Indian polity by laxmikant pdf in hindi


 

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Indian Polity By Laxmikant Pdf In Hindi

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It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget, and so on. It provided for the first time for the association of Indians with the executive Councils of the Viceroy and Governors.

He was appointed as the law member. It introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of separate electorate. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters. It also provided for the separate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities and zamindars. Government of India Act of On August 20, , the British Government declared, for the first time, that its objective was the gradual introduction of responsible government in India 7.

The Government of India Act of was thus enacted, which came into force in It relaxed the central control over the provinces by demarcating and separating the central and provincial subjects. The central and provincial legislatures were authorised to make laws on their respective list of subjects.

However, the structure of government continued to be centralised and unitary. It further divided the provincial subjects into two partstransferred and reserved.

M Laxmikant Indian polity pdf

The transferred subjects were to be administered by the governor with the aid of ministers responsible to the legislative Council. The reserved subjects, on the other hand, were to be administered by the governor and his executive council without being responsible to the legislative Council. This dual scheme of governance was known as dyarchya term derived from the Greek word di-arche which means double rule.

However, this experiment was largely unsuccessful. It introduced, for the first time, bicameralism and direct elections in the country. The majority of members of both the Houses were chosen by direct election.

It required that the three of the six members of the Viceroys executive Council other than the commander-in-chief were to be Indian.

It extended the principle of communal representation by providing separate electorates for Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians and Europeans. It granted franchise to a limited number of people on the basis of property, tax or education. It created a new office of the High Commissioner for India in London and transferred to him some of the functions hitherto performed by the Secretary of State for India. It provided for the establishment of a public service commission. Hence, a Central Public Service Commission was set up in for recruiting civil servants 8.

It separated, for the first time, provincial budgets from the Central budget and authorised the provincial legislatures to enact their budgets. It provided for the appointment of a statutory commission to inquire into and report on its working after ten years of its coming into force.

Simon Commission In November itself i. All the members of the commission were British and hence, all the parties boycotted the commission. The commission submitted its report in and recommended the abolition of dyarchy, extension of responsible government in the provinces, establishment of a federation of British India and princely states, continuation of communal electorate and so on.

To consider the proposals of the commission, the British Government convened three round table conferences of the representatives of the British Government, British India and Indian princely states. On the basis of these discussions, a White Paper on Consitutional Reforms was prepared and submitted for the consideration of the Joint Select Committee of the British Parliament.

The recommendations of this committee were incorporated with certain changes in the next Government of Inida Act of The award not only continued separate electorates for the Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo- Indians and Europeans but also extended it to the depressed classes scheduled castes.

Gandhiji was distressed over this extension of the principle of communal representation to the depressed classes and undertook fast unto death in Yeravada Jail Poona to get the award modified.

At last, there was an agreement between the leaders of the Congress and the depressed classes. The agreement, known as Poona Pact, retained the Hindu joint electorate and gave reserved seats to the depressed classes.

Government of India Act of The Act marked a second milestone towards a completely responsible government in India. It was a lengthy and detailed document having Sections and 10 Schedules.

It provided for the establishment of an All-India Federation consisting of provinces and princely states as units. The Act divided the powers between the Centre and units in terms of three listsFederal List for Centre, with 59 items , Provincial List for provinces, with 54 items and the Concurrent List for both, with 36 items.

Residuary powers were given to the Viceroy. However, the federation never came into being as the princely states did not join it.

It abolished dyarchy in the provinces and introduced provincial autonomy in its place. The provinces were allowed to act as autonomous units of administration in their defined spheres. Moreover, the Act introduced responsible governments in provinces, that is, the governor was required to act with the advice of ministers responsible to the provincial legislature.

This came into effect in and was discontinued in It provided for the adoption of dyarchy at the Centre. Consequently, the federal subjects were divided into reserved subjects and transferred subjects.

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However, this provision of the Act did not come into operation at all. It introduced bicameralism in six out of eleven provinces. Thus, the legislatures of Bengal, Bombay, Madras, Bihar, Assam and the United Provinces were made bicameral consisting of a legislative council upper house and a legislative assembly lower house. However, many restrictions were placed on them.

It further extended the principle of communal representation by providing separate electorates for depressed classes scheduled castes , women and labour workers. The secretary of state for India was provided with a team of advisors.

It extended franchise. About 10 per cent of the total population got the voting right. It provided for the establishment of a Reserve Bank of India to control the currency and credit of the country. It provided for the establishment of a Federal Court, which was set up in This announcement was followed by the agitation by the Muslim League demanding partition of the country. Again on June 3, , the British Government made it clear that any Constitution framed by the Constituent Assembly of India formed in cannot apply to those parts of the country which were unwilling to accept it.

On the same day June 3, , Lord Mountbatten, the viceroy of India, put forth the partition plan, known as the Mountbatten Plan. The plan was accepted by the Congress and the Muslim League. Immediate effect was given to the plan by enacting the Indian Independence Act It ended the British rule in India and declared India as an independent and sovereign state from August 15, It provided for the partition of India and creation of two independent dominions of India and Pakistan with the right to secede from the British Commonwealth.

It abolished the office of viceroy and provided, for each dominion, a governor-general, who was to be appointed by the British King on the advice of the dominion cabinet. It empowered the Constituent Assemblies of the two dominions to frame and adopt any constitution for their respective nations and to repeal any act of the British Parliament, including the Independence act itself.

It empowered the Constituent Assemblies of both the dominions to legislate for their respective territories till the new constitutions were drafted and enforced.

No Act of the British Parliament passed after August 15, was to extend to either of the new dominions unless it was extended thereto by a law of the legislature of the dominion. It abolished the office of the secretary of state for India and transferred his functions to the secretary of state for Commonwealth Affairs. It proclaimed the lapse of British paramountcy over the Indian princely states and treaty relations with tribal areas from August 15, It granted freedom to the Indian princely states either to join the Dominion of India or Dominion of Pakistan or to remain independent.

It provided for the governance of each of the dominions and the provinces by the Government of India Act of , till the new Constitutions were framed. The dominions were however authorised to make modifications in the Act.

It deprived the British Monarch of his right to veto bills or ask for reservation of certain bills for his approval. But, this right was reserved for the Governor-General.

The Governor- General would have full power to assent to any bill in the name of His Majesty. It designated the Governor-General of India and the provincial governors as constitutional nominal heads of the states. They were made to act on the advice of the respective council of ministers in all matters. It dropped the title of Emperor of India from the royal titles of the king of England. It discontinued the appointment to civil services and reservation of posts by the secretary of state for India.

The members of the civil services appointed before August 15, would continue to enjoy all benefits that they were entitled to till that time. At the stroke of midnight of August, , the British rule came to an end and power was transferred to the two new independent Dominions of India and Pakistan Lord Mountbatten became the first governor-general of the new Dominion of India.

He swore in Jawaharlal Nehru as the first prime minister of independent India. Table 1. Members Portfolios Held 1. Jagjivan Ram Labour 6. Sardar Baldev Singh Defence 7. Liaquat Ali Khan Finance 9. Chundrigar Commerce Ghaznafar Ali Khan Health The Viceroy continued to be the head of the Council.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Education 5. Shanmugham Chetty Finance 7. Ambedkar Law 8. Jagjivan Ram Labour 9. Sardar Baldev Singh Defence Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur Health Bhabha Commerce Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Communication At that time, the Civil Services of the company were classified into covenanted civil services higher civil services and uncovenan-ted civil services lower civil services.

The former was created by a law of the Company, while the later was created otherwise. Subhash C. The system of Budget was introduced in British India in A- The declaration thus stated: The policy of His Majestys Government is that of the increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration, and the gradual development of self-government institutions, with a view to the progressive realisation of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire.

The act came into force on August 15, The boundaries between the two Dominions were determined by a Boundary Commission headed by Radcliff. I t was in that the idea of a Constituent Assembly for India was put forward for the first time by M. Roy, a pioneer of communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democratism.

In , Jawaharlal Nehru, on behalf the INC declared that the Constitution of free India must be framed, without outside interference, by a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise. The demand was finally accepted in principle by the British Government in what is known as the August Offer of The Cripps Proposals were rejected by the Muslim League which wanted India to be divided into two autonomous states with two separate Constituent Assemblies.

Finally, a Cabi-net Mission was sent to India. While it rejected the idea of two Constituent Assemblies, it put forth a scheme for the Constituent Assembly which more or less satisfied the Muslim League.

The features of the scheme were: 1. The total strength of the Constituent Assembly was to be Of these, seats were to be allotted to British India and 93 seats to the Princely States. Out of seats allotted to the British India, members were to be drawn from the eleven governors provinces 2 from the four chief commissioners provinces 3 , one from each. Each province and princely state or group of states in case of small states were to be allotted seats in proportion to their respective population.

Roughly, one seat was to be allotted for every million population. Seats allocated to each British province were to be decided among the three principal communitiesMuslims, Sikhs and general all except Muslims and Sikhs , in proportion to their population. The representatives of each community were to be elected by members of that community in the provincial legislative assembly and voting was to be by the method of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.

The representatives of princely states were to be nominated by the heads of the princely states. It is thus clear that the Constituent Assembly was to be a partly elected and partly nominated body. Moreover, the members were to be indirectly elected by the members of the provincial assemblies, who themselves were elected on a limited franchise 4. The Indian National Congress won seats, the Muslim League 73 seats, and the small groups and independents got the remaining 15 seats.

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