLATED BY. MORRIS HICKY MORGAN, PH.D., LL.D. LATI PROTRASBOB OF CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The Ten Books on Architecture by Vitruvius Pollio. No cover. During the last years of his life, Professor Morgan had devoted much time and energy to the preparation of a translation of Vitruvius, which he proposed to supplement with a revised text, illustrations, and notes. Author: Berresford Ellis Peter Title: L'impero dei Celti Year.
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This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Page The Ten Books on Architecture is written by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, an author of Roman Origin, an architect and engineer who has served as artilleryman in the. Ambox style medical-site.info The text of this work needs to be migrated to Index: Vitruvius the Ten Books on medical-site.info If you would like to help.
Vitruvius Marcus. Vitruvius Pollio Marcus Title: Ten books on architecture Year: During the last years of his life, Professor Morgan had devoted much time and energy to the preparation of a translation of Vitruvius, which he proposed to supplement with a revised text, illustrations, and notes. He had completed the translation, with the exception of the last four chapters of the tenth book, and had discussed, with Professor Warren, the illustrations intended for the first six books of the work; the notes had not been arranged or completed, though many of them were outlined in the manuscript, or the intention to insert them indicated.
The several books of the translation, so far as it was completed, had been read to a little group of friends, consisting of Professors Sheldon and Kittredge, and myself, and had received our criticism, which had, at times, been utilized in the revision of the work.
After the death of Professor Morgan, in spite of my obvious incompetency from a technical point of view, I undertook, at the request of his family, to complete the translation, and to see the book through the press. I must, therefore, assume entire responsibility for the translation of the tenth book, beginning with chapter thirteen, and further responsibility for necessary changes made by me in the earlier part of the translation, changes which, in no case, affect any theory held by Professor Morgan, but which involve mainly the adoption of simpler forms of statement, or the correction of obvious oversights.
The text followed is that of Valentine Rose in his second edition Leipzig, , and the variations from this text are, with a few exceptions which are indicated in the footnotes, in the nature of a return to the consensus of the manuscript readings.
The illustrations in the first six books are believed to be substantially in accord with the wishes of Professor Morgan. The suggestions for illustrations in the later books were incomplete, and did not indicate, in all cases, with sufficient definiteness to allow them to be executed, the changes from conventional plans and designs intended by the translator.
It has, therefore, been decided to include in this part of the work only those illustrations which are known to have had the full approval of Professor Morgan.
Each wheel would have been worked by a miner treading the device at the top of the wheel, by using cleats on the outer edge.
That they were using such devices in mines clearly implies that they were entirely capable of using them as water wheels to develop power for a range of activities, not just for grinding wheat, but also probably for sawing timber, crushing ores, fulling , and so on. Force pump[ edit ] Ctesibius is credited with the invention of the force pump , which Vitruvius described as being built from bronze with valves to allow a head of water to be formed above the machine.
The device is also described by Hero of Alexandria in his Pneumatica. The machine is operated by hand in moving a lever up and down. He mentioned its use for supplying fountains above a reservoir, although a more mundane use might be as a simple fire engine. Their functions are not described, but they are both made in bronze, just as Vitruvius specified. Vitruvius also mentioned the several automatons Ctesibius invented, and intended for amusement and pleasure rather than serving a useful function.
Central heating[ edit ] Ruins of the hypocaust under the floor of a Roman villa: The part under the exedra is covered. Vitruvius described the many innovations made in building design to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants.
Foremost among them is the development of the hypocaust , a type of central heating where hot air developed by a fire was channelled under the floor and inside the walls of public baths and villas. He gave explicit instructions on how to design such buildings so fuel efficiency is maximized; for example, the caldarium is next to the tepidarium followed by the frigidarium.
He also advised using a type of regulator to control the heat in the hot rooms, a bronze disc set into the roof under a circular aperture, which could be raised or lowered by a pulley to adjust the ventilation. Although he did not suggest it himself, his dewatering devices such as the reverse overshot water-wheel likely were used in the larger baths to lift water to header tanks at the top of the larger thermae, such as the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla. Surveying instruments[ edit ] That Vitruvius must have been well practised in surveying is shown by his descriptions of surveying instruments, especially the water level or chorobates , which he compared favourably with the groma , a device using plumb lines.
They were essential in all building operations, but especially in aqueduct construction, where a uniform gradient was important to provision of a regular supply of water without damage to the walls of the channel.
He described the hodometer , in essence a device for automatically measuring distances along roads, a machine essential for developing accurate itineraries, such as the Peutinger Table.
Myus, the third city, is described as being "long ago engulfed by the water, and its sacred rites and suffrage". The layout of these cities is in general from south to north so that it appears that where Myrus should be located is inland. If this is the case, then since the writing of De architectura, the region has experienced either soil rebound or a sea-level fall. Though not indicative of sea-level change, or speculation of such, during the later-empire many Roman ports suffered from what contemporary writers described as 'silting'.
The constant need to dredge ports became a heavy burden on the treasury and some have speculated that this expense significantly contributed to the eventual collapse of the empire. Roman salt works in Essex , England, today are located at the five-metre contour, implying this was the coastline. Survival and rediscovery[ edit ] Vitruvius' work is one of many examples of Latin texts that owe their survival to the palace scriptorium of Charlemagne in the early 9th century.
This activity of finding and recopying classical manuscripts is part of what is called the Carolingian Renaissance. Many of the surviving manuscripts of Vitruvius' work derive from an existing manuscript that was written there, British Library manuscript Harley In addition, a number of individuals are known to have read the text or have been indirectly influenced by it, including: Vussin, Hrabanus Maurus , Hermann of Reichenau , Hugo of St. Thomas Aquinas. Many copies of De architectura, dating from the 8th to the 15th centuries, did exist in manuscript form during the Middle Ages and 92 are still available in public collections, but they appear to have received little attention, possibly due to the obsolescence of many specialized Latin terms used by Vitruvius[ citation needed ] and the loss of most of the original 10 illustrations thought by some to be helpful in understanding parts of the text.
Vitruvius' work was "rediscovered" in by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini , who found it in the Abbey of St Gallen , Switzerland.
He publicized the manuscript to a receptive audience of Renaissance thinkers, just as interest in the classical cultural and scientific heritage was reviving.
Vitruvian Man , illustration in the edition of De architectura by Vitruvius; illustrated edition by Cesare Cesariano The first printed edition editio princeps , an incunabula version, was published by the Veronese scholar Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in with a second edition in or , but none were illustrated.
The Dominican friar Fra Giovanni Giocondo produced the first version illustrated with woodcuts in Venice in It had a thorough philosophical approach and superb illustrations. Translations into Italian were in circulation by the s, the first in print being the translation with new illustrations by Cesare Cesariano , a Milanese friend of the architect Bramante , printed in Como in The most authoritative and influential edition was publicized in French in by Claude Perrault , commissioned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert in The first English translation followed in , although John Shute had drawn on the text as early as for his book The First and Chief Grounds of Architecture.
The translation was an abridgment based on the French version of Claude Perrault.