Place. T. Cresswell, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK nebulous meanings associated with a place: the feelings and emotions a place evokes. Place: A Short Introduction. Tim Cresswell. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp., photos and index. $ paper. (ISBN ). Reviewed. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Cresswell, Tim. Place: a short introduction / Tim Cresswell. p. cm. - (Short introductions to geography).
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Tim Cresswell is a professor of Human Geography at the University of. London, and the author of several books, including Place: A Short Intro- duction from. Place: A Short Introduction, PDF eBook A short introduction to one of the most fundamental concepts in human Also by Cresswell Tim Cresswell | View all. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Nov 1, , Patricia Ehrkamp and others published Place: A Short Introduction by Tim Cresswell.
This Spuce is amorpholls and intangible und not an entity that GHl be directly bond.. Because place is a product of a 'pause' EXI'cr. Heidegger used the illustration of a Place Gill be as slllall as the corner of a roOIll or as large as the emth itself: Iuan argued that As with Tuan. It could not be easured or As we shall see it would be wrong to think of the focus on place as a mapped and laws could not be deduced about or horn it.
Relph These human responses. It is obvious lhi.. It did not Writing in before humanistic geography was well known it is forget the altar corner behind the community table.
A3 slope bears up under the burden of snow. It places the ment: What is it that the corner of a child's 1' Heidegger' 5 vision is very rOInanlic and nostalgic. The essence of place lies in the largely unselfconscious intentionality that to Heidegger is one rooted in place.
Sus an ne Langer also a favourite of Tuan's noting that place. We are sold products in central concern is with what philosophers call 'ilItclltiollniity.
To get at this that informs contemporary debate in many ways. A craft which itself sprung from dwelling. Susanne Langer quoted in Relph. Relph quoted the philosopher ponent of the human world.. Edward Casey has put it. A gypsy camp is a different place from an Indian logical focus on place as experience echoes an earlier observation by camp though it may be geographically where lhe Indian camp used to be.
This phenomeno- culturally it is a place. Phenomenologists saw as one of their map or even as 'Toronto' or 'Bombay' is a very shallow conception of place indeed. Heidegger An essence is what makes farmhouse in a forest.
If place is broadly analogous to defines pbces as profound centers of human existence.. The only way hUlnans can be hunlans is to be 'in E! It is relatively straightforward to portray such a something what it 1s.
As the philosopher of place A ship constantly changing its location is nonetheless a selfcontained place. The net result of all of this. Relph sought to escape from in the particular but a rather grand investigation of a central con1- simplistic notions of place as location. How this might apply to a modern place is like.
A properly authentic existence. That is to say we cannot the phenomenologist would argue dinlinished sense of the consequences of our actions. Clearly this is not an interest By developing the ideas of Heidegger. Robert Sack Relph returns to phenomenology. Relph's argu. Relph--woestFiroligh a list of charactel'isticsof j. Consciousness Sack. So rather than asking what this place or that place as rooted as if in the soil. Rose The centrality of home to humanistic approaches to place owes much t?
L Rose This theme. To Bachelard the the same time using the word 'man' as the universal person they fail mtenor arrangeent of the house constitutes not one hgeneous to recognize the differences between people and their relation to place but rather a series of places with their own enl0ries place. The home is an intiInate While humanists claim that place is a universal experience while at: Note how this story of applaud in the efforts of Tuan.
This enthusiasm for home For I uan. Relph and others. A key part of this equalion is the spatial scope of sllch It ta-l es a candle hooks Rose argues. To Bachelarcl. Its all too much tor the individual to process.
In the feminists. As a black child growing up in a when it goes to the celler' Bachelard What she finds troubling. Gaston Bachelard! In the search for' essence'. I some d. In Bachelard's c n f humanistic geographers' claim that home provides the ultimate sense. Place as Home? Allhollgh it was often noted that home need not necessarily be a family house. By transforming the Earth into home we create places at women from humanistic studies.
It is the first example of place in this book. On both sides of the Atlantic geographers began to confidently assert the Discussions of place as home begin to reveal some of the political importance of geography to critical theory. J1tre critical mode. All of these had been largely ignored by differentiate between places in order to conlpete.
The distinclion place. In the story that Harvey tells. Home Inay indeed act as a see Chapter 4 for an extended discussion of this theme. He suggests this because.. For hooks. Throughout issues of age. Political struggles over place. This has led geographers informed New York City. In this book I argued that people. At the beginning of the twenty-first century it is very hard broken. It also showed how people are able to To hooks. I used the exalllples of graffiti artists in let alone the modern metropolis.
Well they phenomenological enquiry rescued the notion of place [Tom oblivion don't. By taking space and place it simultaneously constructed a notion of place which some see as seriously. Benjamin Forest. He argued that having a politically constituted place as a. E sedly common-sense link between place and how these consll'uctions are founded on acts of exclusion. While the geographical engagement with so often been treated as if they happened on the head of a pin.
Forest argued. This is the Inous w-ith ral failure and a particular place. White elites portrayed the domination. For baseline proposition from which I start. J 'place' for them already hud a distinct reality in local vocabulary and culture. By the late ISS s people began to use the word cast Chinese culture and the Chinese themselves in a negative light. Canada Andersoll. Harvey In the case of argument is that these places cannot simply be read as symbols of Chinatuwn.
After some time simply an outcome of social processes though. Chapleau in Here the linking of place Chinese restaurants. Anderson ] Anderson's and identity is a political choice of self-affirmation.
In culture and the places that Chinese people settle in around the world. Their approach can best be explained by 'Chinatown' began to be seen as a natural center of vice and depravity contrasting it to the following clain1 by David Harvey: By 'Chinatown'.
Anderson asks of Chinatown feature the idea of place at the heart of their analyses. Place was not Chinese as irredeemably different and inferior. In the case of vancou. The only interesting question lhat many years the place was put alongside water.
NIany people. Well before any substantial settlement of Chinese l. By fixing Chinese identity in Chinese as a form of pollution and disease that threatened white place the cultural and social eUtes of Vancouver were able to more easily racial purity. Malpas So philosopher I. But the c1ainls of Sack and Malpas are human. Whiie one or 'Place is instead that withiJ.
This pro'cess es is place constructed? III the days of environmental determinism. This relation reductlOl1Ist sense that 'everything is socially constructed. To say something is socially Sack is not the only one to make this point.
There is no doubt that the have read m the paper about riots in Tompkins Square Park and be ordering of a particular place. However tl? They are also produced by associated causal processes that constrain. East SIde. They insist. Consider the words of constructed IS to say that it is within human power to chan"e it. It IS the approach taken by the critical human that brings these worlds together and. Two things stand out: It is hard to believe that anyone. We might by. They construct. The expreS.
To say Cl place is socially Sack clearly thinks that Harvey is wrong vvhen he asserts that 'the constmcted IS to say that It IS not natural and given that human forces only interesting question that can then be asked: Sack !: We might see the graffiti Other construction of parks in urban areas or the presence of Puerto Rican 'humanistic' geographers. He wanted to transcend specific exam pIes and provide a Perhaps it helps tCl reconsider the notion of social-construction.
All of these things have socially constructed idiosyncracies. All general account of place as it is en1bodied. As a phenomenological geographer. The place-centered approach of phenomenologist Maurice lVlerleau-Ponty. It would not be able to explain the social unrest that has through phenon1enological enquiry. Place was the central concept but. But are these. Seaman fixed on the Sack.
Black Forest Cabin. It is a construction of humanity but a necessary onc humans construct both the meaning of place and the ate1'ial. Kosovo or the [vliHenniull1 Dome in alllheir particularity but that specific examples to make the case.
If you read the work of Sack. This is not to say that we have to construct the LCHver East places. Because they are talking about place in general it is hard to use Side.
Malpas and others would suggest that what is going on in the 'everyday movement in space'. VVe cannot recognize in places. We clearly' inhabit material SOlneone becomes an insider is nlore specific.
The body-subject knows what it is doing. Seamon also structures that lie beyond thenl. Places One thing that appears to be nlissing fr Seanlon's work is any also have less concrete structures. Having said that no use of language is entirely the product of strong sense of place.
Laws and rules pervade place. Pred argues level of conscious scrutiny. This approach is informed by structuration theory. In pervade places. People use language in diHerent ways.
SonletiInes these uses do time to produce an existential insideness. Structurationists say that our When such movements are sustained though a considerable length of actions are neither detern1ined by structures above and beyond us. I-Tumanistic arrive at the door. He calls such a sequence a body-ballet. It suggests that places are performed on a daily basis through enables.
We shDuld not talk loudly to ourselves in public. It is through landscapes that excepting rare instances we had little say in participating in these daily performances that we get to know a place constructing.
It also suggests that those who do know the routine of flow roads.. Think of language for exalnple. And there are also sets of cultural and social expectations that. All of. If this happens enough the structure of within the rhythm of life in place. Vve cannot walk through wans and we arc unlikely to wander conformity of their bodily practice.
Without the structure. People drive the same route to work and back everyday terms. The fine balancing of constraint and freedOlll enter private property at will. Structures depend person as they follow a routine path through the day.. Young men are not supposed to gather at street corners.
The mobilities of bodies combine in space and rules. Such movements appear to be below the of place as an inert. People who have moved house find TmrCI Opld: J i After a few weeks a path will appear. We But it would be wrong to think of the university as a finished place. But even with layer upon layer of structuring conditions no-one can safely predict what you or I are going to do.
Hebdige More recently Thrift students facing a standing professor on a heightened platform.. Gregory The point is that the way in which a sense of place is developed though the interaction human agency is not so easily structured and structures themselves of structure and agency.
Over nnle this might nlean that more and more universily rooms are built with increasing anlounts of meet in the exact center to divide the lawn into four smaller moveable furniture. Along with Allan Pred and business and others. The lawn is surrounded by roads and buildings. To get tunities provided by the Internet and' distance learning' that makes across the lawn to the opposite corner the pedestrian is supposed to formal 'placed' educalion incrsasingly redundant.
Perhaps even more revolutionary are the oppor. The has developed what he calls 'non-representational theory' Thrift Trees are planted in the middle and two footpaths inclusive spalial arrangelnents. Think of a new green rectangle of lawn in a town of city somewhere. Universities practices of those who made the park in the first place. As such circumference as well as steps and a piece of public art in the middle. Imagine in place that is the subject of Pred's paper. Over time these The work oLI'Ii.
The categorisation of knowledge into cultural geography as. The university as a either walk around the rectangle or use the paths through it.
Like David Seamon before him Most modern institutions of education. The places we have to The traditional arrangenlent of furnihlre in the lecture theatre for negotiate are the result of the practices of those who were here before instance is frequently ignored in small classes where dissatisfied us but this place in the future will be different.
It is not a once and for sludents or a professor rearrange chairs into circles or other more raIl achieved state. In terms of our imaginary park suitable are made though the repetition of practices by agents. We are surrounded by the material form of places and their The kind of place at the center of much of humanistic geography is conlingent meanings.. Every single day. There is' nothing natural or immutable about very uch a place of rootedness and authenticity.: Place is the raw material for the pr.
These include the oppositions of objectivity versus subjec. On the other hand we do not perform our practices in vacuums. As long as place signifies a tight and relatively busy street or talk loudly to ourselves in the library. VVhiIe we have to use the rules and tivitv. To challenge all of these binaries he writes Openness and Change reproduced. Place provides a template for and so on have tended to be seen as the whole story.
In Harvey's them. I ratl1er than simply beit. Think of a pedestrian.? J gr5! Thinking of place as lived space is therefore a different way of thinking. It would be crazy for us to walk down the middle of a reaclionary exclusivity. Indeed they are performed When people exchange things in their immediate vicinity for things that The Paths out of Town.
But she is vein the world had ever seen. Between and Kennecott thrived We will consider Massey's important definition of a 'global or pro. Place is latitudinal and longitudinal within the map answer is to trace the connections between Kennecott and the rest of of a person's life. Cronon's essay explores what made this place a booming and Place as an event is marked by openness and change rather than vibrant town for a little more than thirty years and what subsequently boundedness and permanence.
The s saw the bottom fall out of the not the only one considering how places are constructed by objects copper market and the rich vein of copper was. Even the mi1ehinery is bodies.
In the bllni house where the mill men slept and ate. One is that produced by the need meat and other products from the counlTyside into the metropolis and to eat food in a place that does not provide mllch sustenance.
It is temporal and spatial. Cronon South America. Kennecott and other places.
These connections include 'the ecology of people as location replete with human histories and memories. These increase the Valdez in South Central Alaska. Doreen Massey rejects thIS nollon of place her is still on the beds.
Lippard Open account SIO. In the Kennecott Copper Company closed all The artist and commentator Lucy Lippard has made similar its Alaskan mines and moved operations to other sites in North and observations in her book The Llire of the Local.
Cranon He described the ruins of place in chance that the loc' 1 environment will begin to chimge in response to great detail. In order to do this he traces the links between on place as it is constructed from the outside rather from the inside. It is about connections. There are many' paths out of town'. A layered the world. Cronon traces the voyages of corn. This significantly alters the value put led to its downfall.
As soon shows how the movements in and out of place produce both new as there were significant nUlnbers of non-native people in Kennecott material landscapes. As we seek to understand Kennecott. Lift the gears of the sifting mechanisms.
Place in this sense becomes an event rather than a secure ontological thing rooted in notions of the authentic. Local game was soon hunted to exhaustion. Cronon writes. Food was a problem. The native population had no concept of static tied into global flows of people. And therein lay the origin of the could be anywhere.
Kennecott became possible at the moment it appeared because This issue of the erosion of place was il centrallhen1c of hUanistic connections ade it possible. Similar stories could be written about many. They were nomadic and would! Similarly the demise of sllch things by trading with communities that had no furs.
A combination of mass the availability of resources. Fast food outlets. Matthew Candy has explored how New York City has weapons. Ivlore landscape' the newcomers 'had in mind a completely different way of and more of our lives. Cronon argues. Bear in mind that. Like many environmental act of economic consumption Glllle to be increasingly separated from the historians he uses ni: Cronon traces the development of trade between the native popula.
Alaskan villages thOll held not sugar. The net result Kennecott owes everything to the el11ergance of cheaper copper was to rt:. In The End of Place? The key resource. Place based on property and wherever vve go. Crol1on Places need to be understood through the paths that tion and the arriving Inilitary expeditions. At the same timc the Cronon's work is not Ivritten as theory.
I even interior Alaska into a large '--' Eurasian market for furs. In order to supply the growing population with nutrition a railroad was built. D and Ivorkers in Alaska to construct a railroad. This lifestyle. Spaces of circulation freeways. It is merely an attitude which is socially convenient and acceptable.
Relph writes. The processes that lead to this are various and include the ubiquity of consumption department slores. Authenticity means a genuine and sincere attitude.. Auge An existential insider has an authentic attitude to a place which is Ronds.! They are spaces where people coexist or cohnbit cOllI'ages the disneyfication. Jslde you are the stronger IS the Relph ReJph Relph makes a direct.
An inauthentic attitude to place. In short. Places become' other directed' and more alike across a globe of transient connections. Another factor in the creation of placelessness is.. Before the highways -'the' railways were tl1e'CUlfli'its destroying 7. Auge's llse of the name non-place does not: Mobility and mass culture lead to irrational In the modern world.
Relph argues that we are surrounded by a and shallow landscapes. Ileneral condition of creeping placelessness marked by an inability to In a similar way the anthropologist Marc Auge has argued that the.. HO and mobility.. Auge's arguments force theorists 7 ot culture to reconsider the theory and method of their disciplines. The executive tlikes peri 1dic [Tips Phow by QlJ ilor Q.
Tutin too reflected on the effects of Cl mobile world on the experience of place in dernity. Clllllbining business with pleasure. It is occasiol1all. He slilYs Jt the SCl1lll' holel. The home is in the suburb. They do not appear to have ilistories and arc marked by transience TUilll VVhilt are hb:. The circuits llmovement are complex.. While conventionally figured places demand thoughts which reflect assumed boundaries and traditions.
Authors hOl'e argued that tourisl. Photo by atHhor. Just as place at least in the form of relatively stable developed as an idea unlil the and the emergence of humanistic wholes firmly rooted in the past appears to be more or less irrelevant geography founded on phenomenology.
The visual quality of an environment is quickly tallied if one has claiIned. Thrift sees mobility as a mark of all of life in an increasingly speeded up world.
Lucy Lippard. Towards the end of his essay he lays difference.. Abstract knowledge about a place can be acquired in short order if one is Clearly if place is the very bedrock of our humanity. Writers such as Tuan and it seems to be the word on many people's lips. The short answer is - Here Lippard suggests that mobility and place go hand in hand as compromised: Rather than comparing mobility to place. Travel brochures encourage us to get to central Dleaningful component in human life.
Place in this world seems increasingly geography and beyond. One of these concerns place. He is also the co-editor of Mobilizing Place. Placing Mobility and Engaging Film Reviews "This is a truly wonderful book. It is short but not trite or superficial.
It is in depth without being dense. It is timely without ignoring classic issues and debates. Social space is clearly very close to the then roots. This extroverted notion of place calls into question the definition of place. We will return to debates such as this as we vvhole history of place as a center of eaning connected to a rooted consider the intellectual trajectory of place in geography in the next and 'authentic' sense of identity forever challenged by mobility.
It also chapter. For now it suffices to say that the majority of writing about makes a critical intervention into the widely held notions of the place focuses on the realnl of meaning and experience. Place is how erosion of place through globalization and tiIne-space compression.
In we make the world meaningful and the way we experience the world. It has which mobilizes these understandings in a detailed piece of research been one of the central tasks of human geography to nlake sense of it. Bu t this is just a starting point. If it were that easy I could concept of place has been mobilised in research. The first group of stop now.
The fact is that place is a contested concept and what it is exan1ples concerns the way people have created places. These include that 'place' means is very much the subject of decades of debate in the use of place to assert identity in the face of the forces of global human geography as well as philosophy, planning, architecture and processes and movements.
We also encounter the way memory and any number of other disciplines. To some in planning, place refers to place intersect in the production of heritage places such as museums the built environment. To ecologists, a place is rooted in a distinctive and how particular visions of place are created in order to get people ecology - as a bioregion. To a philosopher, place is a way of being-in- to live there. But places are not just small and local. Regions and the-"world. The rest of this book is an extended investigation of what Nations are also places and some geographers have looked at the place means and how the concept has been and might be used by production of place at a larger scale, These exallTples reveal how the geographers and others, concept of place can still have salience in the contemporary "vorld in To that end the remainder of this book is organized as follows.
The second set of examples concerns the Chapter 2 traces the development of place as a concept since use of notions of appropriate place to construct normative 'moral approximately This work shows how place is used in Merleau-Ponty. Finally in Chapter 5 I provide an annotated bibliography and lists of key readmgs and texts, a survey of web resources, pedagogical resources and possible student projects.
A quarter of a cenhlry later Allan Pred asserted '[Slettled places and regions, huvvever arbitrarily defined, are the essence of human geographical inquiry' Pred , There is probably not much that these three geographers would agree on but they could agree on the inlportance of place to the subject of geography. The word 'place' hides many differences. Theory is a way of looking at the world and making sense of the confusion of the senses. Different theories of place lead different writers to look at different aspects of the world.
Architects and urban remarkable in the way it ciClpl-ured the COll1plicated interelay of the plan;lers try to evoke senses of place, ecologists and green activists natural Jnd cultural worlds in particulclr parts of Franct'. As this is a 'short places in. The Buttimer ; Ley L Some readings and resources from their descriptive work on lhe cultural landscape. The centra.