medical-site.info: Engineering Metrology and Measurements (): Raghavendra, Krishnamurthy: Books. METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS - Kindle edition by ANDERSON A, KARTHICK Available on these devices; Due to its large file size, this book may take. Meant for students and practicing Engineers, this book provides an integrated exposure to dimensional and mechanical measurement. It gives the reader a.
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Engineering Metrology and Measurements is a core subject for mechanical, book provides a comprehensive coverage of both metrology and mechanical. Preface It is with pleasure that we present this edition of the easy-to-use book on Engineering Metrology and Measurements ". It is published. Metrology and Measurements Book Metrology and Measurement systems Metrology and Measurements PDF PaperBook: Book Description: Meant for college.
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Get New Updates Email Alerts Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Search Your Files. Join with us. Secondly, all industrial activity is underpinned by metrology.
Components manufactured in different parts of our increasingly globalised world must be compatible with components made and assembled elsewhere.
These compatibilities might comprise more than simple dimensional agreement, but may also be dependent on other measures such as voltage or chemical composition.
Thirdly, fundamental metrology is concerned with developing new methods of measurement, establishing agreed standards, definitions and units of measurement and providing traceable measurements from which standards can be created and applied. It is fundamental metrology that underpins all of the other metrological activities. The field of fundamental metrology is extremely broad, often complex, and sometimes quite abstract.
A definition stressing the huge range to which metrology can be applied was offered by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures BIPM 'The science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology' [ 1 ]. All scientific disciplines have their own well-developed, and mostly agreed, use of language and terminology and in this respect metrology is no different.
An example of this in the metrological context is the use of the word 'uncertainty' in the preceding paragraph. One thing common to all metrologists is that when we discuss our measurements we tend not to emphasise the absolute values we measure, but we stress the uncertainty or error of our measurement as we strive to improve the science of the measurement itself. We can never be certain of our measurements except in very special cases, such as being certain that no electrical current will flow in an open circuit.
As soon as we close the circuit and begin to take measurements we must take into account the precision, accuracy, reliability and un certainty associated with taking the measurement [ 2 ]. Beginning with precision, we could think of this in simple terms, such as how many decimal places do we have on our meter? However, this approach is incorrect and in fact our precision is also closely linked to how reproducible our measurements are.
If we find we take many measurements of the same thing and they agree to three decimal places very well on a system capable in principle of measuring more, we can be confident of only the three decimal place measurement and this determines our precision, with the variation below this contributing to our uncertainty. Turning to accuracy, even if our measurement system agrees very well on identical measurements it does not necessarily translate that it is accurate.
To determine accuracy we need to compare our instrument readings to a standard, traceable to one of the national measurement institutes. Reliability is closely linked to precision, but it is also a measure of the accuracy over time.
Finally, the uncertainty of our measurement is a product of all of these things and as we make measurements we see variation from sample to sample, day to day and instrument to instrument. This dispersion in the measurements is our measurement uncertainty, with the relative uncertainty being given by the measurement uncertainty divided by the measured value.
For readers for whom these concepts are new, a downloadable collection of measurement guides including an introduction to measurement uncertainty can be found at [ 3 ]. Throughout this book many examples will be given, or referenced, that quote values and units of measurement.
However, the main aim of this text is not to emphasise or assign great importance to these values, but to make the reader aware of the measurement possibilities of using the focused ion beam FIB and the likely sources of error and uncertainty and the limits of this very versatile range of instruments. Metrology in the FIB Based on these metrological definitions and key terms, what exactly do we mean by nanometrology?