Become a member of medical-site.info and you can download five free ebooks every month. The Second Sex (French: Le Deuxième Sexe, June ) is one of the best-known works of the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir. It is a work on the treatment of women throughout history and. Simone de Beauvoir, 17 books. Alice Schwarzer, 4 books. Ingrid Galster, 3 books . Sally J. Scholz, 2 books. Anne Marie Lasocki, 2 books. Evans, Mary, 2 books. The Ethics of Ambiguity by Simone de Beauvoir. Read online, or download in secure EPUB format.
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The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir. Read online, or download in secure EPUB format. Simone de Beauvoir was born in Paris in In she became the youngest person ever to obtain the agrégation in philosophy at the Sorbonne. After the. Of all the writing that emerged from the existentialist movement, Simone de Beauvoir's groundbreaking study of women will probably have the.
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Sexuality, existentialist feminism and The Second Sex The Second Sex, published in French, sets out a feminist existentialism which prescribes a moral revolution. As an existentialist, de Beauvoir believed that existence precedes essence ; hence one is not born a woman, but becomes one. Her analysis focuses on the Hegelian concept of the Other. It is the social construction of Woman as the quintessential Other that de Beauvoir identifies as fundamental to women's oppression.
The capitalised 'O' in "other" indicates the wholly other. De Beauvoir asserted that women are as capable of choice as men, and thus can choose to elevate themselves, moving beyond the ' immanence ' to which they were previously resigned and reaching ' transcendence ', a position in which one takes responsibility for oneself and the world, where one chooses one's freedom. The second volume came a few months after the first in France. Because Parshley had only a basic familiarity with the French language, and a minimal understanding of philosophy he was a professor of biology at Smith College , much of de Beauvoir's book was mistranslated or inappropriately cut, distorting her intended message.
Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier produced the first integral translation in , reinstating a third of the original work. In the chapter "Woman: Myth and Reality" of The Second Sex, de Beauvoir argued that men had made women the "Other" in society by application of a false aura of "mystery" around them.
She argued that men used this as an excuse not to understand women or their problems and not to help them, and that this stereotyping was always done in societies by the group higher in the hierarchy to the group lower in the hierarchy. She wrote that a similar kind of oppression by hierarchy also happened in other categories of identity, such as race, class and religion, but she claimed that it was nowhere more true than with gender in which men stereotyped women and used it as an excuse to organize society into a patriarchy.
Women who do not follow the domestic norm are looked down upon in society. A man would never get the notion of writing a book on the peculiar situation of the human male.
A man never begins by presenting himself as an individual of a certain sex; it goes without saying that he is a man. She said that even Mary Wollstonecraft considered men to be the ideal toward which women should aspire. De Beauvoir said that this attitude limited women's success by maintaining the perception that they were a deviation from the normal, and were always outsiders attempting to emulate "normality". She believed that for feminism to move forward, this assumption must be set aside.
Key concepts of the s feminist movement related directly to the ideas concerning gender as a social construct presented in de Beauvoir's The Second Sex". Despite her contributions to the feminist movement, especially the French Women's Liberation Movement, and her beliefs in women's economic independence and equal education, de Beauvoir was reluctant to call herself a feminist. She publicly declared herself a feminist in , in an interview with Le Nouvel Observateur.
The book follows the personal lives of philosophers and friends among Sartre's and de Beauvoir's intimate circle, including her relationship with American writer Nelson Algren , to whom the book was dedicated. Algren was outraged by the frank way de Beauvoir described their sexual experiences in both The Mandarins and her autobiographies.
Dunes cottage where Algren and de Beauvoir summered in Miller Beach , Indiana He vented his outrage when reviewing American translations of her work.
Much material bearing on this episode in de Beauvoir's life, including her love letters to Algren, entered the public domain only after her death. She published several volumes of short stories, including The Woman Destroyed, which, like some of her other later work, deals with aging. De Beauvoir sided with Sartre and ceased to associate with Merleau-Ponty. In de Beauvoir's later years, she hosted the journal's editorial meetings in her flat and contributed more than Sartre, whom she often had to force to offer his opinions.
She signed the Manifesto of the in , a list of famous women who claimed to have had an abortion, then illegal in France. Some argue most of the women had not had abortions, including Beauvoir, but given the secrecy surrounding the issue, this cannot be known.