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REDD+ on the ground: A case book of subnational initiatives across the globe . Shijo Joseph, Martin Herold, Demetrius L Kweka and Stibniati S Atmadja. , Assessing change in national forest monitoring capacities of 99 tropical E Romijn, JH Ainembabazi, A Wijaya, M Herold, A Angelsen, L Verchot . I, Frank Herold, “the Depositor”, would like to deposit [The Development of Pre- () in her study of pre-service teachers' knowledge for teaching. When asked URL: medical-site.info
For example, bills already under discussion at the Congress against the halting deforestation include: 1 delays to implement the forest code; 2 the proposal of the law project PL , which aims to promote more flexibility in granting environmental licensing for large infrastructure projects; and 3 threats to the recognition of indigenous territories law project PL However, this political scenario could change if there is effective communication Strategy 5, Table 2 regarding the scientific knowledge about negative effects of deforestation and climate change on regional temperature Silvrio et al.
The thermostat function of forests over regional climate was clearly demonstrated by recent analysis of deforestations effect on atmospheric temperature in the Xingu region, which maintains a large portion of pristine forest protected by indigenous populations. From to , the temperature in the agricultural areas surrounding the Xingu Indigenous Park increased 0. The temperature in these deforested areas was 46C higher than the temperature inside the Park Silvrio et al.
Scientific evidence from the Xingu basin indicates that, without protecting large portions of forests at the local and regional level, a future scenario of more droughts and higher temperatures for the region predicted by global climate change models Duffy et al. Insecure land tenure is the sixth critical threat to achieving zero deforestation, as well as the origin of the predatory nature of economic activities in the site.
The lack of clear land titles precludes a long-term approach to investment in land management, perpetuating extensive and extractive economies. In addition, almost 80 million hectares of public forests are still not allocated to some official use category CNFP, ; Zarin et al.
Thus, Strategy 6 Table 2 involves promoting effective land governance by expanding land rights and allocating remaining public forests to some appropriate legal use category e. Since , the main goal of a federal program called Terra Legal Law The target is to distribute land to thousand landholders MDA, , and up to , the government granted 18, land titles covering over 11 million hectares. At this pace, the federal government would need years to complete the land titling mission.
This does not even take into account smallholders on state lands in the site and land tenure conflicts on larger properties. This shows the urgent need for an expedited process with appropriate safeguards to exclude land grabbers in order to bring governance to site land areas where it is absent today.
Likewise, approximately 80 million hectares of undesignated public forests in the site Figure 1 need to be allocated as protected areas, production forests, indigenous lands or other categories of use. This allocation of undesignated public forests could also preserve a stock of 10 billion tons of forest carbon and contribute significantly to the conservation of biological diversity of the region SFB and IPAM, Moreover, land designations would benefit from efficient and flexible agreements between the government and land users, given the recent evidence that flexibility of some use rights for smallholders can increase achievement of conservation goals Pfaff et al.
Interactions between different policies can exacerbate this complex mosaic of threats to achieving zero deforestation. As one example, we can end up with large availability of land for cattle production if the state does not follow suggestions on creating protected areas threat 6. Indeed, studies already indicate that, in spite of efforts to intensify productivity of cattle farming, there is no guarantee that producers will not search for more lands Bowman et al.
Apart from all of these threats, we have had to deal with an economic and political crisis since that led to the impeachment of the current President Dilma Rousseff. The internal crisis may jeopardize the past advancements of Brazils deforestation and climate change policies, mostly due the lack of resources and investments in forest protection Guimares and Schwartzman, On the other hand, there is now more evidences on the benefits of a zero-deforestation approach than can bring together opposite sides.
For instance, some studies have shown that the decline in agricultural and pasture productivity was related to a local increase in temperature and reduction of rainfall caused by an increase in deforestation Lawrence and Vandecar, ; Silvrio et al. Conclusion The future of the site depends on halting deforestation as soon as possible while continuing to expand forest protections in the region.
This is still high enough to aggravate the local climate in the site and to jeopardize the ecological balance of the region. Therefore, it is important to achieve the ambitious goal of zero deforestation within the next decade.
The six threats and their corresponding strategies to achieve zero deforestation discussed here call attention to what policies and actions are still missing, without exhausting all possible measures. These changes, however, do not depend only on the implementation of policies and strategies to control deforestation. A new paradigm needs to be developed for the site and for other tropical countries that promotes economic growth, social justice and productive agriculture while preserving forests to maintain fundamental ecosystem services.
Political leaders and decision makers must realize that socioeconomic development cannot be achieved without preserving the forests capacity to generate ecosystem services. It is time to understand that preservation is easier and cheaper than restoration. Copyright Moutinho, Guerra and Azevedo-Ramos. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding information A significant portion of ideas and thoughts presented in this review are results of studies developed at the site Environmental Research Institute, supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and Climate and Land Use Alliance.
Acknowledgments We are grateful to Isabel Castro and Paulo Brando for their valuable contributions to the manuscript. Does Credit Affect Deforestation?
Working Paper 2. Assuno J, Rocha R. Rio de Janeiro: Climate Policy Initiative. Commodity production in Brazil: Combining zero deforestation and zero illegality. Elem Sci Anth 3: The evolution of Brazilian forest concessions. Conserv Biol 28 : Persistence of cattle ranching in the Brazilian site: A spatial analysis of the rationale for beef production.
Land Use Policy Abrupt increases in siteian tree mortality due to drought-fire interactions.
Brasilia, Brazil. Accessed July siteian forest dieback under climate-carbon cycle projections for the 21st century.
Theor Appl Climatol Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the site. Characterizing a tropical deforestation wave: A dynamic spatial analysis of a deforestation hotspot in the Colombian site. Glob Change Biol 12 8 : Fearnside P, Figueiredo A. Discussion Paper Fearnside PM Deforestation in Brazilian siteia: History, rates and consequences. Conserv Biol 19 3 : Federative Republic of Brazil.
Brazils Soy Moratorium: Supply chain governance is needed to avoid deforestation. Science : Goodman RC, Herold M. Why maintaining tropical forests is essential and urgent for a stable climate, in SeymourF ed. Governo do Estado do Acre. Zoneamento Ecol. Documento Sntese.
Rio Branco: p. Green Municipality Program.
Activities and Results Guerra R. Feasibility of payments for environmental services in the site region: tools for ex ante assessment [Dissertation]. Guimares A, Schwartzman S. Brazils impeachment crisis is bad news for climate change.
Grist: May 27, Resumo dos resultados de junho de a julho de Hummel AC. Deforestation in the site: What is legal or illegal? Elem Sci Anth : under review for this Special Feature. Instituto Nacional de Colonizao e Reforma Agrria.
Acervo fundirio. Last accessed July Projeto TerraClass. Accessed Jan. Dossi Belo Monte.
No h condies para licena de operao. Instituto Socioambiental ISA. ISBN Accessed Jan Jenkins R.
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