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Rc Reddy Group 2 Material Pdf

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Abstract Various root canal filling materials are used to preserve a pulpally involved carious primary tooth. But there is no single material so far available to fulfill all the requirements of an ideal root canal filling material for a primary tooth. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpectomies using three root canal filling materials: An in-vivo study. In addition, it must easily fill the canals, adhere to the walls, not shrink, must readily resorb if passed beyond the apex, be easily removed if necessary, be radiopaque and causes no discoloration of the tooth. At present there is no such ideal material to meet all the requirements. Two isolated case reports found it was highly successful in primary teeth. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was done to exclude teeth showing internal or pathologic root resorption and or inadequate bone support. Under local anesthesia the clinical procedure was performed in a single sitting manner. Uncooperative patients were desensitized in the first visit and the procedure was done in the next visit. A surgically clean technique was maintained throughout the procedure under rubber dam isolation. Caries was completely removed and any overhanging enamel planed to provide good access to coronal pulp. Access opening was done with a slow speed No. All overhanging dentin was removed from the roof of the pulp chamber. The coronal pulp was amputated with a sharp spoon excavator, large enough to extend across the entrance of the individual root canals.

Zoning patterns in minerals offer opportunities to address unanswered questions raised by glass and whole-rock chemistry on the basis of the ability of minerals to record processes and events as a function of time and magma composition, and their capacity to retain such records where the timescales of processes and the diffusion rates of key elements in these minerals are amenable e. This article focuses on utilizing olivine for such purposes despite the rapid rate at which diffusive equilibration may eliminate the record of magmatic events for fast-diffusing elements i.

Minerals such as plagioclase may record and faithfully preserve these complexities on short length scales over long timescales. Other minerals typically undergo progressive re-equilibration with evolving magmas, at least for certain fast-diffusing elements e. Coupled substitutions in pyroxenes and amphiboles may preserve the records of complex magmatic histories better than olivine usually does. At the other end of the spectrum, olivine crystals in the same thin section generally manifest much simpler zoning patterns, which may include broad, non-zoned cores.

Compositional gradients in olivine recorded by Mg, Fe, Ni, and Mn may be extensively diffused in a few years and eliminated in a few decades, depending on their size, the temperature, and the boundary conditions.

Coupled Anorthite—Albite zoning in plagioclase is far more resistant to resetting due to Si and Al that are tightly bound in tetrahedral coordination Grove et al. It has been studied in detail in order to document and interpret linkages among magma genesis, magma storage and differentiation, and eruption processes at a typical Strombolian-type volcano Naranjo and Moreno ; Reubi, et al.

A model for Late Holocene Llaima activity Fig. Frequent magma inputs from deeper reservoirs maintain non-erupted mush in a viable state for remobilization and subsequent eruption. Magmas are stored in a plexus of partly interconnected, upper-crustal dikes and sills. This scenario implies that some magma batches are most likely isolated from others during periods of low-frequency recharge.

This model explains a number of chemical and textural features recorded by melt inclusions, and by olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts Bouvet de Maisonneuve et al.

However, it has lacked a quantitative explanation for why plagioclase crystals often record a series of recharge events and coexisting olivine grains appear to record only one according to Fe—Mg—Ni—Mn variations. We suggest that the resolution of this seeming paradox at Llaima may have general applicability to arc magmas that evolve in open systems.

Open image in new window Fig. A balance is reached between the frequency of recharge events, the time allowed for crystallization, and the frequency of eruptions, allowing for the eruption of compositionally homogeneous but texturally complex samples. Textural complexity in erupted magmas is represented by the uppermost plagioclase and olivine crystals that have varied and complex zoning patterns. Plagioclase textures are affected by variable degrees of interaction with recharge magma between the base and the top of the reservoirs.

The presence of multiple reservoirs is recorded by variable olivine core compositions. Olivine zoning in elements with very different geochemical properties allows the identification of crystals contributed by the recharge magma normally zoned in Fo, relatively simple P zoning or by the resident magma in the shallow reservoirs reversely zoned in Fo, more complex P zoning due to prolonged residence times We have obtained major and trace element zoning patterns of olivine phenocrysts by electron microprobe profiles and maps and laser ablation ICP-MS profiles , and investigated them within a theoretical framework of crystal growth and element diffusion.

We show that combining elements recording changes in magma composition i.

It is only after such a detailed analysis that the olivine archive could be reconciled with the plagioclase archive of magma reservoir processes: Both minerals record multiple magma recharge events and have therefore experienced similar magmatic histories.

A new two-dimensional diffusion model using the lattice Boltzmann method was developed and used to estimate the relative timing of magmatic events recorded by the olivine phenocrysts.

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Magma recharge events are recorded by Fo zoning at the rim and occur on the order of a few months to a couple of years prior to eruption.

Individual phenocrysts may experience up to three or more recharge events during their life span in a shallow reservoir. Voluminous lava flows are associated with the younger set of cones.

Related tephra directly underlie the tephra layer. The choice of tephra relative to lava allows us to focus on reservoir processes only because of the limited amount of crystallization during eruption. This investigation is complementary to a previous study of olivine-hosted melt inclusions Bouvet de Maisonneuve et al. These grains were mounted in epoxy and polished.

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Three representative crystals were selected from each of the tephra units considered , UF3, and LF3 on the basis of their well-developed crystal faces. He—H2 mixture was used as the aerosol transport gas.

Laser optics, ablation cell geometry, and signal smoothing devices are described in Eggins et al. The NIST synthetic glass was used for external standardization, and it was analyzed in the same manner as unknowns.

The average element abundances were taken from the Georem database Jochum et al. All data were reduced according to the scheme of Longerich et al. A combination of scanning traverses and point analyses was used to measure zoning profiles in multiple directions within single crystals. The traverses were positioned to avoid cracks and melt inclusions as much as possible.

Eight elements were recorded every 0. Cr, V, Ni, Ti, P, Al were obtained first, and Co, Mn, Sc, Y, Ca, Na were measured in some cases by scanning the same traverse a second time after cleaning and slight polishing of the crystals to remove the sputtered material.

Si and Fe were systematically measured in both traverses. Additional analytical profiles were obtained using a series of conventional spot analyses on olivine. Point traverses ended oblique to the olivine—melt interface for the purpose of obtaining higher resolution zoning profiles at the rim.

An average of three spot analyses were performed in the matrix glass attached to the olivine rims of each crystal. In the next two phases, 56 doses 4 doses per day for 14 days of each potency or placebo were consumed. Out of 48 provers, 32 were given the actual drug and 16 were given placebo.

The symptoms generated during the trial period were noted by the volunteers and elaborated by the proving masters. Results: Out of the 32 provers who were on the actual drug trial, 21 manifested symptoms.

The drug was able to produce symptoms in each potency in most of the parts of the body. Conclusion: New and proved pathogenetic responses elicited during the proving trial expand the scope of use of the drug Magnolia grandiflora and will benefit the research scholars and clinicians.

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These symptoms will carry more value when verified clinically. Evaluation of qualitative phytochemical analysis of water extract of Achyranthes aspera and Achyranthes aspera 30 p.

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These plants are the potential therapeutic agents, which provide maximum benefits with minimum adverse effects. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the qualitative phytochemical analysis of water extract of whole plant excluding root of Achyranthes aspera and 30 potency of the same drug. Methodology: The qualitative phytochemical analysis of water extract of whole plant excluding root of Achyranthes aspera and Achyranthes aspera 30 has been performed to confirm the presence of alkaloid, saponin, phenolic compound, carbohydrate and proteins.

Physicochemical constants such as ash, extractive values and moisture content were also determined. Results: The physicochemical analysis showed that the parts of this plant contained total ash value of 9. The extractive values percentage of water-soluble extract is The qualitative phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of carbohydrates, protein, alkaloids, saponins and phenolic compounds in water extract of Achyranthes aspera and Achyranthes aspera The analysis also shows that various bioactive phytochemicals are retained with dilution while preparation of Homoeopathic medicines.

Conclusion: Achyranthes aspera in homoeopathic potency 30 contains its bioactive phytochemicals even after being a high dilution with alcohol of the original plant. Studies on warts are based on experiences of individual practitioners and do not give specific factors, which are responsible for making a successful prescription for the treatment of warts.

The present study was designed as a multicentric randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate response to homoeopathic treatment for the disappearance or resolution of warts and to validate the symptoms of the pre-identified 09 drugs Antimonium crudum, Calcarea carbonicum, Causticum, Dulcamara, Natrum muriaticum, Nitric acidicum, Ruta graveolens, Sulphur and Thuja occidentalis on clinical outcome in warts.

Materials and Methods: The study would be conducted at eight centres of the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, where patients requiring any of the predefined medicines for warts would be randomised to Homoeopathy or placebo group using a computer-generated randomisation chart. The selected medicine would be prescribed first in 6C potency and dosage and subsequent potency as per the requirement of the case.

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