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Blues modes have been used throughout its recorded history. The term country music is used today to many styles and subgenres. In country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, immigrants to the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North America brought the music and instruments of Europe and Africa along with them for nearly years.
Country music was introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon, Tennessee, has been formally recognized by the U. Congress as the Birthplace of Country Music , based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of Since , the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum , historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of and , and the Knoxville sessions of and Prior to these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a musical heritage.
The first generation emerged in the early s, with Atlantas music scene playing a role in launching countrys earliest recording artists. Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin John Carson as early as , followed by Columbia Records in , many hillbilly musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle , recorded blues songs throughout the s. The most important was the Grand Ole Opry , aired starting in by WSM in Nashville , during the s and s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood.
Bob Wills was another musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a hot string band. His mix of country and jazz , which started out as dance hall music, Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in Country musicians began recording boogie in , shortly after it had played at Carnegie Hall.
Gospel music remained a component of country music. It became known as honky tonk, and had its roots in Western swing and the music of Mexico.
By the early s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the s, and could be called the year of rockabilly in country music.
Beginning in the mids, and reaching its peak during the early s, the late s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. Poetry reading A poetry reading is a public oral recitation or performance of poetry. Voice is an active, physical thing in oral poetry and it needs a speaker and a listener, a performer and an audience. It is a creation that thrives in live connection. The voice is the mechanism by which a voice comes alive. Reciting a poem aloud the reciter comes to understand and to be the voice of the poem, reading poetry aloud makes clear the pause as an element of poetry.
The hearing knowledge we bring to a line if poetry is a knowledge of patterns of speech we have known since we were infants, every speaker intuitively course through manipulations of sounds, almost as if we sing to each other all day.
Even after three millennia of writing, poetry retains its appeal to the ear, the silent reading eye thereof, sound that was imagined through the eye gradually gave body to poems in performance. Poetry readings almost always involve poets reading their own work or reciting it from memory but readings often involve several readers, although normally one poet is chosen as a headliner.
Hall, who speculates that the change may have due to the star power of Dylan Thomas , wrote. In the twenties, it was Vachel Lindsay , who dropped to his knees in the middle of a poem. Then Robert Frost took over, and made his living largely on the road, hall suggests that poetry readings have shifted the focus of poetry more towards sound, adding that In concentrating on sound, as in anything else, there are things to beware of.
Revising a poem one morning, I found myself knowing that a new phrase was repellent, a poem must work from the platform but it must work on the page. A poetry slam is a format that has become increasingly popular, especially in the United States. A slam is the art of poetry presented in public as is the open mic event variant. Jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans , United States , in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime.
Since the s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals , Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music.
Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles , biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation.
Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late s and early s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the s, such as Latin , the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented.
It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14, Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up.
Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau , most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz.
As Duke Ellington , one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements. OCLC The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs.
It was founded in as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat , the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5, on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization.
The group hired Frederick G.
Kilgour , a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars.
The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between and , OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in , a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join.
In , the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by , there were 15 independent United States regional service providers.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in , a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July , it was replaced by the Classify Service.
The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website.
The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports — A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding.
It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file.
In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange.
Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records.
Pop music Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid s. The terms popular music and pop music are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular.
Pop and rock were synonymous terms until the late s, when they were used in opposition from each other. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music. Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other such as urban, rock, Latin. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a format, as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, according to Pete Seeger , pop music is professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music.
Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music, the music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately, pop music continuously evolves along with the terms definition.
The term pop song was first recorded as being used in , Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music.
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pops earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience. Since the late s, pop has had the meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles.
Grove Music Online states that, in the early s pop music competed terminologically with beat music, while in the USA its coverage overlapped with that of rock and roll. From about , the term was used in opposition to the term rock music. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral.
It is not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward, and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative.
It is, provided from on high rather than being made from below, pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment, the lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes — often love and romantic relationships — although there are notable exceptions.
Central Java Central Java is a province of Indonesia. This province is located in the middle of Java , the province is 32, Its population was 33,, at the Census, Central Java is a cultural concept that includes the Special Region and city of Yogyakarta as well as the Province of Central Java. However, administratively the city and its surrounding regencies have formed a special region since Indonesian independence. Located in the middle of the island of Java, the Central Java province is bordered by West Java , a small portion of its south region is the Yogyakarta Special Region province, fully enclosed on the landward side by the Central Java province.
To the north and the south, the Central Java province faces the Java Sea , Central Java includes offshore islands such as Karimun Jawa Islands in the north, and Nusakambangan in the southwest.
Yogyakarta is historically and culturally part of the Central Java region, the average temperature in Central Java is between 18—28 degrees Celsius and the relative humidity varies between 73—94 percent. While a high level of humidity exists in most low-lying parts of the province, the highest average annual rainfall of 3, mm with rainy days was recorded in Salatiga.
The geography of Central Java is regular with small strips of lowlands near the northern and southern coast with mountain ranges in the centre of the region, to the west lies an active stratovolcano Mount Slamet , and further east is the Dieng Volcanic Complex on Dieng Plateau. Southeast of Dieng lies the Kedu Plain , which is bordered to the east side by the volcanoes of Mount Merapi.
South of Semarang , lies Mount Ungaran , and to the north-east of the city lies Mount Muria on the most northern tip of Java, to the east near the border with East Java lies Mount Lawu , where its eastern slopes are in the East Java province.
Due to its volcanic history, volcanic ash makes Central Java highly fertile agriculture land. Paddy fields are extensive, except in the southeastern Gunung Kidul region partly due to the concentration of limestone. The largest rivers are the Serayu in the west, which empties into the Indian Ocean , on the eve of the World War II in , Central Java was subdivided into 7 residencies which corresponded more or less with the main regions of this area.
These residencies were Banjoemas , Pekalongan and Djapara-Rembang plus the so-called Gouvernement Soerakarta , after the local elections in the role of these residencies were reduced until they finally disappeared. Nowadays Central Java is divided into 29 regencies and 6 cities and these contemporary regencies and cities can further be subdivided into districts.
These districts are subdivided into 7, rural communes or villages and urban communes. Folk music Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The term originated in the 19th century, but is applied to music older than that. Some types of music are called world music.
Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways, as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers and it has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Starting in the century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the revival and reached a zenith in the s.
This form of music is called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times and this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock , folk metal , electric folk, and others.
Even individual songs may be a blend of the two, a consistent definition of traditional folk music is elusive. The terms folk music, folk song, and folk dance are comparatively recent expressions and they are extensions of the term folklore , which was coined in by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes. Traditional folk music includes most indigenous music, despite the assembly of an enormous body of work over some two centuries, there is still no certain definition of what folk music is.
Some do not even agree that the term Folk Music should be used, Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot clearly be differentiated in purely musical terms.
One meaning often given is that of old songs, with no known composers, the fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character. Such definitions depend upon processes rather than abstract musical types, one widely used definition is simply Folk music is what the people sing. In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a schema comprising four types, primitive or tribal, elite or art, folk.
Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre.
Rock music It has its roots in s and s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by blues and blues and country music. Rock music drew strongly on a number of genres such as electric blues and folk.
Musically, rock has centered on the guitar , usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar. Punk was an influence into the s on the subsequent development of subgenres, including new wave, post-punk.
From the s alternative rock began to rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge , Britpop. Similarly, s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures and this trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano , Hammond organ and synthesizers. The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the blues band instrumentation.
Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian , harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock, because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition.
These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm, as a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in , said in spite of some exceptions and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality, according to Simon Frith rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll.
Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the concept of art as artistic expression, original. The foundations of music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late s and early s. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country. In , Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Official Website. Retrieved August 24, RollingStone Indonesia. Junaidi May 15, Ade eyeing younger fans". The Jakarta Post. Authority control ISNI: Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Related Images. YouTube Videos. This province is located in the middle of the island of Java. Its administrative capital is Semarang. A painting by G.
Hooijer c. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest. He has released 21 studio albums and 25 compilation albums. Early life Ebiet G. He lived in Yogyakarta since elementary school. During high school, he joined Pelajar Islam Indonesia. In , he associated with artists Yogyakarta, including Emha Ainun Nadjib. He was interested in poetry and wanted to be a poet. However, he was unable to read poems properly. He instead sang his poems after adding melodies. Musical career Albums In , he released his first studio album, Camellia I.
His voice is similar to John Denver and Said Effendi.