2. TENSES. Tenses adalah perubahan kata kerja yang dipengaruhi oleh waktu dan sifat kejadian. Semua kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris tidak lepas dari tenses. Modul ini memuat ringkasan materi bahasa Inggris dengan didikuti latihan- dasar kalimat bahasa Inggris, words, phrases,, clauses, tenses. Pengertian dan Fungsi Tenses. 2. Ruang lingkup materi. • Simple Tenses. Past. Present. Future. V2. V1 will + V1. Tobe2+ving. V ing tobe1 + going + to + V1 .

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Materi Tenses Pdf

View RANGKUMAN + TIPS KILAT medical-site.info from BIOCHEM 7 at Oxnard College. 16 GRAMMER E~BOOK 1 Tenses merupakan perubahan kata kerja dalam. telah dilimpahkan-Nya sehinnga diktat/materi satu materi pegangan mahasiswa dalam . Kata bantu Do (do, does, did) dipakai pada tensis simple tense. Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense Subyek + has/have + been + verb ing a. Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang telah mulai.

When we use the past continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. Look at these examples: I was working at 10pm last night. They were not playing football at 9am this morning. What were you doing at 10pm last night? What were you doing when he arrived? She was cooking when I telephoned her. We were having dinner when it started to rain. Ram went home early because it was snowing. We often use the past continuous tense to "set the scene" in stories. We use it to describe the background situation at the moment when the action begins. Often, the story starts with the past continuous tense and then moves into the simple past tense. Here is an example: " James Bond was driving through town. It was raining.

The top ten suppliers remained the same, as the chart shows. Behind this apparent similarity, however, lies a rapidly changing situation for telecoms suppliers both large and small. They have been affected by the massive developments taking place in three major areas: By the voice market will be open to competition in most of the European union eu , and the same trend is occurring in the rest of the world. One effect of this trend has been to break the comfortable relationship that the main national telecom operator usually had with one large national supplier.

The operators must compete in their own markets on cost, so their downloading policy is to download from virtually any supplier who can meet their constantly changing demands — at the right price. And the suppliers themselves are keen to break into new, potentially lucrative markets. Operators and suppliers alike find themselves in a new business environment which is full threats — and of wonderful new opportunities.

The ICE age is coming back. Technology, developing increasingly fast, is bringing together the previously separate industries of information. So telecoms suppliers have to be ready with total solutions; and be ready to develop — or download in — new skills and competencies in a range of activities which were previously of only limited interest to them. At the same time, equipment is becoming more and more user friendly, so It can be understood more quickly by client and supplied more and more easily by the manufacture.

STT Ibnu Sina other ways. Service, speed and innovation can be more attractive than pure technical background. The market Globalization has seen the growth of major alliances of telecom operators across international borders, to help the increasing number of companies, large and small, which need to communicate ever wide geographical areas. So, the characteristics and size of the suppliers typical costumer are constantly changing.

The capacity to deal with and adapt to such an unprecedented degree of change in these areas is what will determine the relative success of the telecom suppliers of the future. What do these words mean in Indonesian? Use a dictionary to check. There are many adjectives ending in —ing and —ed. For example, boring and bored. Study this example situation: Jane has been doing the same job for a very long time. Every day she does exactly the same thing again and again.

Jane is bored with her job.

Somebody is bored if something or somebody else is boring. Or, if something is boring, it makes you bored. Compare adjectives ending in —ing and —ed: You can say: The —ing adjective tells you about the etc.

The —ed adjective tells you how somebody feels about the job. Compare these examples: I Disappointed expected it to be much better. Complete the sentences for each situation.

I hate this weather. She has never been there before. I had expected it to be better. I enjoyed it. Complete the sentences using one of the words in the box. It was really. I seldom visit art galleries. I fell asleep. He can be very. Liz is a very. Look at these examples: Quickly and seriously are adverbs. Some adjectives end in —ly too, for example: Adjective or adverb? We use adjectives us about a verb. An adverb tells us before nouns and after some verbs, how somebody does something or especially be: Compare these sentences with look: We also use adverbs before adjective and other adverbs.

For example: Complete the sentences with adverbs. The first letter s of each adverb are given. I had little difficulty finding a place to live. I found a flat quite ea. We waited pa. Nobody knew George was coming to see us. He arrived unex. Put in the right word. Complete each sentences using a word from the list. Sometimes you need the adjective careful etc. The time passed very quickly.

Sue works. Choose two words one from each box to complete each sentence. The car was only. The adverb is well: Jack can run very fast.

Ann works hard. I got up this morning. Study these examples: She hardly spoke to me. They hardly know each other. He hardly tried to fine one. Hardly any. Hardly anybody in our class passed. I can hardly read it. I could hardly walk. I hardly ever go out. Put in good or well. Are you. They were well-behaved. She quite. It is very. Your diet should be. Ann knows a lot about many things. He is always. Are the underlined words right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.

She hits the ball hardly. Are you tired?

Write sentences with hardly. Use one of the following verbs in the correct form: I can. Kate was very quiet this evening. There was. As monopoly becomes a thing of the past, the market is thrown open to anybody who wants to complete — and the costumer is at last able to choose the supplier she or he wants.

There are three main groups of competitors in the brave new world: Public telephone operators PTOs , who once monopolized the supply of lines and of most equipment, now are just another — if privileged — supplier of both.

Tense and Aspect (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Equipment manufactures, who used to supply mainly to the PTOs, now can, in many cases, supply direct to the customer. Services providers, including computer companies supplying sophisticated switches and value-added services, find an increase market for their product as telecoms become a vital strategies business tool.

Who is the customer? A customer-focused business must first know who the customer is. In telecoms four main types of customer are emerging. Multi-national companies operating across national frontiers, and using sophisticated and high-capacity networks for the transfer of voice, image, data and television. Residential customers, the ordinary citizens usually using one telephone line for basic telephony, but increasingly aware of the enormous potential of telecommunications for work and leisure.

Public administration. The customer is now the focus of all attention in the telecoms business. Operators, manufactures and service providers alike have to change the way they work, in order to succeed in the new business environment. And none more so than the operators, many of whom were once government departments acting like bureaucrats, responding to legislation rather than to the market.

If competition had not been forced upon them, many might still be acting in the same way today. I think I left my watch at your house.

Have you seen it? In this example, Ann feels there is a real possibility that she will find the watch. So she says: If I find. This is a different type of situation. If I found. But the meaning is not past: We do not normally use would in the if-part of these sentence: Could and might are also possible: Do not use when in sentences like those on this page: Put the verb into the correct form. They would be disappointed if we. You ask a friend questions. Use what would you do if.

What would you do if you won a lot of money? Answer the questions in the way shown. Shall we catch the Is Ken going to take the examination? Is Sally going to apply for the job? Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Would you go to the party if. Would you mind if. Three kinds of barrier deny the majority of the world access to the new information sources. Economic factors are the most important.

Many people live and work in places lacking the necessary communications to make links with other users. It can take three days to place an international call from India to Bangladesh, and even then, the connection is often not good enough for the computer communications.

Of the technical barriers, by far the most excluding is language: Finally, there are political question, which centre on access to affective education and training to enable people to use the technology…in particular, the notion that computer technology has a greater bias towards men.

As one commentator summarized the situation: Although the number of subscriber lines installed over the past ten years has been the second highest in the world as a region, Africa also holds the global record for the fastest-growing population.

Each square represents a country and the overwhelming concentration in the bottom left-hand corner represents the very low teledensity in the poorer countries. Economists think that it should be relatively easy to increase teledensity for low-income countries. According to the ITU, this fact suggest that: But are the investors listening? The changes ahead stem primarily from two groundbreaking Internet innovations: When a Web-user selects a highlighted word on a screen, hypertext quickly connects the computer directly to the proper information source … no matter where in the world it resides.

We- browsing softwareis doing for the Internet what Macintosh and Windows did for persnal computing … making it easier, lively and fun for ordnary users. Thousands of schools, libraries, business and ordinary indivisuals are making off territory in cyberspace. In , MCI one of the three major long- distance carriers in the US whose telephone networks already easy-to-install software, a Web browser, a virtaul shopping-center and a business consulting service.

But there are likely to be a few problems. STT Ibnu Sina computer and a modem can become a self-publisher with global distribution? Unscrupulous dealers in pornographic material have already used Internet, while there are also likely to be problems with data security and a boom in computer crime.

As the Net opens its doors, the real world will come rushing in. Language Development A. We often use verbs with the following words: For examples: The car broke down. I was nervous as the plane took off. How did you get on? Sometimes a phrasal verb is followed by a preposition. Sometimes a phrasal verb has an object. Usually there are two possible positions for the object. I turned it off. Why did the police break it down?

Complete the sentences using one of these phrasal verbs in the correct form: The car broke down on the way here. When are you. I sat in an armchair and. I hope it. Complete the sentences using a word from list A and a word from list B. The robbers got. Would you like me to..

Complete the sentences. The children are asleep. Nobody is watching it. I tried to calm. I was able to put. Meaning of Business Correspondence Communication through exchange of letters is known as correspondence. We communicate our feelings, thoughts etc. A Businessman also writes and receives letters in his day to-day transactions, which may be called business correspondence. Business correspondence or business letter is a written communication between two parties.

Businessmen may write letters to supplier of goods and also receive letters from the suppliers. Customers may write letters to businessmen seeking information about availability of goods, price, quality, sample etc. Thus, business letters may be defined as a media or means through which views are expressed and ideas or information is communicated in writing in the process of business activities.

Part of a Business Letter Different parts of a business letter- 1. Heading 2. Date 3. Reference 4. Inside Address 5. Subject 6. Salutation 7. Body of the letter 8.

Complimentary close 9. Signature Enclosures Copy Circulation Post Script The essential parts of a business letter are as follows: Heading -The heading of a business letter usually contains the name and postal address of the business, E-mail address, Web-site address, Telephone Number, Fax Number, Trade Mark or logo of the business if any 2. Date - The date is normally written on the right hand side corner after the heading as the day, month and years.

Some examples are 28th Feb. STT Ibnu Sina 3. Reference- It indicates letter number and the department from where the letter is being sent and the year. It helps in future reference. This reference number is given on the left hand corner after the heading. Inside address - This includes the name and full address of the person or the firm to whom the letter is to be sent.

This is written on the left hand side of the sheet below the reference number. Letters should be addressed to the responsible head e. Subject - It is a statement in brief, that indicates the matter to which the letter relates. It attracts the attention of the receiver immediately and helps him to know quickly what the letter is about.

For example, Subject: Your order No. Enquiry about Samsung television Subject: Fire Insurance policy 6. Salutation - This is placed below the inside address. It is usually followed by a comma ,. Various forms of salutation are: For addressing a firm or company. Body of the letter- This comes after salutation.

This is the main part of the letter and it contains the actual message of the sender. It is divided into three parts. In this part, attention of the reader should be drawn to the previous correspondence, if any. For example with reference to your letter no. It should be precise and written in clear words. Further, the sender should always look forward to getting a positive response. At the end, terms like Thanking you, With regards, With warm regards may be used. Complimentary close - It is merely a polite way of ending a letter.

It must be in accordance with the salutation. Salutation Complementary close i. Dear Mr. Raj Yours sincerely iii. My Dear Akbar Yours very sincerely express very informal relations.

Signature - It is written in ink, immediately below the complimentary close. As far as possible, the signature should be legible. The name of the writer should be typed immediately below the signature. The designation is given below the typed name. Where no letterhead is in use, the name of the company too could be included below the designation of the writer.

STT Ibnu Sina Enclosures - This is required when some documents like cheque, draft, bills, receipts, lists, invoices etc. These enclosures are listed one by one in serial numbers. One Thousand dtt.

Copy circulation - This is required when copies of the letter are also sent to persons apart of the addressee. It is denoted as C. For example, C. The Chairman, Electric Supply Corporation ii.

The Director, Electric Supply Corporation iii. The Secretary, Electric Supply Corporation Post script - This is required when the writer wants to add something, which is not included in the body of the letter. It is expressed as P. For example, P. Name of the firm E-mail: Postal Address Website: To Name and ………………………… Address of the letter to whom letter is sent Subject: Job Advertisement A job advertisement is a notice to a selected group or the e public, informing them that there is a job vacancy available.

A job advertisement usually contains such details as the job title, responsibilities and roles of the successful candidate, and requirements for hopeful candidates.

Job adverts can be found in newspapers, magazines or online. Purpose The main purpose of a job advertisement is to attract suitable candidates for the position. An effective ad reduces the time companies spend interviewing unsuitable candidates by providing a precise statement of job requirements. A job advertisement also plays a secondary role by helping to position the company as a growing organization staffed by quality people.

This can help create awareness and interest from qualified people who might be attracted to the company for future vacancies. Types of Advertisement Job advertisements typically take two forms: Display advertisements include bold headlines, copy and photographs or illustrations. They come in various sizes, from small boxes to full-page or even double-page advertisements. Through size and creativity, ad designers aim to create impact with display advertisements.

Classified advertisements are much simpler. They feature a subject headline and text and appear under a job category heading with other advertisements of similar appearance. Classified ads offer little opportunity for creative treatment or impact.

Content A job advertisement has five main elements. Information on the job opening describes the duties and responsibilities of the position. STT Ibnu Sina job. Company information provides insight into the working environment and the opportunities for the right candidate. The advertisement should also describe the salary range and benefits for the successful candidate.

Finally, the advertisement should explain the application process, including how and where to apply. Media Job advertisements appear in different media, including local and national newspapers, industry magazines and job websites. In newspapers and magazines, job ads typically appear in a recruitment section, although advertisements for prestige senior positions might be placed in another section, such as business or finance, for additional impact.

Companies also use social media such as Facebook and Linkedin to communicate with potential candidates for current and future vacancies. That is why it is essential to be well prepared for the job interview. There exist five basic types of interviews: The Screening Interview This is usually an interview with someone in human resources.

It may take place in person or on the telephone. He or she will have a copy of your resume in hand and will try to verify the information on it. The human resources representative will want to find out if you meet the minimum qualifications for the job and, if you do, you will be passed on to the next step.

The employer knows you are qualified to do the job. The interviewer or interviewers are trying to separate the leaders from the followers. There is nothing more to do than act naturally. Sample Interview Interviewer: Good morning, Miss.

Sue Jones: Miss Jones. Good morning. Miss Jones, yes, right. Yes, I would. Perhaps you could tell me.. Oh yes, right. Ah, yes, right. I did a one-year full-time PA course and went back to Gibsons. Am I a deligent? Am I not a deligent? Arent I a deligent? Its Patterns: Adjective We are smart.

They do not play soccer Do they play soccer? Do they not play soccer? Dont they play soccer? Noun We are student. He goes to school every day. He does not go to school every day. Does he go to school every day? Does he not go to school every day? Doesnt he go to school every day? Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. Does he play tennis? When does the train usually leave? Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.

It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. PTIQ is in Jaksel. Birds do not like milk. The sun rises in the west. Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.

Not, I am wanting to eat now. USE 5: Head line of Newspapaer or Megasine Example: Ch Watches 2. Sh Washes 3. Ss Passes 4. X Mixes 5. O Goes o If its verb the and with Y and its before consonan. Y change with i then add es. Cry Cries 2. Study Studies o Other than above, add with s.

Vendler thought of the Aktionarten as lexical properties of verbs. That this position is dubious was pointed out by many linguists, in particular by Dowty and Verkuyl For a simple case, consider the verb drink. If we assume that being an activity is a lexical property of this verb, then surely by combining it with the noun wine this property is preserved for the complex phrase drink wine. However, if we combine the verb drink with the noun phrase a bottle of wine we turn an activity into an accomplishment.

The converse problem arises if we assume that being an accomplishment is a lexical property of drink. This phenomenon of aspectual reinterpretation was dubbed coercion in Moens and Steedman In Section 6.

Aktionsart is not even definitely fixed at the VP-level. The verb arrive in But if we choose a bare plural as subject it is turned into an activity and sentence 15 is grammatical. Visitors arrived all night. Therefore a final decision about aspectual class cannot be reached below the sentence level. We close this section with two further examples of aspectual coercion.

In the first one a stative verb is transformed into an activity. The verb resemble is a stative verb and therefore 17a is unacceptable but 17b is fine. However, if we add more and more every day to 17a thus forming She is resembling her mother more and more every day. This is due to the phrase more and more every day which coerces a state into an activity. Our last example is about temporal modification with for-adverbials.

simple Past Tense.pdf

As pointed out above accomplishments are usually rather bad with for-adverbials. But consider sentence 19 from van Lambalgen and Hamm Pollini played Opus for two weeks.

This sentence seems to be fine. However it is not interpreted as an accomplishment any more but is reinterpreted as an iterated activity.

To get this reading, a lot of non-linguistic knowledge is required. Under these assumptions, sentence 19 says that Pollini played Opus repeatedly within a time span of two weeks. Formal accounts of coercion phenomena are contained in Egg , van Lambalgen and Hamm and Steedman among others.

Processing studies of coercion are reviewed in Bott ; see also Section 8. Intensionality versus Events The most influential approach to solving the imperfective paradox is due to Dowty The notion of an inertia world is characterized informally.

An inertia world is exactly like the real world up to the time of evaluation; after this it may differ from the real world but is assumed to be as similar to the real world as possible.

Given this notion, the following definition introduces truth conditions for sentences in the progressive. Definition 3. Definition 3 does not yet account for the different entailment patterns of activities and accomplishments.

Two additional assumptions are required. The first concerns activities; the second, accomplishments. Accomplishments like Mary draw a circle are split up into two parts, an activity part Mary draw that satisfies principle 20 and a result part which is characterized by the existence of a circle. With these additional requirements, the inference patterns for activities and accomplishments follow.

Past Continuous Tense

Let us first show that Mary was pushing a cart implies Mary pushed a cart. A completely analogous argument shows that Mary was drawing a circle implies Mary drew. Many researchers assume that inertia worlds introduce a notion of normality for the semantic analysis of the progressive.

The thunderbolt in example 22 from Landman seems to break the normal development of the real world. Mary was crossing the street, when a thunderbolt from heaven struck her down. However, objections have been raised to the normality interpretation of inertia. The first one is attributed to Frank Vlach in Ogihara Consider sentence 23 John was crossing the street, when he was hit by a truck.

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