Experiencing the Lifespan - Janet Belsky - Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition. DOWNLOAD PDF Experiencing the Lifespan SECOND EDITION This page intentionally What will that precious child be like now that he's in third grade?. 5 days ago Experiencing The Lifespan Belsky 3rd Edition - [Free] Experiencing The Edition [PDF] [EPUB] medical-site.info is a platform for academics to.
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*Download PDF | ePub | DOC | audiobook | ebooks. NOTE: Access Code NOT book by janet belsky 8 | experiencing the lifespan 3rd edition chapter 1 |. download Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd edition by Janet Belsky (ISBN: ) from [PDF] experiencing the lifespan Download ~ "Read Online Free". Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Born in New York City, Janet Belsky always wanted to be a Experiencing the Lifespan 4th Edition, Kindle Edition. by.
B It may disturb women more than men. D It is most apt to strike older couples who try to conceive. Elena is coping with infertility.
In determining her stress level, what is the most important question to ask? A Do you have a supportive partner? B How old are you? C Do you have a good job? D Are you middle class? Moriah and her husband Mesud are having fertility problems.
According to statistics, the person responsible for these problems is: A Mesud. B Moriah. C equally Mesud or Moriah. D the doctor. Assisted reproductive technologies ART : A can be very expensive and stressful.
B have a high success rate. C are easy procedures to carry out. D rarely result in live births. Page 14 B using a donor egg. C being a surrogate mom. D taking fertility drugs. Which woman will only be able to conceive using in-vitro fertilization? A Latasha, who is having trouble ovulating B Karen, whose fallopian tubes are permanently blocked or missing C Rai, who is having trouble carrying a child to term D Ruth, who is over age 40 Abby is considering in-vitro fertilization.
B may demand a huge time commitment. C practically never works. D is emotionally draining. B thin out. C see the top of the baby's head. D contract. Which is the correct order of events during labor? A birth; dilation and effacement; expulsion of placenta B dilation and effacement; birth; expulsion of placenta C expulsion of placenta; birth; dilation and effacement D dilation and effacement; expulsion of placenta; birth A Winnie is thrilled to see the top of her baby's head emerge.
B Yolanda's contractions are 5 minutes apart. C Zara's placenta is coming out. D Vanya's cervix has dilated. Page 15 During the third stage of labor and birth: A a woman feels intense, painful contractions. B the baby's head emerges. C the placenta is expelled. D the cervix dilates and effaces. Which statement is NOT a threat to a safe, healthy birth? A The placenta is attached to the upper part of the uterus.
B Labor begins too early. C The baby is positioned feet first. D The cervix cannot fully dilate.
Before the twentieth century: A women often gave birth at home because hospitals were full of disease. B doctors understood the female anatomy. C only wealthy women could afford hospital births. D women gave birth using the Lamaze method. Which of the following is NOT a reason why eighteenth and nineteenth century doctors were relatively ineffective during labor and birth?
A Physicians couldn't view the female anatomy. B Doctors didn't realize that they needed to wash their hands. C Medical professionals tended to yank the baby out. D Doctors charged excessive fees. A childbirth becomes medically safe; natural childbirth movement; a variety of birth options B natural childbirth movement; childbirth becomes medically safe; a variety of birth options C a variety of birth options; natural childbirth movement; childbirth becomes medically safe D childbirth becomes medically safe; a variety of birth options; natural childbirth movement Which definition relates to each labor term: 1 doula; 2 epidural; 3 Lamaze?
A 1 anesthetic; 2 coach; 3 breathing exercises B 1 coach; 2 breathing technique; 3 anesthetic C 1 coach; 2 anesthetic; 3 breathing exercises D 1 anesthetic; 2 breathing coach; 3 breathing exercises Page 16 Cesarean section c-section rates from to A dramatically increased in the developed world.
B dramatically decreased around the world. C remained stable around the world. D dramatically increased in the developing world. Which is the MOST important global issue facing pregnant women today?
A too many c-sections in the developed world B no access to high quality medical interventions in the most impoverished world regions C few options for giving birth in the developed world D too many options for giving birth in the developed world If Simba is a poor pregnant woman living in Ghana, her main concern is apt to be: A having an unnecessary c-section.
B surviving childbirth. C choosing from many possible birth options. D having a doula. With regard to twenty-first-century birth, all are major social issues EXCEPT: A high cesarean-section c-section rates in the developed world. B high rates of infant and maternal mortality in poor regions of the globe. C higher rates of infant mortality among poor women living in affluent nations.
D a disturbing lack of birth options among affluent women. Which newborn has the highest Apgar score? A Dong, whose body has a healthy color and who is kicking and crying B Brian, whose hands and feet are a dusky blue color C Adrian, who lies limp and quiet on the examining table D Juba, whose heart is beating, but the doctor must give her oxygen to help her breathe Juan weighed 2 pounds at birth and spent months in the infant intensive care unit ICU.
B could be fine, but also is at high risk of having lingering, lifelong problems. C will be fine once he leaves the hospital.
D will die during the first year of life. Page 17 As of , infant mortality in the United States: A is high compared to other developed nations. B is low compared to other developed nations.
C occurs at the same rate for women at all socioeconomic levels. D is higher than in the past. Page 18 Answer Key 1. A woman's cervix expands to push the baby out of the uterus during birth. A True B False 2.
Sperm can live for several days inside a woman's reproductive tract. A True B False 3. More male babies than female babies are conceived. A True B False 4. During implantation, the blastocyst embeds itself in the uterine wall. A True B False 5. By the end of the embryonic period, the major human body structures and organs are formed with the exception of the brain.
A True B False 6. By the end of the embryonic period, the neurons have migrated to the top of the neural tube. A True B False 7. Very few babies born before the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy survive. A True B False 8. Morning sickness typically occurs during the fetal stage of development. A True B False 9. Quickening occurs during the third trimester of pregnancy.
A True B False Page 1 A crucial factor predicting the emotional quality of pregnancy is whether the mom-to-be feels nurtured and loved. A True B False Developmentalists, along with the wider world, tend to pay less attention to the emotions of dads-to-be than they do to pregnant moms' emotions. Teratogens produce deformities in the major body structures during the first trimester of pregnancy. Teratogens tend to affect the developing fetal brain during the second and third trimesters.
A woman's reports that she quit smoking during pregnancy are totally trustworthy. A person with a dominant single-gene disorder inherits a faulty gene from each parent. Sex-linked single-gene disorders are typically passed down from mothers to sons.
A True B False Page 2 Unlike amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling CVS takes place during the first trimester of pregnancy. To be classified as infertile, a couple must have unprotected sex for one year without conceiving.
The success rate for in vitro fertilization approaches 80 percent. In vitro fertilization is typically an expensive procedure. It is unusual for a baby's head to appear first during birth. The cesarean section C-section rate has been declining in the developed world. Today, women in developed countries have a variety of birth choices.
Infant mortality refers to deaths that occur within the first year after birth. Adoptive parents are naturally less bonded to their babies than biological parents. B fallopian tubes. C cervix. D uterus. The process that involves the union of a sperm and an egg is known as: A ovulation. B hormonal balancing.
C fertilization. D cervical fluid. Which of the following is true of human chromosomes? A Some normally-developing humans have fewer or more than 46 chromosomes. B Each human has an identical number of paired chromosomes, one contributed by the mother and the other contributed by the father.
C The mother contributes most of the chromosomes to the baby. D Each chromosome pair is a perfect match, including the chromosomes that determine gender. The first two weeks of prenatal development, from fertilization to implantation, is called the stage. A fetal B germinal C placental D embryonic 5. A placenta B cervix C ovum D blastocyst , which is a structure projecting 6.
The cylindrical structure that will eventually develop into the brain is the: A cephalocaudal tube. B couvade. C neural tube. D blastocyst. Page 1 7. Prenatal growth occurs from the most interior parts of the body outward.
This prenatal principle is known as the sequence. A mass to specificity B proximodistal C viability D cephalocaudal 8. Karen is giving her newborn a bath. She is cleaning the baby's belly button, which is where the was attached to the baby. A neurons B blastocyst C amniotic sac D umbilical cord 9. It spans the full range of standard topics for the child development course, with over 65 student video activities that contain brief clips of research and news footage from the BBC Motion Library, UNICEF, and other sources.
These activities are easily assignable and accessible by an instructor. For instructors, in addition to the student activities, the Video Tool Kit offers hundreds of additional clips—over in total, all closed captioned and easily downloadable in QuickTime and MPEG formats for easy integration into a PPT presentation.
The Book Companion Site at www. Best of all, these resources are free and do not require any special access codes or passwords.
The tools on the site include: chapter previews highlighting key points within each chapter; annotated Web links related to the study of development, updated regularly to provide students with the chance to explore key topics in more depth; on-line quizzes offering multiplechoice practice tests for every chapter that allow students to test their knowledge of chapter concepts; Internet exercises asking students to expand their knowledge of core concepts with Web-based research; interactive flashcards that tutor students on all chapter terminology and allow them to then quiz themselves on the terms; and frequently asked questions about developmental psychology that permit students to think critically about lifespan development and that explore such topics as how understanding human development can help students in their careers and lives and how to pursue an advanced degree in developmental psychology.
PowerPoint Presentation Slides There are two pre-built slide sets for each chapter of Experiencing the Lifespan one featuring a full chapter lecture, the other featuring all chapter art and illustrations.
For every video clip, PowerPoint slides tie chapter concepts to the selected clip, present explanatory slides introducing each segment, and then follow each clip with discussion questions designed to promote critical thinking and foster the student discussion that is so critical to making this course a success. Journey Through the Lifespan illustrates the story of human growth and development from birth to old age in nine narrated segments.
More than one hour of unedited video footage helps students sharpen their observational skills. Interviews with prominent developmentalists, including Charles Nelson, Ann Peterson, Steven Pinker, and Barbara Rogoff, are integrated throughout this video to help show students exactly how researchers approach questions.
Interviews with social workers, teachers, and nurses who work with children, adults, and older adults offer students insights into the challenges and rewards of these human service careers. This CD-ROM offers an easy-to-use test-generation system that guides you through the process of creating tests.
The CD allows you to add an unlimited number of questions, edit questions, format a test, scramble questions, and include pictures, equations, or multimedia links. Diploma Online Testing. With Diploma, you can easily create and administer exams over a network and over the Internet, with questions that incorporate multimedia and interactive exercises.
Online Quizzing at www. Students receive instant feedback and can take the quizzes multiple times. You can view results by quiz, student, or question and get weekly results via e-mail.
Although our species-specific human maximum lifespan is about to years, a minuscule number of people one out of many millions! Here is a photograph of a Lebanese woman who in was working and—at an amazing years old—qualified as the oldest person on Earth.
Best of all, this material is preprogrammed and fully functional in your course management system. Study Guide. Practice tests help students assess their mastery of the material. Who Made This Book Possible?
Firstly, heartfelt thanks go to my main editor, Elaine Epstein, for guiding this book to the production stage. Elaine meticulously went over the manuscript line by line several times. She made numerous suggestions that greatly improved my prose.
She is the person who really kept me going emotionally and kept this book on track. A truly lifelong debt goes to Jessica Bayne, my primary editor over almost a decade, for making both editions possible and for putting me on this entirely new life track. Now we move on to the production team.
Anthony Calcara coordinated the heroic task of pulling this book together—from manuscript copyediting to galleys to page proof—with aplomb. Production manager Sarah Segal pushed everyone to get the book out on time. Then there are the talented people who have made Experiencing the Lifespan look like a breathtaking work of art.
As you delight in looking at the fabulous pictures, you can thank Deborah Anderson for her outstanding photo research and Bianca Moscatelli for coordinating the photo program. In fact, in addition to her uncanny ability to pick out just the right pictures to express my concept or idea, Deborah has been so much fun to work with that we became friends. Robert Carter is the gifted artist who made the beautiful cover drawings and part openers. Then there are the Worth people who developed and coordinated the supplements and developed the media package.
Thanks go to Christine Burak for ferreting out outstanding ancillary authors and nurturing them along. A special debt of gratitude goes to Meredyth Fellows, who I convinced to write these wonderful PowerPoints, and who has been supporting and nurturing my writing all along.
So now you can pin the blame directly on Dr. Without good marketing no one would read this book. Not me! Kate Nurre, our Executive Marketing Manager, and her staff do an outstanding job. They produced a dazzling advertising brochure. They go to all the conferences. Next come the instructor reviewers who make this book—and every textbook— what it is. Special credit goes to David Devonis, Meredyth Fellows, and Jason Spiegelman for having the fortitude to thoughtfully review this edition two times.
Here are the names of all the instructors who helped make my writing and thinking so much better during the past ten years: Dana Van Abbema, St. Bonaventure University Kimberly D. Cragin, Snow College Charles P. Fine, University of Missouri Roseanne L. Goss, University of Pennsylvania David P. As any teacher will tell you, I learn as much—or more—from you each semester as you do from me. I want to thank my interviewees for sharing their lives and thereby making this book really come alive.
You will be meeting Jules in an Experiencing the Lifespan box in Chapter I want to thank my life love, David, for making my life happy and putting this book and my happiness center stage. Thanks also to my baby, Thomas, whom you also will meet throughout this book, for being born and growing up to be such a wonderful person; and for teaching me what living and being human is really all about.
Janet Belsky July 22, P. The Foundation q This two-chapter part offers you the foundations for understanding the lifespan journey. Chapter 1—The People and the Field introduces all the major concepts and themes in this course.
Most important, in this chapter you will learn about the major theories and research strategies that have shaped our field. Bottom line: Chapter 1 gives you the basic tools you will need for understanding this book. Here, you will learn about how a baby develops from a tiny clump of cells, and get insights into the experience of pregnancy from the point of view of mothers- and fathers-to-be.
This chapter describes pregnancy rituals in different cultures, discusses problems including infertility that may lie on the prenatal pathway, and offers an in-depth look at the miracle of birth. This course is about your past, your future, and who yo u are now. If you plan to work with ch ildren, adults, or older pe op le, this course will give you an important fou ndation for your career.
Th is semester, starting with the first minutes in the womb, you will ge t a motion picture of human life. Following the pr io inciple na lly en gaged we once again: Make it relevant; make it are, the more we learn, come alive in the w personal; see the co with a fictional life orld. To help you, Ive begun each ch ncepts ap to alert you to som story. Enjoy the vignette.
Ive constr ter ucted it e of the major chap photos, charts, and ter themes. Look at activity. They also the summary tables. Complete each the ar ha key concepts in m e planned to help you effortlessly so nds-on ind.
My goal is to have you reach the lidify the each chapter and re end of al iz e, I le arned a tr this reading never felt like a chore. This chapter introd e uces all in th e co urse.
Ill be people you will be meeting in the intr gin by introducing the oductory vignettes. Its Theresa and Sals anniversary and they are having a party.
Theyve been spending a fabulous retirement meeting people while traveling and cruising. Now, its time to get their new friends together for our celebration of twenty-first-century American life. One invitation is for Maria and baby Manuel, whom Theresa and Sal met on a cross-country drive to Las Vegas five years ago. What will that precious child be like now that hes in third grade? David and Doreen, that lovely couple on last years Caribbean cruise, get another invitation.
There is nothing like sharing a dinner table for a week to cement new friendships for life. For Sal, those dinnertime talks offered a vivid lesson in how the world has changed. Sal married Theresa, his life love, at age During the late ls, his family would never have tolerated divorcing or waiting until the late twenties to begin adult life. David took until almost age 30 to find himself, and, after his divorce even selected a spouse of a different race.
Actually, Sal cant help but be impressed by his young forty-something friends. Sal was blessed to reach adult life in an easier economy, when gender roles were clearly defined. Howin spite of their hectic lives have David and Doreen mastered the secret of staying in love for more than ten years?
A final invitation goes to Kim, her husband Jeff, and baby Elissa. Will Theresa and Sal even recognize that adorable 6-month-old now that shes almost one-and-a-half? Theresas kept up with everyone by e-mail. Now its time to reconnect. Lets start with the children. Kim reports that, since Elissa started walking, her baby does not slow down for a second.
Actually, its kind of depressing. Last year, Elissa went to Theresa with a smile. Now, all she wants is Mom. The changes in Manuel are equally astonishing. At age 8, that child can talk to you like an adult. Still, Theresa sees the same boy she first fell in love with five years ago: At their celebration feast, the talk turns to deeper issues: Kim shares her anxieties about putting Elissa in day care; Maria opens up about the challenges of being a single parent, an immigrant, and ethnic minority in the United States.
Everyone bonds over the frustrations, but unparalleled meaning, children bring to life, as well as their worries for the future in these tough economic times. Doreen informs the group that she wants to make a difference. She is returning to school for a public policy Ph. But can she make it academically at age 53? Theresa and Sal confess that they dont have many worries.
In fact, what they half jokingly call old age is the happiest time of life. Still, there is the slowness, Theresas vision problems, and Sals heart disease. So this joking has a dark side, and todays celebration is a bit bittersweet. The eighties wont be like the seventies. There isnt much time left. If you met Sal and Theresa at age 30 or 50, would they be the same upbeat, outgoing people as today?
Are Doreens worries about her mental abilities realistic, and what are some secrets for staying. Why do 1-year-olds such as Elissa get clingy just as they begin walking, and what mental leaps make children at age 8, such as Manuel, seem so grown up?
How might economic turmoil really affect children and adults? Developmentalists, also called developmental scientists researchers who study the lifespanare about to answer these questions and hundreds of others about our unfolding life.
Lifespan development, the scientific study of human growth throughout life, is a latecomer to psychology. Its roots lie in child development, the study of childhood and the teenage years. Child development traces its origins back more than a century. In , Charles Darwin published an article based on notes he had made about his baby during the first years of life.
In the s, a pioneering psychologist named G. Stanley Hall established the first institute in the United States devoted to research on the child. It remains the passion of thousands of developmental scientists working in every corner of the globe. Gerontology, the scientific study of agingthe other core discipline in lifespan developmenthad a slower start. Gerontology and its related field, adult development, underwent their phenomenal growth spurt during the final third of the twentieth century.
Lifespan development puts it all together. It synthesizes what researchers know about our unfolding life. Who works in this huge mega-discipline, and what passions drive developmentalists?
Lifespan development is multidisciplinary. It draws on fields as different as neuroscience, nursing, psychology, and social policy to understand every aspect of human development. A biologically oriented developmentalist interested in day care might examine toddlers output of salivary cortisol a stress hormone when they first arrive at day care in the morning. An anthropologist might look at cultural values shaping the day-care choice.
A social policy expert might explore the impact of offering universal government-funded day care in Finland and France. A biochemist who studies Alzheimers disease might decode what produces the plaques and tangles that ravage the brain.
A nurse might head an innovative Alzheimers unit. A research-oriented psychologist might construct a scale to measure the behavioral impairments produced by this devastating disease.
Are people right to worry about their learning abilities in their fifties? What is physical aging, or puberty, or menopause all about? Are there specific emotions we feel as we approach that final universal milestone, death? This woman working with youth in Palestine is one of thousands of developmental scientists whose mission it is to help children around the world.
Lifespan development focuses on the individual differences that give spice to human life.
Can we really see the person we will be at age 8 or 83 by age 3? How much does personality or intelligence change as we travel through life?
Developmentalists want to understand what causes the striking differences between people in temperament, talents, and traits. They are interested in exploring individual differences in the timing of developmental milestones, too; examining, for instance, why people reach puberty earlier or later or age more quickly or slowly than their peers.
Lifespan development explores the impact of life transitions and practices. It deals with normative, or predictable, transitions, such as retirement, becoming parents, or beginning middle school. It focuses on non-normative, or atypical, transitions, such as divorce, the death of a child, or how recent declines in the economy affect how we approach the world.
It explores more enduring life practices, such as smoking, spanking, or sleeping in the same bed with your child. Developmentalists realize that life transitions that we consider normative, such as retiring or starting middle school, are products of living in a particular time in.
They understand that life practices such as smoking or sleeping in bed with a child vary, depending on our social class and cultural background. They know that our travels through the lifespan are affected by several very basic markers, or overall conditions of life. Now its time to introduce several basic contexts of development, or broad general influences, which I will be continually discussing throughout this book.
How does being born in a particular historical time affect our lifespan journey? What about our social class, cultural and ethnic background, or that basic biological difference, being female or male?
Our cultural background affects every aspect of development. So, culturally oriented developmentalists might study how this East Asian wedding ceremony expresses this societys messages about family life. Cohort refers to our birth group, the age group with whom we travel through life. In the vignette, you can immediately see the heavy role our cohort plays in influencing adult life.
Sal reached his late teens in the s, when men married in their early twenties and typically stayed married for life. David, who came of age 30 years later, faced a dazzling array of lifestyle choices in a time when divorce had become common. As an interracial couple, David and Doreen are taking a life path unusual even for today! Because they are in their forties, this couple is at an interesting cutting point.
They are traveling through life right after that huge bulge in the population called the baby boom. The baby boom cohort, defined as people born from to , has made a huge impact on the Western world as it moves through society. The reason lies in size. When soldiers returned from World War II and got married, the average family size ballooned to almost four children. When this huge group was growing up during the s, families were traditional, with the two-parent, stay-at-home-mother family being our national ideal.
Then, as rebellious adolescents during the s and s, the baby boomers helped usher in a radical transformation in these attitudes and roles more about this lifestyle revolution soon. Society, as we know, is currently experiencing an old-age explosion as the baby boom cohort floods into later life.
The cohorts living in the early twenty-first century are part of an endless march of cohorts stretching back thousands of years. Lets now take a brief historical tour to get a sense of the dramatic changes in childhood, old age, and adulthood during just the past few centuries, and pinpoint what our lifespan looks like today. Changing Conceptions of Childhood At age ten he began his work life helping his father manufacture candles and soap.
He hated dipping wicks into wax and wanted to go to sea, but his father refused and apprenticed him to a master printer. At age 17 he ran away from Boston to Philadelphia to search for work.
His father died when he was 11, and he left school. At 17 he was appointed official surveyor for Culpepper County in Virginia. By age 20 he was in charge of managing his familys plantation. Mintz, Who were these boys? Their names were Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. Imagine you were born in Colonial times. In addition to reaching adulthood at a much younger age, your chance of having any lifespan would have been far from.
In the nineteenth century, if you visited factories such as this cannery, you would see many young children at work showing how far we have come in just a century in our attitudes about childhood. While we might imagine that adolescence has always been a life stage, teenagerhood only became a separate age during the twentieth century, when mandatory high school attendance helped postpone our entry into adulthood.
In seventeenth-century Paris, roughly 1 in every 3 babies died in early infancy Aris, ; Hrdy, As late as , almost 3 of every 10 U. The incredible childhood mortality rates, plus dire poverty, may have partly explained why child-rearing practices that we would view as abusive used to be routine.
In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, middle-class babies were farmed out to be nursed by country women. They were separated from their parents during the first two years of life. Children were often beaten and, at their parents whim, might be abandoned at birth Konner, ; Pinker, In the early s in Paris, about 1 in 5 newborns was exposedplaced in the doorways of churches, or simply left outside to die. In cities such as St.
Petersburg, Russia, the statistic might have been as high as 1 in 2 Aris, ; Hrdy, In addition, for most of history, people did not have our feeling that childhood is a special life stage Aris, ; Mintz, Children, as you saw above, began to work at a very young age. During the industrial revolution, in British and U. They worked from dawn till dark Mintz, In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau spelled out a strikingly different vision of childhood and human life Pinker, Locke believed that human beings are born a tabula rasa, a blank slate on which anything could be written, and that the way we treat children shapes their adult lives.
Rousseau argued that babies enter life totally innocent; he felt we should shower these dependent creatures with love. However, this message could fully penetrate society only when the medical advances of the early twentieth century dramatically improved living standards, and we entered our modern age. One force producing this kinder, gentler view of childhood was universal education.
During the late nineteenth century in Western Europe and much of the United States, attendance at primary school became mandatory Aris, School kept children from working and insulated these years as a protected, dependent life phase. As one influential psychologist has argued, universal education, with its emphasis on reasoning, may generally explain why we are currently living in a far more caring and peaceful world than at previous historical times Pinker, Yes, in contrast to our media stereotypes, thats true!
Still, as late as , only 1 in 10 U. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the developmentalist G. However, it was during the Great Depression of the s, when President Franklin Roosevelt signed a bill making high school attendance mandatory, that adolescence became a standard U.
Our famous teenage culture has existed for only 70 or 80 years! In recent decades, with so many of us going to college and graduate school, we have delayed the beginning of adulthood to an older age. Emerging adulthood, lasting from age 18 to roughly the late twenties, is devoted to exploring our place in the world. One reason why twenty-first-century adults feel comfortable about postponing marriage or settling down to a career is that today we can expect to live for an amazingly long time.
In every culture, a few people always lived to old age. However, for most of hisbirth of living to a given age. In the New England colonies, average life expectancy was about age In matic increase in average life expectancy that occurred Maryland during Colonial times, it was under age 20, for both masters and their during the first half of the slaves Fischer, By , it was Then, in the next century, it shot up to The twentieth-century life expectancy revolution is perhaps the most important old-old People age 80 milestone that has occurred in the history of our species.
The most dramatic increases in and older. Since these illnesses, Men Greece such as diphtheria, killed both the young and old, Women Israel their conquest allowed us to live past mid-life. In the Italy last 50 years, our progress has been slower because we are waging war against another category of disease. Japan The illnesses we now die from, called chronic disNew Zealand easessuch as heart disease, cancer, and strokeare South Korea tied to the aging process itself.
As 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 you can see in Figure 1. Average life about age If nations: Women today can you become a grandparent in your late forties, expect to be called grandma or grandpa expect to live close to the maximum lifespan in affluent counfor roughly half of your life! Women can start new careers in their fifties, given that tries. Notice, for instance, the today females can expect to live on average for roughly 30 more years CDC, Health astonishingly high life expecUnited States, For well-off older people, retirementuntil recentlyhas been tancy for women in Japan.
Most important, we have As of , the United States ranked 45th globally in average moved the beginning of old age beyond age Today, people in their sixties and even seventies are often active and relatively Source: CIA World Factbook healthy.
But in our eighties, our chance of being disabled by disease increases dra estimates. Because of this, developmentalists make a distinction between two groups of older adults. The young-old, defined as people in their sixties and seventies, often look and feel middle-aged.
They reject the idea that they are old Lachman, The old-old, people in their eighties and beyond, seem in a different class. Since they are more likely to have physical and mental disabilities, they are more prone to fit the stereotype of the frail, dependent older adult. In sum, Sal in the vignette was right: Today the eighties are a very different stage of life!
Changing Conceptions of Adult Life If the medical advances of the early twentieth century made it possible for us to survive to old age, during the last third of the previous century, a revolution in lifestyles transformed the way we live our adult lives.
This change in society, which started in. The healthy, active couple in their 60s left have little in common with the disabled yearold man living in a nursing home right showing why developmentalists divide the elderly into the young-old and the old-old. Western countries and has spread around the globe, occurred when the baby boomers moved into their teenage years.
The s Decade of Protest included the civil rights and womens movements, the sexual revolution, and the counterculture movement that emphasized liberation in every area of life Bengtson, People could have sex without being married.
Women were free to fulfill themselves in a career. We encouraged husbands to share the housework and child care equally with their wives.
Divorce became an acceptable alternative to living in an unfulfilling marriage. To have a baby, women no longer needed to be married at all. Today, with women making up roughly half the labor force, only a minority of couples fit the traditional s roles of breadwinner husband and homemaker wife.
With roughly one out of two U. While divorce rates may be stabilizing, the Western trend toward having children without being married continues to rise.
In , for instance, more than 2 in 5 U. The timeline at the bottom of this page visually illustrates the twentieth-century revolutionary shifts in life expectancy and family life, as well as charting the passage of the mammoth baby boom as it moves through life.
In this book, Ill pay special attention to exploring the wide-ranging effects of the late-twentieth-century lifestyle revolutionhighlighting the challenges single mothers face; tracing the impact of divorce; exploring contemporary womens and mens family roles. While this text does divide development into its standard categories infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and later life , Ill also devote a whole chapter to emerging adulthoodthat new life stage many of you are in right now.
In the later-life section, Ill continually emphasize the distinction between the young-old and old-old being 60 is miles different physically and mentally from being 80 or 95 and focus on the issues facing society as the baby boomers flood into their older years. But, as history is always advancing, lets end this section by touching on a recent event that has the potential to cloud our lives in the United States, the West, and around the world.
Average incomes in the U. Snapshots of the Great Recession of and widening U. A After the Great Recession of hit, unemployment and underem-. The red area indicates part-time workers wanting full-time jobs; the blue area indicates those who are unemployed. B Even before the Great Recessionfrom the rich were getting richer, while everyone else was left behind. The Great Recession of Temporary Tsunami or Lasting Event? After 40 years of an uncompromising work-ethic, Ive been unemployed for nearly 18 months.
The weight of failure. When I lose my home. I will have lost the American Dream Kevin, unemployed 80 weeks. I was laid off from my job on April 1st. This is my third major layoff. Ive used up all my retirement funds and savings. I have never seen anything this bad in this country. Sandra K, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. Welcome to tales from the Great Recession of , which began with the bursting of an 8-trillion-dollar-housing bubble, produced sharp cutbacks in U.
The Great Recession has caused us to rethink standard adult markers, from retirement to leaving home for college see Chapters 10 and It has weakened our historic American faith in constructing a secure middle-class life.
Figure 1. Will this cloud linger later into the century or turn sunny and become an unpleasant memory by the time you are reading this book? Whatever the answer, it is clear that our economic situation is another vital marker that shapes how we think, develop, and behave. How exactly does being affluent or poor affect our passage through life?
The Impact of Socioeconomic Status This question brings up the impact of socioeconomic status SES a term referring to our education and incomeon our unfolding lives. As you will vividly see throughout this book, living in poverty makes people vulnerable to a cascade of problems. Great Recession of Dramatic loss of jobs and consumer spending that began with the bursting of the U. Specifically, when income inequality is wide, a nation has a few very affluent residents and a mass of disadvantaged citizens.
Not only do developmentalists rank individuals by socioeconomic status, but they rank nations, too.
Developed-world nations are defined by their wealth, or high median per-person incomes. Technology is advanced. People have widespread access to education and medical care, and can enjoy the latest advances of twenty-first-century life.
Traditionally, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, as well as every Western European nation, have been classified in this most affluent category, although its ranks may be expanding as the economies of nations such as China, India, and Brazil explode.
Developing-world countries stand in sharp contrast to these most affluent or advancing regions of the world. Here, poverty is rampant and income inequalities are extreme. In the least developed nations, residents may not have indoor plumbing, clean running water, or access to education. People may die at a young age from curable infectious disease. Babies born in the most disadvantaged regions of the globe face a twenty-first-century lifespan that has striking similarities to the one developedworld children faced more than a century ago.
For this grandmother, mother, and daughter, getting dressed up to visit this Shinto family shrine and pay their respects to their ancestors is an important ritual.
It is one way that the lesson honor your elders is taught to children living in collectivist societies such as Japan from an early age. Residents of developing nations often have shorter, more difficult lives. Still, if you visited these places, you might be struck by a shared sense of community and family commitment that we might not find in the West.
Can we categorize societies according to their basic values, apart from their wealth? Developmentalists who study culture answer yes. Collectivist cultures place a premium on social harmony.
The family generations expect to live together, even as adults. Children are taught to obey their elders, to suppress their feelings, to value being respectful, and to subordinate their needs to the good of the wider group. Individualistic cultures emphasize independence, competition, and personal success. Children are encouraged to openly express their emotions, to believe in their own personal power, to leave their parents, to stand on their own as self-sufficient and independent adults.
Traditionally, Western nations score high on indices of individualism. Imagine how your perspective on life might differ if becoming independent from your parents or honestly sharing your feelings was viewed as an inappropriate way to behave.
How would you treat your children, choose a career, or select a spouse? What concerns would you have as you were facing death?
As we scan development around the world, I will regularly distinguish between collectivist and more individualistic societies. Ill highlight the issues families face when they move from these traditional cultures to the West, and explore research relating to the major U. How does being an ethnic minority affect everything from emerging adult attitudes to the chance of developing age-related diseases?
As you read this information, keep in mind that what unites us as people far outweighs any distinctions based on culture, ethnicity, or race. Moreover, making diversity generalizations is hazardous because of the diversity that exists within each nation and ethnic group. In the most traditionally individualistic country no surprise, thats the United States , people have a mix of collectivist and individualistic worldviews.
As their economies have flourished, residents of classic collectivistic cultures, such as China and Japan, have developed more individualistic, Western worldviews. If the census labels you as Hispanic American or Asian American, you also are probably aware that this broad label masks more than it reveals.
As a third-generation Cuban American, do you really have much in common with a recent immigrant from Mexico or Belize? Given that people arrive in the United States from hundreds of culturally different countries, does it really make sense to lump our citizens into a small number of ethnic groups? There is, however, one distinction that we can agree on.
Its called being female or male. The Impact of Gender Obviously, our cultures values shape our life path as males and females. Are you living in a society or at a time in history when men are encouraged to be househusbands and women to be corporate CEOs? But biology is crucial in driving at least one fundamental difference in the pathways of women and men: Throughout the developed world, females outlive males by more than 4 years. Because they must survive childbearing and carry an extra X chromosome, women are the physiologically hardier sex.
Are boys more aggressive than girls? Throughout this book, Ill examine these questions as we explore the scientific truth of our gender stereotypes and spell out other fascinating facts about sex differences, too. To set you up for this ongoing conversation, you might want to take the Is It Males or Females? Keep a copy handy. As we travel through the lifespan, you can check the accuracy of your ideas.
Now that you understand that our lifespan is a continuing work in progress that varies across cultures and historical times, lets get to the science. After you complete this sections Tying It All Together review quiz on page 12, I will introduce the main theories, research methods, concepts, and scientific terms in the chapters to come. The major ethnic groups in the United States, their percentages in the census, and a few mid-twenty-first-century projections: By , more.
Notice, in particular, the huge increase in the fraction of Hispanic Americans, and the fact that by the mid-twenty-first century the percentage of people who label themselves as mixed race is expected to double.
Census Bureau, community survey; U. White Population a Minority by Is It Males or Females? Who are more likely to survive the hazards of prenatal development, male or female fetuses? You will find the answer in Chapter 2. Who are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD, girls or boys? You will find the answer in Chapter 5.
Who are more aggressive, boys or girls? You will find the answer in Chapter 6. Who are more likely to be diagnosed with learning disabilities in school, boys or girls? You will find the answer in Chapter 7. Who, when they reach puberty at an earlier-than-typical age, are more at risk of developing problems, boys or girls? You will find the answer in Chapter 8. Who are likely to stay in the nest at home longer during the emerging-adult years, men or women?
You will find the answer in Chapter Who tend to earn more today, women or men? Who are more at risk of having enduring emotional problems after being widowed, men or women? Who are apt to live longer, sicker men or women? You will find the answer throughout this book.
Tuan, a historian, is arguing that over this century, conditions for children changed dramatically in very positive ways. He should mention all of the following examples except check the statement that is false: Child mortality used to be high.
Today, it is low in the developed world. Children used to be beaten and abandoned. Today, these practices are severely condemned. Children used to start their work lives at a young age. Today, childhood extends through and even beyond the adolescent years. Children are more likely to grow up in two-parent families today than a halfcentury ago. Maria just became a grandmother; Sara just retired from her job; Rosa just entered a nursing home.
If these women live in the United States and are middle class, roughly how old are they likely to be? Jim and Joe are arguing about the impact of the s lifestyle revolution.
Jim believes that life is much better now that we have more freedom. Joe says that actually we are worse off. Argue Jims position, then Joes, backing up your points by using the information in this section. Pablo says, I would never think of leaving my parents or living far from my brothers and sisters. A person must take care of his extended family before satisfying his own needs.
Peter says, My primary commitment is to my wife and children. A person needs, above all, to make an independent life. List and possibly discuss with the class some ways the Great Recession of may have changed your own or your familys life plans.
Answers to the Tying It All Together questions can be found at the end of this chapter. Theories allow us to predict behavior and also suggest how to intervene to improve behavior. During his twenties, David was searching for his identity. Manuels mechanical talents must be hereditary. If Elissas mother gives her a lot of love during her first years of life, she will grow up to be a loving, secure adult.
If any of these thoughts entered your mind while reading about the people in the opening chapter vignette, you were using a major theory that developmentalists use to understand human life. Theories offer insights into that crucial why question. They attempt to explain what causes us to act as we do. They may allow us to predict the future. Ideally, they give us information about how to improve the quality of life. Theories in developmental science may offer broad general explanations of behavior that apply to people at every age.
Or they may focus on describing specific changes that occur at particular ages. This section provides a preview of both kinds of theories.