PDF | During its short history, Health Psychology has made substantial progress in establishing itself as a discipline. In particular, coping with chronic illness. _Morrison 4/6/07 AM Page 1 Val Morrison and Paul Bennett An Introduction to Health Psychology is a new Val Morrison and Paul Bennett An Introduction to Health Psychology is a new and stimulating European textbook providing a valuable and engaging introduction. Health Psychology emerged in the s as a response to a number of factors, one of them the changing pattern of illness and death in indus- trialized nations.
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THE BACKGROUND TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY. During the nineteenth century , modern medicine was established. 'Man' (the nineteenth-century term) was. Jane Ogden studied for a PhD in eating behaviour at the Institute of. Psychiatry, London. She then became a lecturer in health psychology at. Middlesex. A New Era for Health Psychology. Kenneth E. Freedland. Washington University School of Medicine. Health Psychology has been in the capable hands of Anne.
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Print Publication Date: Aug Subject: Community health psychology also develops community-level interventions that are designed to combat disease and promote physical and mental health. Examples of community health initiatives might be efforts to eliminate soft drinks from schools, diabetes awareness events, etc.
Critical Health Psychology Critical health psychology is concerned with the distribution of power and the impact of power differentials on health behaviors, healthcare systems, and health policy. Critical health psychology prioritizes social justice and the universal right to good health for people of all races, genders, ages, and socioeconomic positions.
A major concern is health inequality, and the critical health psychologist acts as an agent of change working to create equal access to healthcare. The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Illness The biopsychosocial model states that health and illness are determined by a dynamic interaction between biological, psychological, and social factors.
Learning Objectives Explain the biopsychosocial model of health and illness Key Takeaways Key Points According to the biopsychosocial model, it is the deep interrelation of all three factors biological, psychological, social that leads to a given outcome—each component on its own is insufficient to lead definitively to health or illness.
The psychological component of the biopsychosocial model seeks to find a psychological foundation for a particular symptom or array of symptoms e.
Social and cultural factors are conceptualized as a particular set of stressful events being laid off, for example that may differently impact the mental health of people from different social environments and histories. Despite its usefulness, there are issues with the biopsychosocial model, including the degree of influence that each factor has, the degree of interaction between factors, and variation across individuals and life spans. Key Terms biopsychosocial: Referring to the idea that the mind and the body are inseparable entities.
The biopsychosocial model of health and illness is a framework developed by George L.
Engel that states that interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors determine the cause, manifestation, and outcome of wellness and disease.
Historically, popular theories like the nature versus nurture debate posited that any one of these factors was sufficient to change the course of development. Biopsychosocial model of health and illness: This diagram shows how biological, psychological, and sociological factors overlap to determine overall health.
Many disorders have an inherited genetic vulnerability. The greatest single risk factor for developing schizophrenia, for example is having a first-degree relative with the disease risk is 6. It is clear that genetics have an important role in the development of schizophrenia, but equally clear is that there must be other factors at play.
Certain non-biological i. Psychological Influences on Health The psychological component of the biopsychosocial model seeks to find a psychological foundation for a particular symptom or array of symptoms e. Individuals with a genetic vulnerability may be more likely to display negative thinking that puts them at risk for depression; alternatively, psychological factors may exacerbate a biological predisposition by putting a genetically vulnerable person at risk for other risk behaviors.
For example, depression on its own may not cause liver problems, but a person with depression may be more likely to abuse alcohol, and, therefore, develop liver damage. Increased risk-taking leads to an increased likelihood of disease.
Social Influences on Health Social factors include socioeconomic status, culture, technology, and religion. Such life events may predispose an individual to developing depression, which may, in turn, contribute to physical health problems.
The impact of social factors is widely recognized in mental disorders like anorexia nervosa a disorder characterized by excessive and purposeful weight loss despite evidence of low body weight. The fashion industry and the media promote an unhealthy standard of beauty that emphasizes thinness over health. Cultural Factors Also included in the social domain are cultural factors.
For instance, differences in the circumstances, expectations, and belief systems of different cultural groups contribute to different prevalence rates and symptom expression of disorders. For example, anorexia is less common in non-western cultures because they put less emphasis on thinness in women.
Culture can vary across a small geographic range, such as from lower-income to higher-income areas, and rates of disease and illness differ across these communities accordingly.