Raumplan versus Plan Libre. Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier, edited by . Max Risselada with contributions by. Beatriz Colomina. Stanislaus von Moos. Echoing the exhibition 'Raumplan Versus Plan Libre' curated by Max Risselade, which took place at TU Delft in /87, third year BA. Raumplan Versus Plan Libre Adolf Loos And Le Corbusier Corbusier PDF or just found any kind of Books for your readings everyday.
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Raumplan vs Plan Libre: Loos and Corbusier - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier, edited by. RAUMPLAN. VERSUS. PLAN LIBRE. Adolf Loos / Le Corbusier. Edited by Max Risselada. Contributions by Johan van de Beek, Beatriz Colornina, Arjan Hebly. Introduction -- Chronology -- Le Corbusier and Adolf Loos / Stanislaus von Moos -- The split wall: domestic voyeurism / Beatriz Colomina -- Adolf Loos: patterns.
Less attent ion has been paid till now to the vertical orga- Should the internal verticality of the Domino frame con- nisation inside the Villa, particularly to the spatial relation- sist only of the layering of floors, there then remains the ship bet ween the ground floor entrance hall and the living facade as the only continuous vertical element - as the free quarters on the piano nobile. The many variants drawn facade. This cannot, however, be interpreted as a section during the successive design stages demonstrate the for- through the building, not being determined by its internal mal problems that arose when incorporating stairs and dou- organisation.
Like the free plan the free facade is organised ble-height spaces in the Domino frame. These were spaces according to its own laws, its grid coordinated by the that in essence could no longer be defined br walls, but abstract system of "regulating lines". These ver- frame, and bound by their own laws free plan and free sions make explicit what the well-known perspective draw- facade are set against one another. Villa Savoye; floorplans and perspective drawings of an interim phase for the first project September FLC the columns and the skin of the facade.
It is this strip which through the use of floor to ceiling fenestration in the side during the formulation of the "five points", during the elevations, and the interior, where this strip acquires self- design process of Maison Cook and the Villas Meyer and sufficiency as a bridge between two voids, one inside and Stein-de Monzie respectively, was allotted an increasingly one out.
Interior and exterior are, as it were, interchange- independent position. In the front facade of Maison Cook the position of th is Thus during the design process of the above series of strip is still ambivalent, partly because here only one contin- houses the spatial consequences of the Domino frame uous column was necessary.
On the storey of bed rooms gradually became apparent. With this the dimensional or- this strip is indistinguishable from the rooms behind; at the der for which the Maison Citrohan stands - the vertical living quarters and roof half of it is a component of the element - was during the process in danger of going by the spaces behind the facade - the dining room, the roof gar- board.
It is a long way from the Villa Schwob of , where den. At the double-height drawing room in the other half its a central space two storeys high weids the surrounding allegiance is to the facade. Here the void is not facade becomes a reality. This is emphasised further still by the centre of the house any more, but is there merely to the fact that in th is case the facade is self supporting, with highlight the succession of objects lining the "promenade facade columns placed before those of the Domino frame architecturale' '.
At the level of the living storey this strip extends In the realised versions of the Villas Baizeau and Savoye - unimpeded by any obstacles along the entire facade, cited as examples iIIustrating the last two of Le Corbusier's flanked on the inside by free-standing elements in which Four Compositions of - floors surfaces are continuous small components of the program me are brought together - and the spatial development predominately horizontal.
Only the connections between floors the stairs and ramp Finally, in the front facade of Villa Stein-de Monzie the constitute a vertical element in the interior. The only room independency of the strip is expreSsed both in the exterior, involving more than one storey - for we can consider the 2 56 first-floor terrace of the Villa Savoye as such - was effected of the wall formed by the original roof structure which by omitting a number of floor areas.
In these two villas the accompanies the ramp up to the roof garden. And though free facade has been removed; each floor can be read off in the captions place particular emphasis on the properties of the facade. With this the principle with which the propor- a ramp - "offering an approach entirely different from astair tioning of the free facade was determined the "regulating made up of treads.
Astair divides storeys, a ramp unites lines" has been eradicated. These facades are based on a them" - this drawing makes especially clear to us the impor- modulor system of measurement governing the dimensions tance of the double-height wall, which would have given the and the positions of the various components in relation to terrace both an extra vertical dimension and an orientation one another.
It seems as though the architect wanted to If we were to look into the protracted, complex design make clear, both to himself arid to us, what had been lost process of both villas , it would become apparent that estab- during the course of the design process.
It was the first designs in particular of was attached to the spatial characteristics of the original these two villas that brought together in synthesis the versions of both Baizeau and Savoye - versions in which the diverse qualities embodied in the Domino and Citrohan vertical dimensions still play such an important role - it can modeis, namely horizontality and verticality , and column be inferred from the protracted design process that both and wall respectively.
Here, of the first design of the Villa Baizeau only the sections are pub- lished, supplemented by a pair of perspectives of living Villa Baizeau room interiors meant to clarify the relationship between the double-height space and the mezzanine floor.
Of the real- A visit to the houses at the Weissenhofsiedlung in Stuttgart ised version of this villa we are given only the working was what prompted the contractor Lucien Baizeau to com- drawings of the three plans and a section, which owing to mission Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret to design a its layered construction is at first scarcely distinguishable house near Carthage, Tunesia, overlooking the Mediterra- from the plans.
Of this realised version no photographic nean Sea. In volume one only the closed, vertical orientation, and the Domino frame with its initial version of this design is published. At first glance it open and horizontally developed potential.
Though both differs little from the built version. In this design there are, houses are built according to the "five points" and have a however, a number of departures at roof level: the private frame , they differ in their use of the latter. In the Maison rooms of Madame Savoye, accommodated in a free-form Citrohan it merely raises the house off the ground; in the volume and reached from within by the stair only. In this dwelling proper the frame is confined to the walls and plays project the continuous ramp linking from the first floor the no spatial role.
With the twin houses that constitute the two roof gardens is on one side bordered in its entirety by a other example the reverse is the case. In them the spatial wall of the roof structure. This occurs where five levels are stacked, the cial position accorded this, the last of the Four Composi- Domino frame forming a pair of bays with on either side a tions.
In this stripped-down version Madame Savoye's roof- canti lever. Each bay contains a double-height space alter- top quarters have been dispensed with : the curved walls of nating vertically , in which not only the floor between the the sheltered sun terrace are all that remain of them.
What columns is absent, but also the projecting element. One is remarkable, however, is that the cross section illustrated result of this is a free-standing column spanning two on the same page as the floor and roof plans belongs to the storeys. In the centre this thereby gives rise to a strip one first version.
This section follows the ramp: the elevation is storey high laid lengthways round the central row of col- 57 February March July second floor ground floor 3 Villa Baizeau; preliminary designs respec- tively February , March , July - floorplans 4. Villa Baizeau ; project July ; floorplans of 6.
At the living area this strip possesses an ambivalent Although based on the principles of both houses in Stutt- character; to the higher of the two upper stareys it functions gart - the c1ient's reason for his commission - Baizeau was as a recess , to the lower as a gallery.
At the sleeping and not happy with this design for his house. Ignoring the fact utility rooms this zone becomes the corridor that serves the that because of the size it would have been too expensive, independent double-height spaces. He also desired a terrace sur- and sleeping quarters. In this arrangement the building is rounding each floor as protection from the sun.
He himself fixed in one direction, i. Lengthways it can be made a suggestion in this direction, of a building th ree extended at both ends: a characteristic of the Domino storeys high with a conventional subdivision. On the ground frame. Maison Citrohan. And offered by the original concept , namely its flexibility length- though both the lateral facades are non-Ioadbearing - they ways.
The length of the volume was diminished by half, occupy the edges of the projecting element of the Domino creating an al most square plan. As aresuit the number of frame - it is their very solidity that ensures the special quali- bedrooms was reduced as was the available living space; ties of this cross section as weil as orientation to the view the cross section, however, remained intact.
It the facade and the tall space with mezzanine is made had contained the entrance, garage, and utility rooms, explicit. The cross section of the Villa Baizeau could weil have This necessitated the rearrangement of programme com- been devised to effect a basic, natural ventilation. Thus on ponents, which meant sacrificing the clarity of the original the uppermost floar are to be found the terraces covered in concept.
Entrance, garage, utility room, and kitchen now their entirety by a canopy. Only where it meets the ramp does this volume too inflexible, to assimilate the changes, and so Le Corbu- concur with the building 's order.
In this solution the consequences of this outward appearance. As opposed to the built version of the concept are carried to their limits. The columns and floor Villa Baizeau the vertical order of the Villa Savoye is finite: a slabs with parapets on the projecting section define the dominant middle layer with closed facades floating above main structure.
Inside the programme of each storey has the setback ground floor and crowned with a roof structure. The vertical cohesion of the on the ground floor are round "pilotis", and on the first floor interior was achieved by a stairwell with three flights per square posts between the strip windows.
There is no facade in the traditional mined by the way in which one moves through it, and the sense. It favours the act of walking; ments accompanying the third of Le Corbusier's Four Com- this is the means, by moving from one place to another, with positions of , iIIustrated here by this villa: "Very easy, which to experience the articulation of architecture. Here is practicabie, allows for combinations ". I prefer The Villa Savoye the lessons taught by Arab architecture. Already mentioned is the continuation of the facade process of the Villa Baizeau.
We may assume that it was the through which this space is given windows too - albeit experience gained during the design of the Villa Baizeau minus the glass. This wall ensures be elaborated storey by storey. In both nature of the terrace, its height and orientation.
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You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Raumplan versus Plan libre: Max Risselada ; Johan van de Beek Publisher: Print book: Subjects Architecture, Domestic -- Europe. Interior architecture -- Europe. We download shoes from the cobbler. One only has to think of the interior of the Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau. The thrust of his argument is clear.
Loos himself. The bentwood chairs from the traditional Thonet range are renowned as anonymous classics. Taking points at random. Whatever the pavilion was like. Le Corbusier was also interested in leather goods. And 'below' is the workshop" None knows the others. Jucker in An example is the corner reinforcement of a trunk in an advertisement designed by Le Corbusier for Innovation. The good product is the 'standard type'. Loos influenced our architectural destiny Adolt Loos..
He clearly recognized Loos as a like-minded spirit Loos' note at the end of the first number of Das Andere may weil be true: Loos began Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. Innovation advertisement in L 'Esprit Nouveau As one of the first to foresee the magnitude of industry and its importance for aesthetics In view of this chain of far-reaching correspondences bet ween the interests of Loos on one side Innovation advertisement in L 'Esprit Nouveau.
To look for the origins of Le Corbusier's personal feud with the reformist Just ten years after this editorial "chapeau " probably written by Ozenfant Le Corbusier..
Corbusier himself summed up the case of Loos even more concisely: In both cases the printed image is presented as the summation of centuries of the printer's art. But one should not be misled by the preamble in L 'Esprit Nouveau.. Loos implied th is himself. With it. The editors of the Parisian avant-garde journal enlisted Voisin and Delage automobiles.
Around Adolt Loos Page trom a "Bauhausbuch" Loos is a one of the pioneers of the new spirit. Le Corbusier Page trom L 'Esprit Nouveau..
In it. Standing there.. I want to struggle with reality itself. It comes. I say that all th is small-calibre success has come too soon.
Jeanneret also quoted the following passage without. Cingria proposed that it should be "De-Germanized": Surprising as it may seem. They seem to have come from God's workshop. In November As far as I'm concerned. In this context it would seem al most inevitable. It was Behrens's example. You can 't build on sand. The mountains and clouds are reflected in the lake. The following passage speaks for itself: Have we re-adopted the mania for tattooing? Jeanneret's first works as an architect.
Perhaps he failed to notice that Loos had something quite different in mind than the Behrens-inspired Classici sm that the young Swiss was producing at the time. Summarized briefly. Charles L'Eplattenier. Jeanneret admitted: For th is conflict would have taken on its own con tours even without the intervention of Loos. Everything breathes beauty and calm. One should also know that Olbrich was the embodiment of precisely the reformist tendency that Loos denounced so vigorously. Arguing that the " Romandie" has a mediterranean character.
The sky is blue and a deep sense 20 of peace lies over everything. Cingria's belletristic book employs a series of dialogues to make a plea for the cultural autonomy of French-speaking Western Switzerland. I only know that the peace. Roth was a young assistant to Le Corbusier when he met Loos in Paris in at the instigation of Kulka. Like an unnecessary shriek.
A dissonance in this peace. Down among the houses of the peasants. The creation of a good or bad architect? I don't know. Only a few years ago he was proposing in his books and articles that doors should.. The key figure here was not Loos. Villa Fave-Jacot. Charles E. WHI'" 9. Le Corbusier's attempts to introduce industrial methods into building and his "Appel aux industrieis" were a self-evident function of the architect.
While there are many in stances of Jeanneret making direct copies of old pieces. This makes the following anecdote by Alfred Roth even more illuminating. La Chaux-de-Fonds Jeanneret Le Corbusier.
Only a few comments by Loos on Le Corbusier have been recorded. Villa Fallet. I do not want to suggest that Jeanneret advocated the same ideas on interiors as Loos did at that time. Le Locie. They document particularly clearly his rejection of Jugendstil and Secessionism. In the eyes of Loos. Vet the notion of subdividing living-rooms and bed rooms according to the practice of the Pullman Company.
Nor was it a choice bet ween Darwin and Schinkel for Loos. It was not a choice between either an empirical. For both Loos and Le Corbusier the question could not be framed in terms of " either. Rationality in architecture. Both architects would seem to have been fixated on the idea of comprehending the various fundamental postulates of a " rational " architecture in a detached.
The differences between. Loos had apparently forgotten that his former office in Vienna also had a vermillion-painted steel door. These images. Another obvious comparison would be with the Villa Stein in Garches.
Only one aspect of modern ferro-concrete construction was admitted to Loos ' vocabulary. Since they share a similar composition. In the Moller House this loggia is only hinted at.
Both saw their task as the formulation of architectonic images of these two diverging traditions of architectural rationalism the "paradox of reason" in Alan Colquhoun 's phrase Both have a central axis which only in Loos' case corresponds with the entrance door. Villa Schwob. The coordination of internal space and extern al form has a dialectical quality in both designs.
Let us correct that: This conviction may have played some part in Le Corbusier's decision to print only "Ornement et crime" in L 'Esprit Nouveau. La Chaux-de-Fonds. The differences separating the two architects can also 15 be summed Up briefly in two points: Strasser Apartment. Moller House. More exactly. In the examples cited above this influence is not to be seen in picturesque groupings.
Planeix House. Luisa Martina Colli. Thilo Hilpert. Ins Leeregesprochen. For details of Le Corbusier's role as the journal's advertising manager. I am grateful to Prof. American architecture and American industrial forms provided. La ricerca paziente. These contradictions are beyond the scope of th is essay: In spite of this. AdoJf Loos. Innovation was also involved in the furnishing of the Pavillon de L'Esprit Nouveau in It was a system that entangled him in contradictions in its attempts to find architectural and technical solutions to the problems of industrialization.
Leben und Werk. Everything else. Salzburg Explicit references to Innovation products in the texts are to be found in numbers 21 and Reyner Banham. Adolf Loos in his obituary for the cabinet-maker Veillich: On the " Americanism " of L 'Esprit Nouveau. October translated by lain Boyd Whyte 24 Note. Archithese 1. Tzara House. Bernhard Rukschcio and Roland Schachel. Elemente einer Synthese. Paris and Houston. Stanislaus von Moos. Neue Freie Presse. Le Corbusier first visited the USA in Theory and Design in the First Machine Age.
Frankfurter AJlgemeineZeitung. On the interior of the Pavillon de L'Esprit Nouveau. Garches Die natzliche Kanste. Frauenfeld and Stuttgart. The contract between L 'Esprit Nouveau and Innovation. Gladys C. Arthur ROegg. The theoretical system. Die funk-. L 'Esprit Nouveau. Innovation advertisements appeared in the following numbers of L 'EspritNouveau: De I'iconographie moderniste au modernisme de concept ion ".
On the collaboration of L 'Esprit Nouveau and Innovation. Tilman Buddensieg for giving me the opportunity to develop and. In fact Loos' the journal Action. See the detailed commentary in Stanislaus von Moos. A Critical History. Rukschcio and Schachel.
Begegnungen mit Pionieren. Alan Colquhoun. Basel and Stuttgart. La Chauxde-Fonds. For Loos' views on typography. Le Corbusier Archive. Sllmtliche Schriften. On this question. This provoked Ozenfant to send the following angry note to Jeanneret Le Corbusier: Atelier und Tempel.
This dedication is illustrated in Hans Bolliger. The Education of Le Corbusier. Ozenfant and Loos are nol the prime concern of this article. Katalog 7. Anmerkungen zu Charles Eduard Jeanneret". The invitation was finally taken up in Das Andere. Le Corbusiers Stadtvision. Adolf Loos.. Elements of a Synthesis.
Criticisms of design education. Alfred Roth. Cahiers de philosophie et d 'art had. Cam bridge. On Loos' importance for the architecture of Purism. December Loos was actually invited to take part in the Salon d'automne. The exact details of the personal contacts between Le Corbusier or Ch.
Almanach d 'architecture moderne. The same article was subsequently published in October under the title "Art et architecture". The version of " Ornement et crime" published in L 'Esprit Nouveau was a reprint of the translation commissioned by Georges Besson. On Loos' Paris sojourn. See also below. Vienna and Munich. Jeanneret noted in his marginal comments that he had al ready had similar thoughts during a trip to the Zugspitze.
As early as May Some notes are to be found in Stanislaus von Moos. Alexandre Cingria. For further direct references to Loos. Begegnung mit Pionieren. See also above. Dokumentation Kunst und Literatur des October New Vork. But Loos is known to have been moving at that time in circles of which Jeanneret had no knowiedge.
Letter of 22 November London and New Vork. Vienna and Munich It is also striking that Jeanneret does not ment ion Loos once in the Etude sur Ie mouvement d'art en allemagne. Modern Architecture. Kenneth Frampton. L 'Oeuvre. On this subject. On the influence of Cingria's book on Le Corbusier. The last-quoted passage is taken from Le Corbusier's essay on "Ornament und Verbrechen ".
Les Entretiens de la Villa du Rouet. Allen Brooks ed. The first full major confrontation with the Secession was "Die geschichte ei nes armen reichen Mannes" Cahiers de philosophie et d 'art. Der Mensch.
Paul V. Cela sauverait notre situation. Loos et qu 'il vous fait des promesses. FLC boite A2 Original text "Le Corbusier und Loos " in: Wien und die Architektur des 20 Jahrhunderts. Stlmtliche Schriften. Adolf Loos believed in the evolution of architecture. In European stone-built villas. Adolf Loos had little faith in the drawing as an indicator of architectural quality. Patterns should be tested in. Adolf Loos ' dwellings are marked by a maximum of three-dimensional compactness and a concentration of length.
Every pattern represents a value. The emphasis in this article is on coherent description. In my view this method is of value to those who believe in the evolution of architecture and in architectural training. The spatial complexity of his late large villas.
A design is built up of steps which he calls " patterns ". Loos avoids wings. He did. How does that fit in with his views? That is the question we hope to answer in this article. It is important that these designs were actually built. At that time Loos had already converted about forty apartments and had built several private houses. The method applied here is inspired by the "Pattern Language " of C.
I go on to show how new solutions in Loos ' work we re influenced by a re-orientation towards the " classics". Since "Raumplan " is only used in connection with Loos' work. No travel sketches of his exist. Frank Lloyd Wright's prairie houses. The opposite is demonstrated by. Raumplan Adolf Loos ' particular contribution to architecture is usually summarized under the heading of " Raumplan ".
Finally I describe the fruits of this re-orientation as exemplified by his last three villas: I group the " patterns" round these three plans space.
Translating " Raumplan " as " space plan ". I start by describing a group of " patterns" pertinent to the work Loos produced around the period of the Great War. In which is compounded: His professionallife thus covers the periods from the turn of the century up to the Great War.
I supplement it with what I regard as necessary. Jugendstil architects who stressed personal originality. The pattern is an experiential rule. Johan van de Beek Adolf Loos. A survey of patterns developed before the Great War Living Plan Compact living The most general statement which can be made about habitat ion concerns the degree and the nature of the distribution of various living activities.
He lived in Vienna until The difference between front and back gradient ofaxial privacy The town houses relate directly to the street. The difterence between front and back is only significant on the living level. The principalliving rooms are at the back. Vertical difterentiation of the living programme generates vertical movement in the house. The side with the cloakroom is the living side of the house.
Space Plan The simpte exterior In Loos ' houses. This movement takes place via staircases. Combined with stair-climbing. The front-back difference introduced movement from the front towards the rear fig. This provides kitchen staft with a short cut to the front door. Loos shifts this gradual introduction to the inside. There is no gradual external preparation e. Loos' white-plastered. The difterence between st reet level and living level is bridged just beyond the front door.
In Loos ' work this seating pattern nearly always works out. This pattern distinguishes these houses from the traditional town house. Movement from front to back is no longer. Loos re-routes the movement along one of the sides.
The difterence between the living level and the garden is bridged just outside the back door. Activities shift to the sides of the rooms. The lower of the two contains the common living rooms. A consequence of compact living is that internal contacts are maximized and external contacts minimized. Whether the cloakroom is on the left or right depends on the situation and hence on whether the move ment has a left or right bias from front to side and rear.
The centrifugat use of space Adolf Loos furnishes his rooms in a way conducive to a centrifugal use of the space. The difference between teft and right gradient of taterat privacy A distinctive feature of Loos ' houses is the pronounced difference between left and right. The bed room level. The sleeping level is only accessible from the living level.
The top and bottom levels attic and basement respectively. The difference between top and bottom Where required by local regulations. The living layer leads directly outside entrance. The living programma is implemented on the two middle levels. The difference between up and down gradient of vertical privacy The vertical structure of Adolf Loos' town houses consists of four functional levels.
He used it for the dining area in his own house. The opposite si de contains the service area. These are mainly service areas storage.
The difference between front and back Seen from the front, the house has an object-like character and from the back more of a space-shaping character. This space-creating character was later expressed increasingly by a terraced construction. The difference between left and right On the outside the difference between left and right is played down as much as possible. The compound interior The interior is composed of cubic spaces, some early works display the odd exception of a round space.
Space on the sleeping level is defined by bed rooms which are individually accessible from the circulation area. The living rooms are related in a variety of ways; we shall therefore concentrate on the living level. Sleeping and living levels are separate. Even when Loos did design double-height rooms, they do not exceed the living layer and never form a link bet ween the living and sleeping levels, unlike the traditional "hall" in English country houses and the double-height rooms in Le Corbusier's houses.
Recesses The centrifugal pattern often generates alcove-like appendages to rooms. Various types of storage unit can be built into these recesses, such as sideboards and bookshelves, and these recesses have lower ceilings than the main area of a room.
Open staircases Stairs on the living level have open access to the living rooms? These recesses and open stairs have a theatrical effect, highlighting the difference bet ween "audience" and "actor".
Eccentric circulation asymmetrical experience of symmetry Doors to rooms are positioned off-centre, which gives an improved view of the room. Circulation through the room. In this way circulation routes are kept to the perimeter of the room and away from the centre which can then become a "place". This "place" on the symmetrical axis may then be given extra focus wh en a recessed space, an alcove, is added to the main space.
This "spiral" circulation pattern, in "horizontal plan;' Living Plan is matched by a spiral circulation pattern in section, the "vertical plan" Space Plan. By contrast, symmetrical movement can occur at the front door and the doors to the terrace. Material Plan Supporting construction External walls are invariably load-bearing and of brick, with brick, load-bearing partition walls or a single column, accommodating the flue Rufer, Moller.
Floors are of timber with larger floor areas and supporting joists of concrete. Partition walls are of timber or thin brick, or are formed by cupboards.
The supporting construction is a necessity which does not play an architectonic role in Loos' work. In that sense a greater difference bet ween him and the Functionalist architects is barely conceivable, so-called "constructional honesty" meant nothing to him.
Exterior cladding On the town houses around this is always plain pIaster, frequently with a stone plinth and topped by a cornice: This plaster is in the tradition of undecorated plaster, its lack of ornament contrasting with the nineteenth-century predilection for eclectic decoration. Plaster like this has the value of maximum neutrality, like that of a man's gray threepiece suit on the social plane.
Interior cladding The inside surfaces always differ from one room to the next, the choice of material, determining a room's mood or character, was important to Loos. Natural stone and hard wood we re treated so as to show off the natural qualities of the material to their best advantage, but simpier material was also used, and softwood was painted.
Traditional patterns such as dado panelling, parquet and beamed ceilinqs. Framing elements such as columns , pilasters and beams delineate space by standing out trom the wall as separate elements. The intill panels panelling and coffered ceilings act as space modulators. A composition may exploit the interaction of both aspects but variation is liable to occur in the details, tor example the regular S-shaped moulding of pilasters, or between the square panels and framing of the walipanellling construction.
Interior surfaces in early designs do not treat frames and panels systematically, meaning that they are interchangeable on both walls and ceilings.