Item Essentials of Business Processes and Information Systems Simha R. Magal, PhD Grand Valley State University Jeffrey Word Manchester Business. This supplement text bridges the gap between the fundamentals of how businesses operate (processes) and the tools that business people use to accomplish. Essentials of Business Processes and Information Systems. Simha R. Magal, PhD. Grand Valley State University. Jeffrey Word. Manchester Business School.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
Review eBook Essentials Of Business Processes And Information Systems By Simha R. Magal, Jeffrey Word [KINDLE PDF EBOOK. EPUB]. Word - [Free] Essentials Of Business Processes And Information Systems By Simha R Magal. Jeffrey Word [PDF] [EPUB] Given the integration. magal, phd grand valley state university jeffrey word manchester business school and sap ag [pdf] essentials of business processes and information systems.
Service-Oriented Architecture. Stage 1: Stand-Alone Mainframe System Slide 5. Stage 2: Client-Server Architecture Slide 8. Client-Server Architecture continued 3 layers of a software: Presentation layer — how you interact with an application examples: Application layer — what the application allows you to do examples: Data layer — where the application stores your work examples: The bottom level consists of information for transaction processing.
It then follows that since decision making is specific to hierarchical levels in an organization, the information requirements at each level vary accordingly.
Davis and Olson analysed the implications of different characteristics of the organizational structure on the design of information systems Table 1. Information requirements for MIS Assessing information needs A first step in designing and developing an MIS is to assess the information needs for decision making of management at different hierarchical levels, so that the requisite information can be made available in both timely and usable form to the people who need it.
Such assessment of information needs is usually based on personality, positions, levels and functions of management. These determine the various levels of information requirements. Table 1 Organizational structural implications for information systems Concept Implications for Information Systems Hierarchy of authority A tall hierarchy with narrow span of control requires more formal control information at upper levels than a flat hierarchy with wide span of control.
Specialization Information system applications have to fit the specialization of the organization. Formalization Information systems are a major method for increasing formalization. Centralization Information systems can be designed to suit any level of centralization.
Modification of basic model Information systems can be designed to support product or service organizations, project organizations, lateral relations and matrix organizations. Information model of organization Organizational mechanisms reduce the need for information processing and communication. Vertical information systems are an alternative to lateral relations. Information systems are used to coordinate lateral activities. Organizational culture Organizational culture affects information requirements and system acceptance.
Organizational power Organizational power affects organizational behaviour during information system planning, resource allocation and implementation. Computer systems can be an instrument of organizational power through access to information.
Organizational growth The information system may need to change at different stages of growth. Goal displacement When identifying goals during requirements determination, care should be taken to avoid displaced goals. Organizational learning Suggests need for information system design for efficiency measures to promote single loop learning and effectiveness measures for double loop learning.
Project model of organizational change Describes general concepts for managing change with information system projects.
Case for stable system Establish control over frequency of information system changes. Systems that promote organizational change Reporting critical change variables, organizational change, or relationships, and use of multiple channels in a semi-confusing system may be useful for promoting responses to a changing environment. Organizations as socio-technical systems Provides approach to requirements determination and job design when both social and technical considerations are involved.
Source: Taken from Gordon and Olson, Levels of information requirements There are three levels of information requirements for designing an MIS Davis and Olson A significant part of the technical requirement is related to outputs, inputs, stored data, structure and format of data and information processes. Strategies for determining information requirements Gordon and Olson suggested six steps in selecting a strategy and method for determining information requirements Table 2.
Table 2 Strategies for determining information requirements 1. Identify characteristics of the four elements in 1, above in the development process which could affect uncertainty in the information requirements.
Assess how the characteristics of the four elements in the development process listed under 1, above will affect the these process uncertainties. Determine how the overall requirements uncertainties would be affected by the combined effects of the process uncertainties. Considering the overall requirements uncertainty, choose a primary strategy for information requirements.
This presupposes that the users are able to structure their requirements and express them objectively. Asking can be done through - questions, which may be closed or open, - brainstorming sessions, totally open or guided, and - group consensus as aimed at in Delphi methods and group norming.
This is particularly useful if the utilizing system is undergoing change.
Ask the students to think about what difference it makes to the world economy, or the U. What are the challenges to American suppliers of goods and services, and to labor? You could ask students to explain why a digital firm is more likely to benefit from globalization than a traditional firm. One answer is that by allowing business to be conducted at any time time shifting and any place space shifting , digital firms are ideally suited for global operations which take place in remote locations and very different time zones.
For example, in the Yankee Stadium case, information systems helped the Yankees achieve greater customer intimacy and offer new services. You might ask the students to think about some other business objectives and think about how IT might help firms achieve them. For instance, speed to market is very important to firms introducing new products.
How can IT help achieve that objective? You could ask students to name other businesses that they believe to exhibit a high level of operational excellence.
Do customers perceive operational excellence? Does it make a difference for customer downloading? What Web sites strike students as really excellent in terms of customer service? If you have a podium computer, you might want to visit the Walmart site and the site site to compare them in terms of ease of use. One way to encourage participation is ask students to help you list on the blackboard some really interesting recent digital product innovations.
In this context, what role will IT be playing in the development of these technologies? Ask the students to identify online sites that achieve a high degree of customer intimacy.
Sites to visit would include Netflix, site, and other sites which have recommender systems to suggest download ideas to consumers. You could ask students if they have ever been recipients of exceptional service from a company made possible by improved decision-making and whether or not information systems contributed to that level of service.
For example, perhaps they had a power outage and it took a very short or very long time for the utility company to correct the error. You might ask students which business objective they believe to be most critical to the success of a business, or whether they all carry equal weight.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that public firms keep all data, including , on record for 5 years. You could ask students if they appreciate why information systems would be useful towards meeting the standards imposed by this legislation.
Going the other direction from right to left , having a significant IT platform can lead to changes in business objectives and strategies. Emphasize the two-way nature of this relationship. Businesses rely on information systems to help them achieve their goals; a business without adequate information systems will inevitably fall short. But information systems are also products of the businesses that use them.
Businesses shape their information systems and information systems shape businesses.
Figure 1. Changes in strategy, rules, and business processes increasingly require changes in hardware, software, databases, and telecommunications. Often, what the organization would like to do depends on what its systems will permit it to do.
A system refers to a set of components that work together hopefully. Can students think of systems other than information systems?