classification within Kingdom Plantae popularly known as the 'plant kingdom'. We must stress this chapter, we will describe Plantae under Algae, Bryophytes. The Kingdom Plantae includes plants which are multicellular, eukaryotic, Plant Kingdom because they live in soil but require water for sexual reproduction. Our understanding of the plant kingdom has changed over time. ▫ Fungi excluded from Plantae though earlier classifications put them in the same kingdom.

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Plant Kingdom Pdf

Plant. Classification. Grouping plants by their similar characteristics Scientific Classification. Animal. Plant. Protista. Kingdom Plant Kingdom. Bryophyta. Or. KINGDOM PLANTAE In botany, plants are classified into divisions instead of phyla. . Kingdom Plantae. Characteristics chloroplasts with chlorophyll a & b, and carotenoids cellulose cell walls formation of cell plate during cell division starch used.

This chapter is also equally important for the students who are preparing for boards examination this year. So, let us begin with a brief introduction about the division of Plant Kingdom. The plant kingdom is the study of various subgroups of plants each one having special features. Plant kingdom classification has changed over time. Earlier, Monera and Fungi were also a part of the plant classification but now they are not a part of the plant kingdom. Recently, the plant kingdom has been divided under Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Algae are aquatic organisms containing chlorophyll. These organisms are autotrophic in nature and sometimes occur in association with fungi and other animals such as lichen and sloth bear. When gametes are flagellated and their sizes are similar.

The dominant phase or plant body is free living gametophyte.

Roots are absent but contain rhizoids Vegetative reproduction is by fragmentation, tubers, gemmae, buds etc. The male sex organ is called antheridium. They produce biflagellate antherozoids. The female sex organ called archegonium is flask-shaped and produces a single egg. Sporophyte is dependent on gametophyte for nourishment. Bryophytes Hepaticopsida Liverworts The plant body of a liverwort is thalloid, e. The thallus is dorsiventral and closely appressed to the substrate.

Asexual reproduction in liverworts takes place by fragmentation, or by the formation of specialised structures called gemmae.

Gemmae are green, multicellular, asexual buds, which develops in small receptacles called gemma cups. The gemmae becomes detached from the parent body and germinate to form new individuals During sexual reproduction, male and female sex organs are produced either on the same or on different thalli. The sporophyte is differentiated into a foot, seta and capsule. Spores produced within the capsule germinate to form free-living gametophytes. Bryopsida Mosses The gametophyte of mosses consists of two stages- the first stage is protonema stage, which develops directly from spores.

It is creeping, green and frequently filamentous. The second stage is the leafy stage, which develops from secondary protonema as lateral bud having upright, slender axes bearing spirally arranged leaves.

Vegetative reproduction is by the fragmentation and budding in secondary protonema. In sexual reproduction, the sex organs antheridia and archegonia are produced at the apex of the leafy shoots.

Sporophytes in mosses are more developed and consist of foot, seta and capsule.

Chapter 19 - Excretory Products and their Elimination. Chapter 20 - Locomotion and Movement.

Chapter 21 - Neural Control and Coordination. Chapter 22 - Chemical Coordination and integration. Important Questions for Class Revision Notes for Class Register now. Class 12th. Class 11th.

Plant Kingdom – Thallophytes (Algae) – Bryophytes – Pteridophytes

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Plant Kingdom Chart from Montessori for Everyone

Many sporangia are borne on the lower surfaces of its mature leaves. Each sporangium has spore mother cells which undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores.

On maturing, these spores dehisce and germinate to give rise to a heart-shaped gametophyte called prothallus. The prothallus bears the male and female sex organs called antheridia and archegonia respectively. The antheridia produce sperms that swim in water to reach the archegonia.

Plant Kingdom Notes for NEET, Download Kingdom Plantae PDF Here!

The egg is produced by the archegonia. As a result of fertilisation, a zygote is formed. The zygote forms an embryo, which in turn develops into a new sporophyte. The young plant comes out of the archegonium of the parent gametophyte.

They perform half of the total carbon dioxide-fixation on earth by photosynthesis, acting as the primary producers in aquatic habitats. Chlorella and Spirulina are rich in proteins. Thus, they are used as food supplements. It is obtained from Gelidium and Gracilaria. Carrageenan is used as an emulsifier in chocolates, paints, and toothpastes. It is obtained from the red algae. Economic importance of gymnosperms a Construction purposes: Many conifers such as pine, cedar, etc.

Many species of Ephedra produce ephedrine, which can be used in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis.

A type of resin known as turpentine is obtained from various species of Pinus. Ans : Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed-producing plants with diplontic life cycles. In gymnosperms, the sporophylls are aggregated to form compact cones.

The microsporophylls are broad and are not distinguished into filaments and anthers. The megasporophylls are woody and lack the ovary, style, and stigma, because of which the ovules lie exposed.

The female gametophyte consists of archegonia.

The fertilisation process involves the fusion of a male gamete with the female gamete. Their endosperm is haploid. The produced seeds are naked as there is no fruit formation. Gymnosperms and angiosperms are seed-producing plants with diplontic life cycles. Angiosperms are also known as flowering plants.

They have sporophylls that aggregate to form flowers with the perianth. The microsporophylls consist of stamens containing pollen sacs. These sacs bear the male gametes called pollen grains. The megasporophylls are delicate and rolled, forming carpels that contain the ovary, style, and stigma. The ovules are present inside the ovary.

The archegonium is replaced by an egg apparatus.

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