Environment protection pdf


 

Environmental protection. Corporate author: UNESCO Office Bangkok and Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific []. Person as author: Steele. expertise in leading on science-based environmental protection .. https://www. medical-site.info%20Reports/iema20ghg20reportpdf. The Ethics of Environmental Protection. Conference Paper (PDF Available) · November with 3, Reads. Conference: International Colloquium of Social.

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Environment Protection Pdf

PDF | "The modern and largely academic and urban initiated concern with environmental protection of landscapes, species, watersheds, biodiversity. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. - 1 -. OOIL fully endorses and embraces a policy under which safety and the protection of the environment are foremost and . Environment Protection Act. CAP. Arrangement of Sections. Revised Edition. Page 3. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT. Arrangement of Sections.

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See illustration below for location of this print button. All rights reserved. De Vries S. Mijnbouw en duurzaamheid. IVEM, Groningen. International trade, environment and sustainable agricultural development: The livestock sector and the environment: Climate Change. Climate Change Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: ISBN 0 9.

Strategy to Matthews E. Critical Consumption Trends and Implications. Washington DC: World Resources Institute. ISBN Joint Report on Trade and Environment, Working group on the state of the environment. Towards more sustainable household consumption patterns, Indicators to measure progress. Pinstrup Anderson P. Towards ecologically sustainable world food production. Reijnders L. A normative strategy for sustainable resource choice and recycling.

Environmental protection

Resources Conservation and Recycling Nationale Milieuverkenning 5 Voetafdrukken van Nederlanders, energie en ruimtegebruik als gevolg van consumptie. Achtergronden MB98 en MB Report no. Land use, Land —use change, and Forestry. Cambridge University Press, pp. WWF International. New economics foundation. World conservation monitoring centre: Living Planet Report Agricultural sustainability: Adewuyi, 3N.

Babayemola yahoo. Management of municipal solid waste in Nigeria has become a hydra-headed problem; the menace of solid waste in the environment has never justified both the efforts of government and individuals; and hence the need for continual research on various options for sustainable management of solid wastes. Nine different common African wood species - Irvingia gabonensis Orokoro , Celtis Zenkeri Ita , Albizia zygia Ayunre , Terminalia superba Afara , Cola gigantia Obi , Cordia millennia Omo , Funtumia elastica Ire , Ceiba petandra Araba and Ficus exasperata Obobo , were assessed for combustion and alkali production as options for management of wood waste.

The wood waste sawdust from these species was obtained from a wood factory located behind Bodija market in Ibadan. Ashing was conducted on saw dusts in porcelain o crucibles at C for 4 hours in a muffle furnace for the determination of ash contents.

Extraction of potash from the ashes was done using distilled water with a set of filtration system made up of 4-litre transparent plastic bottle with ash sediment itself serving as a sieve while the extract solution leaked out through pin-holes made at the bottom of the bottle. The purity of the crude potash and proportions of hydroxides and carbonates were determined by titrimetry; while recrystallization of the crude potash was carried out on three of the wood species which showed low purity to evaluate possible enhancement of their purity.

The ash content obtained ranged from 1. Volumetric estimation may portray a better picture of ash and potash yield potentials of the plant 3 materials, and hence expressed as 1. The hydroxide content obtained ranged from 0. The purity was enhanced from The use of wood ash in the past had primarily been restricted to its utilization as liming agent and a source of nutrients for plant Campbell, The chemical composition of an ash depends on that of the substance burned: Exploration of ash-derived alkalis for domestic use is an age-old craft Onyegbado et al.

Studies of chemical composition of wood ash in the past have primarily been restricted to the elemental composition Baker et al. A common assumption in most of these analyses has been that the minerals present are oxides of different elements Mahendra, et al. The assumption may be sufficient to identify the extent of alkalinity of wood ash Shelton and Shapiro, Analysis of extracts from ashes by Nwoko and others Onyegbado et al.

Tarun et al. Ashes have a composition which varies according to the kind of wood and the soil in which it grew Kevin, The physical and chemical properties of wood ash vary significantly, depending upon various factors, which in addition to the kind of wood and soil include method and manner of combustion, efficiency of the boiler, and other supplementary fuel used with wood Tarun et al. Several authors have studied the potash yield of plant materials: Potassium content of some wood species were analyzed by Misra et al Potash has been described as a white crystalline residue that remains after aqueous extract from ashes is evaporated Kevin, It is an impure form of potassium carbonate mixed with other potassium salts Wikipedia, These could be produced locally and industrially.

There are various local extraction technologies, depending on the desired quality, quantity and intended use of the resulting potash Babayemi et al, a. Generally, containers made of aluminum are to be avoided since alkali attacks aluminum.

It consists of two clay pots of about 50 litres each mounted on each other. The one on top is open at the base, with radius about half the open top. The open base is completely blocked with pieces of sticks, followed by a layer of wood charcoal. The remaining space on top is then packed with ashes which had already been moistened with water for some days to aid quick extraction.

Water is then carefully poured on top, as to only saturate the ashes, and not to leach the desired component yet. After few hours, when the ash would have completely absorbed the water and every large pores and air spaces blocked, sufficient water is then carefully poured on top. The water slowly leaches the potash into the lower pot, the ash itself serving as a filter. Perhaps the charcoal removes some unwanted organics from the leaching potash.

The potash produced this way is usually coloured brown, and may have contributed to the black colour of the local soap produced with it. At the top is a transparent plastic bottle of about 2 litres capacity and at the base is a beaker. The bottle is filled with ashes to about one-third. Sufficient water is added, capped and then shaken thoroughly to dissolve the soluble components.

The ash is allowed to settle, till a clear liquid is observed at the top. One or two pin- holes are made at the bottom, and then placed on the beaker, while the cap is removed. The solution on top is filtered by the ashes as it leaks into the beaker. The potash solution obtained this way is usually clear, that is, colorless, although it also depends on the source of the ash. One of the major management problems in the mega-cities of Nigeria is that of solid waste disposal.

Wood waste and ashes take a considerable percentage of solid wastes being generated in Nigeria every day. Wood factories, including saw mills, are established in their thousands in various states, with thousands of tons of wood shavings and saw dusts being generated each day Aina, At present in Nigeria, apart from the insignificant use as poultry deep litters, the largest percentage of saw dusts and wood shavings end up in dump sites as waste, where they are burnt and the ashes carried away by flood every year.

The ashes generated, including those from combustion of firewood in various homes and food canteens, are either land-filled or open-dumped. This report evaluates the efficiency of burning and consequent extraction of alkali from the resulting ash, as options for management of wood waste. Results and Discussion Table 1 shows the results of the moisture content, dry matter content, density of sample, and density of ashes; the values ranged from The values of ash and potash contents obtained Figure 3 ranged between 1.

Crude potash purity 4. Funtumia elastica gave the highest moisture content while Funtuia elastica had the lowest dry matter content. Ceiba pentandra had the lowest moisture content, highest dry matter content, lowest density and lowest ash yield. Terminali superba had relatively lower moisture content, relatively higher dry matter content, relatively high density and highest ash yield.

Funtumia elastica gave the lowest ash yield, while Terminalia superba gave the highest. This observation was completely reversed in the case of potash yield: Terminalia superba gave the least potash yield. A higher yield was obtained for Funtumia elastica and Ficus exasperata gave the highest yield.

It may then be inferred that where ash yield is of interest, Ficus exasperata offers the best option; and where potash yield is of interest, Ficus exasperata offers the best option. As shown in Table 3, the results of the determination of ash content in terms of volume ranged 3 3 from 1.

Taking the upper value And assuming the wood 3 factories generated 82 m of sawdust per day Babayemi and Dauda, , it gave 1 Potash content of the ashes ranged 3 between 4. Taking What a great resource! Alkali content observed for Ficus exasperata was the highest; and Irvingia gabonensis, being the least.

The high alkali content suggests potential use as laboratory reagent, since these results are comparable to the recommended purity of It may then be inferred that potash from ashes is predominantly carbonate of potassium or sodium. The formation of oxides K2O and Na2O suggested by Onyegbado et al could only be true for the burning of pure metals in air; this may not be applicable to the burning of these metals in organic matrices: During combustion, there is a high release of carbon IV oxide, leading to the formation of carbonate rather than oxide of the metals as suggested by these authors.

Irvingia gabonensis contained the highest non-alkali content and Ficus exasperata contained the least. A very high percentage of The results obtained after the enhancement of purity of the crude potash by recrystallization show the possibility of improving upon purity of potash alkali and making it fit for various uses.

The two Figures 5 and 6 showed no correlations. Conclusion Ficus exasperata, Ceiba pentandra and Funtumia elastica gave higher potash yield and very high purities were obtained for Ficus exasperata. These wood species could be recommended as choice materials for potash production. Ash and potash content of the different wood species 30 Enhancement of purity of crude potash Leaching of caustic potash from cocoa husk ash.

Bioresource Technology. Aina, O. Wood waste utilization for energy generation. Ankrah, E. Chemical studies of some plant wastes from Ghana. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 25 10 , Evaluation of solid waste generation, categories and disposal options in developing countries: Babayemi, J.

O, Dauda, K. Assessment of ancient and improved alkali production technology. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences.

In press. Determination of potash alkali and metal contents of ashes obtained from peels of some varieties of Nigeria Grown Musa species. BioResources 5 3: Evaluation of the composition and Chemistry of ash and potash from various plant materials — a review.

Journal of Applied Sciences. Baker, D. Techniques for rapid analyses of corn leaves for eleven elements. Journal 56, pp. Campbell, A. Recycling and disposing of wood ash. Tappi 73 9 , pp. A 2a Powder Bulk Density. West African Crops. Oxford University Press. Caveman Chemistry. Retrieved from http: Retrieved from www. Factors affecting the lixiviation of palm bunch ash as a source of alkali for soap production.

Ife Journal of Technology. Manhendra, K. Wood ash composition as a function of furnace temperature. Biomass and Bioenergy, 4 2 , pp. Practical Environmental Analysis. Misra, M. Wood Miroslav, R. Plant ash composition as a function of furnace temperature. Biomass and Bioenergy 4 2 , Chemical processing development.

Nwoko, V. Effects of mixing oil on the preparation and properties of soap. Private Communications. Ojokuku, G. Practical Chemistry for Schools and Colleges. Onyegbado, C. Solid soap production using plantain peels ash as source of alkali.

Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Onyekwere, C. Cassava peels ash: Shelton, J. The wood BurnersEncyclopedia. Vermont Crossroads Press, Waitfield. Taiwo, O. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional soap production. Tarun, R. Use of wood ash in cement-based materials. Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia, K and Adeboye, A.

B Covenant University Ota, Nigeria. Estimated costs of building projects, which hitherto have been based on regression models, are usually left with gaps for high margin of errors and as well, they lack the capacity to accommodate certain intervening variables as construction works progress. Data of past construction projects of the past 2 years were adjusted and used for the study. This model is developed and tested as a predictive cost model for building projects based on Artificial Neural Networks ANNs.

This model will help professionals save time, make more realistic decisions, and help avoid underestimating and overestimating of project costs, which are some of the advantages over previously used Regression models.

A number of uncompleted and abandoned projects are attributable to overall bad projects management of which poor forecasting approach is a factor. Poor cost forecasting approach will lead to underestimating or overestimating and consequently cost overrun. Project abandonment as a result of cost overrun arising from poor cost forecasting approach, is an interesting phenomenon locally as well as globally.

This phenomenon has led to various stakeholders in built environment to be aware of importance of accurate project cost right from conceptual stage of building project as well as throughout the life cycle of the project work.

The awareness of working with accurate cost has thus created a trend among various clients including private, corporate, as well as public clients government , that prudency in resources allocation is a great necessity for successful execution of project works. This development led to the advent of forecasting project cost so as to generate project cost information which reveals what the value of a project cost could be in future.

However, in providing project cost information, cost estimator often resort to using traditional approach, recent developments on the other hand has proven the fact that traditional approach, which uses historical methods do not tend to capture the details of project works cost components, as well as intervening variables that impacts the cost magnitude.

The cube method was the first recorded forecasting method; this was invented about years ago, floor area approach was developed around Skitmore et al ,some researchers later developed storey enclosure method on , which provides better result over the previously developed cube and floor area, certain variables were identified and incorporated into the model other than those used in the past, like floor areas vertical positioning, storey heights, building shape and presence of basement.

However in the mids, researchers started deploying statistical techniques cost modeling, through these, conventional methods evolved, such as approximate quantities and optimization.

Peculiar to the research work in this era is possibility of demonstrating the applicability of the developed models, as a result of seemingly non applicable nature of model generated. The analysis carried out in the study, presents preliminary validation of prospect of obtaining a model that will predict building construction cost with minimum error, and as well demonstrates the applicability of Neural network in forecasting the cost of building work.

The result of the analysis indicates high level of accuracy in the output obtained from the neural network model. The model when developed will be simple to use. It is believed that the model will be suitable for use at different stages project work.

O; OjO, and Obamiro, J. Pp Brandon, A. The Royal Institution of chartered surveyors, London. Bouabaz M and Hamami, M. American Journal of Applied Sciences. PP56 — Copeland, J and Proudfoot, A Creese, R. Ferry, D. J; Bandon, P. S Cost Planning of Building. Blackwell th Science Limited. Garza, J and Rouhana, K.

Neural Networks Versus Parameter based Application. Y; Shanker, M. Anals of Operations research, 87, PP — John, F. D, Smith, P and David, J Cost planning of building, Seventh Edition, Blackwell science, Oxford. Iowa State Press. Third Edition, Blackwell Publishing Company. United State of America.

Moore C. F; Lees, T. Rics paper series. Morantz, B. H; Whalen, T. Rafiq M. U, Bugman G, Easterbrook D. Compustruct, 79, Skitmore, R. M, and Ng, S. Walczak S. Journal of Managements Information System, 17 4 , William, T. In Topping, B. It is also an oil rich nation with diversity of ecosystems. The country is committed to the principle of sustainable development by adopting environmental protection policy. The paper through historical approach traces the environmental policy development in the country.

It identifies the policy strategies designed in support of sustainable development. It reckoned that policy impediments are hindrances to environmental sustainability. The environment could be looked at as the basis for man existence. The misuse or misappropriation of the constituents of the environment could hamper the health, socio-economy and peace of a nation.

This may leads to state or national security. Thus, it is essential that man should design a way for its sustainability. This can only be achieved through formulation and development of adequate and dynamic environmental protection policy which will engender environmental sustainability.

The Environmental Sustainability as an off shoot of the Principle of Sustainable Development emphasizes the need to meet the needs and aspiration of the present without compromising the needs of the future WECD, It can only be midwife by the nation with the support of its citizenry.

Sustainable development entails the harmonization of population growth with utilization and exploitation of natural resources through redirection and reorientation of research and development as well as institutional changes UN-ECA, Environmental Policy formulation, adoption and implementation are generally developing concepts that came about in the late These concepts are still evolving in developing economy like Nigeria when they claimed to be put into force.

Whereas compared to the Western world this policy concepts are given expression yielding encouraging results. This paper shall examine the historical development of environmental policy in Nigeria and also identifies the problems of its implementation.

The paper at the end will recommend appropriate strategies that will encourage environmental sustainability in Nigeria. Conclusion The paper identifies that Nigeria support the principle of sustainable development by adopting environmental policy that is off shoot of Agenda It realized the impediments to environmental sustainability in policy adoption, policy harmonization, merging of agencies, monitoring and enforcement and institutional capacity.

It also surmised that sustainable policy should not be borrowed but expectedly builds and designed at home. The paper recommends the need for capacity building as an essential instrument in environmental policy development. It suggests integrated approach for policy formulation, adoption and implementation. This is because workable environmental policy is expected to involve state actors and non state actors. Herbert-Copley ed.

Industrial innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing Workable Solutions. UNU Press. FEPA, undateda. National Guidelines on Environmental auditing. Federal Environmental Protection Agency. Assessed September 15, Oni, I. Umeh, L. C and Uchegbu, S. Principles and Procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment. United Nations Economy for Africa. B Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun State. Ni geria. The result of physiochemical and microbiological tests carried out on fish and sixteen water samples taken from Iddo in Apapa Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria revealed pollution.

E,coli, Proteus sp. Finally, conclusion was drawn with the recommendation that sewage should be treated prior to discharge into any sphere of the environment.

Its generation and efficient management facilitate social, economic and biological development. Amount of waste generated keep soaring as a result of increasing urban population and consequent rapid urbanization, which, in-turn presents greater challenges for disposal and management. The problem is even worst with respect to non-solid wastes since no city in Nigeria has a sewage system worth its name Lagos State Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget The concern of this research is on excreta waste being discharged into the Lagos lagoon in relation to the impact on the lagoon ecosystem.

According to Longman Dictionary of contemporary English Excreta contain enteric organisms such as Klebsiella spp. Lagoon contains brackish water water that is slightly salty. Out of three hundred and thirty two fish species belonging to the three categories of fish indicated above, seventy-nine 79 species have been identified in the Lagos lagoon. This is a vindication that Lagos lagoon provides substantial quantity of aquatic foods in the sub-region; however, mutilating its physico-chemical and biological structure portends significant socio-economic and health implications.

Lagos lagoon is being polluted in its entirety of because one anthropogenic activity or the other that takes place at the littoral areas due to population pressure.

However some points are more populated and received more pollutants than others receives. In these two areas, there are excess organic nutrients, because raw human faeces are discharged into the lagoon without treatment.

Thus, deterioration of the quality of water ensues and all signs of water pollution are obvious. The raw faecal effluent present in the lagoon is oxygen demanding, it can only be decomposed by aerobic oxygen-requiring bacteria. The presence of these bacteria in large number perhaps to detoxify excreta waste degenerate water quality by reducing the quantity of oxygen, and therefore, leading to massive demise of aquatic animals.

Untreated excreta wastes contain myriads of disease-causing agents pathogens which include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic worms that eventually get to biological system of fish and other aquatic animals consumable by man.

Through this process feacal-oral diseases are transferred to man unfettered. WHO, Akpata and Ekundayo , Helasi-kun , cited in Ajayi and Akonai This insanitary act is facilitating the spread of feaco-orally transmitted sanitation related diseases. Infections such as diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid that account for significant mortality are contracted through house flies, contaminated hands, food, and water, eating and cooking utensils.

It is not difficult for edible materials to be exposed to faecal matter in Lagos metropolis, because the polluted lagoon account for more than 70 per cent of fish and other sea foods consumed daily by Lagosians. Therefore eating fish caught in the polluted Lagos lagoon increases the risk of contracting feaco-oral diseases. The main thrust of this paper is to examine the ecological impacts of discharging raw sewage into the lagoon with a view to identifying most healthy and sustainable approach SUMMARY The outcome of the test conducted on water samples from Iddo Jetty showed that the pH value 7.

Although aquatic organisms can still inhabit the lagoon environment with negligible impacts at present; the intractable discharge of raw excreta portends environmental dangers in close future. Other parameters tested were higher, total Suspended Solids TSS recorded ranged from ppm to ppm. Total dissolve Solid TDS was higher than ppm. Conductivity was uS to uS; these confirmed that excessive quantity of both suspended and dissolved matter were present in the lagoon, and thereby made the lagoon water to be turbid, coloured and facilitate abnormal conduction of electricity.

Laboratory tests conducted on water and fish during these quests revealed that the water in the lagoon around the jetty is harmful to aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal fauna and flora that constitute the lagoon ecosystems.

The laboratory analysis revealed that E, coli, Proteus sp; Enterobacter sp; Aeromonas sp; Klebsiella sp; and Salmonella sp. Having established the fact that insanitary disposal of untreated faecal matter into the lagoon have negative impacts on the Lagoon ecosystem and subsequent man, it is human to suggest ways that could facilities proper management of excreta to obliterate environmental impacts associated with raw faecal contamination.

Therefore, fund that supposed to be expended on developmental projects of any kind would not be employed in procuring medications for curing diseases that are preventable. Public awareness campaign on the evil of insanitary collection and disposal of faecal matter should be heightened to curb incessant dumping of excreta waste into the lagoon to the tune of causing disease that can impair public health.

There is need for government to reinvigorate health professional in charge of preventing disease, especially, Environmental Health Officers. They are generally concerned with public health surveillance and the protection of the environment as it affects health.

The reinvigoration of the profession would facilitate proper monitoring of the environment to curb indiscriminate dumping of wastes; and also empower Environmental Health Officers to prosecute any erring resident to serve as deterrent to others. This is borne out of that fact that the jetty is the point where the highest volume of raw excreta is being discharged into the Lagos Lagoon Prior to getting an investor, there is still a provisional way out of discharging raw feacal matter into the lagoon without treatment.

There is a canal adjacent The National Art Theater, Iganmu that can be modified to suit deposition of feacal matter, and here feces can be treated biologically before onward release into the lagoon through soil pipes. Considering our level of economic and technological development, we can still do with the present system of evacuation and discharge of raw feces.

That is septic tank with soak-away system and ventilated improved pit latrines. But evacuated feces should be treated either biologically or otherwise prior to discharge into any parts of the sphere.

The fish samples contain trace of microbiological substances according to the laboratory tests conducted; by inferences it will also contain physicochemical parameters, which are deleterious to lives.

Therefore, the lagoon is polluted. Therefore, consuming any of its food can cause infections in the pray. O, Fapohunda, O. O, and Awanlemhen, B. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5 1: Adelegan, J. A Ajayi, A. The Punch. Monday, June Akpata, T. I and Ekundayo, J. An inaugural lecture delivered at the st University of Lagos on 1 July. Andrew, R.

W and Jackson, J. M Environment and Human Impact. Ayoade, J. Baarschers, W. H ; Eco — facts and Eco — fiction: Retrieved from www. Factors affecting the lixiviation of palm bunch ash as a source of alkali for soap production. Ife Journal of Technology. Manhendra, K. Wood ash composition as a function of furnace temperature. Biomass and Bioenergy, 4 2 , pp. Practical Environmental Analysis. Misra, M. Wood Miroslav, R. Plant ash composition as a function of furnace temperature.

Biomass and Bioenergy 4 2 , Chemical processing development. Nwoko, V. Effects of mixing oil on the preparation and properties of soap. Private Communications. Ojokuku, G. Practical Chemistry for Schools and Colleges. Onyegbado, C. Solid soap production using plantain peels ash as source of alkali. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management.

Onyekwere, C. Cassava peels ash: Shelton, J. The wood BurnersEncyclopedia. Vermont Crossroads Press, Waitfield. Taiwo, O. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional soap production. Tarun, R. Use of wood ash in cement-based materials. Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia, K and Adeboye, A. B Covenant University Ota, Nigeria. Estimated costs of building projects, which hitherto have been based on regression models, are usually left with gaps for high margin of errors and as well, they lack the capacity to accommodate certain intervening variables as construction works progress.

Data of past construction projects of the past 2 years were adjusted and used for the study. This model is developed and tested as a predictive cost model for building projects based on Artificial Neural Networks ANNs. This model will help professionals save time, make more realistic decisions, and help avoid underestimating and overestimating of project costs, which are some of the advantages over previously used Regression models.

A number of uncompleted and abandoned projects are attributable to overall bad projects management of which poor forecasting approach is a factor. Poor cost forecasting approach will lead to underestimating or overestimating and consequently cost overrun. Project abandonment as a result of cost overrun arising from poor cost forecasting approach, is an interesting phenomenon locally as well as globally. This phenomenon has led to various stakeholders in built environment to be aware of importance of accurate project cost right from conceptual stage of building project as well as throughout the life cycle of the project work.

The awareness of working with accurate cost has thus created a trend among various clients including private, corporate, as well as public clients government , that prudency in resources allocation is a great necessity for successful execution of project works. This development led to the advent of forecasting project cost so as to generate project cost information which reveals what the value of a project cost could be in future.

However, in providing project cost information, cost estimator often resort to using traditional approach, recent developments on the other hand has proven the fact that traditional approach, which uses historical methods do not tend to capture the details of project works cost components, as well as intervening variables that impacts the cost magnitude.

The cube method was the first recorded forecasting method; this was invented about years ago, floor area approach was developed around Skitmore et al ,some researchers later developed storey enclosure method on , which provides better result over the previously developed cube and floor area, certain variables were identified and incorporated into the model other than those used in the past, like floor areas vertical positioning, storey heights, building shape and presence of basement.

However in the mids, researchers started deploying statistical techniques cost modeling, through these, conventional methods evolved, such as approximate quantities and optimization.

Peculiar to the research work in this era is possibility of demonstrating the applicability of the developed models, as a result of seemingly non applicable nature of model generated. The analysis carried out in the study, presents preliminary validation of prospect of obtaining a model that will predict building construction cost with minimum error, and as well demonstrates the applicability of Neural network in forecasting the cost of building work.

The result of the analysis indicates high level of accuracy in the output obtained from the neural network model. The model when developed will be simple to use. It is believed that the model will be suitable for use at different stages project work. O; OjO, and Obamiro, J.

Pp Brandon, A. The Royal Institution of chartered surveyors, London. Bouabaz M and Hamami, M. American Journal of Applied Sciences. PP56 — Copeland, J and Proudfoot, A Creese, R. Ferry, D. J; Bandon, P. S Cost Planning of Building. Blackwell th Science Limited. Garza, J and Rouhana, K.

Neural Networks Versus Parameter based Application. Y; Shanker, M. Anals of Operations research, 87, PP — John, F. D, Smith, P and David, J Cost planning of building, Seventh Edition, Blackwell science, Oxford. Iowa State Press. Third Edition, Blackwell Publishing Company. United State of America. Moore C. F; Lees, T. Rics paper series. Morantz, B. H; Whalen, T. Rafiq M. U, Bugman G, Easterbrook D. Compustruct, 79, Skitmore, R. M, and Ng, S. Walczak S. Journal of Managements Information System, 17 4 , William, T.

In Topping, B. It is also an oil rich nation with diversity of ecosystems. The country is committed to the principle of sustainable development by adopting environmental protection policy. The paper through historical approach traces the environmental policy development in the country.

It identifies the policy strategies designed in support of sustainable development. It reckoned that policy impediments are hindrances to environmental sustainability. The environment could be looked at as the basis for man existence. The misuse or misappropriation of the constituents of the environment could hamper the health, socio-economy and peace of a nation. This may leads to state or national security.

Thus, it is essential that man should design a way for its sustainability. This can only be achieved through formulation and development of adequate and dynamic environmental protection policy which will engender environmental sustainability. The Environmental Sustainability as an off shoot of the Principle of Sustainable Development emphasizes the need to meet the needs and aspiration of the present without compromising the needs of the future WECD, It can only be midwife by the nation with the support of its citizenry.

Sustainable development entails the harmonization of population growth with utilization and exploitation of natural resources through redirection and reorientation of research and development as well as institutional changes UN-ECA, Environmental Policy formulation, adoption and implementation are generally developing concepts that came about in the late These concepts are still evolving in developing economy like Nigeria when they claimed to be put into force.

Whereas compared to the Western world this policy concepts are given expression yielding encouraging results. This paper shall examine the historical development of environmental policy in Nigeria and also identifies the problems of its implementation. The paper at the end will recommend appropriate strategies that will encourage environmental sustainability in Nigeria. Conclusion The paper identifies that Nigeria support the principle of sustainable development by adopting environmental policy that is off shoot of Agenda It realized the impediments to environmental sustainability in policy adoption, policy harmonization, merging of agencies, monitoring and enforcement and institutional capacity.

It also surmised that sustainable policy should not be borrowed but expectedly builds and designed at home. The paper recommends the need for capacity building as an essential instrument in environmental policy development. It suggests integrated approach for policy formulation, adoption and implementation.

This is because workable environmental policy is expected to involve state actors and non state actors. Herbert-Copley ed. Industrial innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing Workable Solutions. UNU Press. FEPA, undateda. National Guidelines on Environmental auditing. Federal Environmental Protection Agency.

Assessed September 15, Oni, I. Umeh, L. C and Uchegbu, S. Principles and Procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment. United Nations Economy for Africa. B Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun State. Ni geria. The result of physiochemical and microbiological tests carried out on fish and sixteen water samples taken from Iddo in Apapa Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria revealed pollution. E,coli, Proteus sp.

Finally, conclusion was drawn with the recommendation that sewage should be treated prior to discharge into any sphere of the environment. Its generation and efficient management facilitate social, economic and biological development. Amount of waste generated keep soaring as a result of increasing urban population and consequent rapid urbanization, which, in-turn presents greater challenges for disposal and management.

The problem is even worst with respect to non-solid wastes since no city in Nigeria has a sewage system worth its name Lagos State Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget The concern of this research is on excreta waste being discharged into the Lagos lagoon in relation to the impact on the lagoon ecosystem.

According to Longman Dictionary of contemporary English Excreta contain enteric organisms such as Klebsiella spp. Lagoon contains brackish water water that is slightly salty. Out of three hundred and thirty two fish species belonging to the three categories of fish indicated above, seventy-nine 79 species have been identified in the Lagos lagoon. This is a vindication that Lagos lagoon provides substantial quantity of aquatic foods in the sub-region; however, mutilating its physico-chemical and biological structure portends significant socio-economic and health implications.

Lagos lagoon is being polluted in its entirety of because one anthropogenic activity or the other that takes place at the littoral areas due to population pressure. However some points are more populated and received more pollutants than others receives.

In these two areas, there are excess organic nutrients, because raw human faeces are discharged into the lagoon without treatment. Thus, deterioration of the quality of water ensues and all signs of water pollution are obvious.

The raw faecal effluent present in the lagoon is oxygen demanding, it can only be decomposed by aerobic oxygen-requiring bacteria.

The presence of these bacteria in large number perhaps to detoxify excreta waste degenerate water quality by reducing the quantity of oxygen, and therefore, leading to massive demise of aquatic animals. Untreated excreta wastes contain myriads of disease-causing agents pathogens which include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic worms that eventually get to biological system of fish and other aquatic animals consumable by man.

Through this process feacal-oral diseases are transferred to man unfettered. WHO, Akpata and Ekundayo , Helasi-kun , cited in Ajayi and Akonai This insanitary act is facilitating the spread of feaco-orally transmitted sanitation related diseases.

Infections such as diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid that account for significant mortality are contracted through house flies, contaminated hands, food, and water, eating and cooking utensils. It is not difficult for edible materials to be exposed to faecal matter in Lagos metropolis, because the polluted lagoon account for more than 70 per cent of fish and other sea foods consumed daily by Lagosians. Therefore eating fish caught in the polluted Lagos lagoon increases the risk of contracting feaco-oral diseases.

The main thrust of this paper is to examine the ecological impacts of discharging raw sewage into the lagoon with a view to identifying most healthy and sustainable approach SUMMARY The outcome of the test conducted on water samples from Iddo Jetty showed that the pH value 7. Although aquatic organisms can still inhabit the lagoon environment with negligible impacts at present; the intractable discharge of raw excreta portends environmental dangers in close future. Other parameters tested were higher, total Suspended Solids TSS recorded ranged from ppm to ppm.

Total dissolve Solid TDS was higher than ppm. Conductivity was uS to uS; these confirmed that excessive quantity of both suspended and dissolved matter were present in the lagoon, and thereby made the lagoon water to be turbid, coloured and facilitate abnormal conduction of electricity. Laboratory tests conducted on water and fish during these quests revealed that the water in the lagoon around the jetty is harmful to aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal fauna and flora that constitute the lagoon ecosystems.

The laboratory analysis revealed that E, coli, Proteus sp; Enterobacter sp; Aeromonas sp; Klebsiella sp; and Salmonella sp.

Having established the fact that insanitary disposal of untreated faecal matter into the lagoon have negative impacts on the Lagoon ecosystem and subsequent man, it is human to suggest ways that could facilities proper management of excreta to obliterate environmental impacts associated with raw faecal contamination. Therefore, fund that supposed to be expended on developmental projects of any kind would not be employed in procuring medications for curing diseases that are preventable.

Public awareness campaign on the evil of insanitary collection and disposal of faecal matter should be heightened to curb incessant dumping of excreta waste into the lagoon to the tune of causing disease that can impair public health. There is need for government to reinvigorate health professional in charge of preventing disease, especially, Environmental Health Officers. They are generally concerned with public health surveillance and the protection of the environment as it affects health.

The reinvigoration of the profession would facilitate proper monitoring of the environment to curb indiscriminate dumping of wastes; and also empower Environmental Health Officers to prosecute any erring resident to serve as deterrent to others.

This is borne out of that fact that the jetty is the point where the highest volume of raw excreta is being discharged into the Lagos Lagoon Prior to getting an investor, there is still a provisional way out of discharging raw feacal matter into the lagoon without treatment.

There is a canal adjacent The National Art Theater, Iganmu that can be modified to suit deposition of feacal matter, and here feces can be treated biologically before onward release into the lagoon through soil pipes.

Considering our level of economic and technological development, we can still do with the present system of evacuation and discharge of raw feces. That is septic tank with soak-away system and ventilated improved pit latrines. But evacuated feces should be treated either biologically or otherwise prior to discharge into any parts of the sphere. The fish samples contain trace of microbiological substances according to the laboratory tests conducted; by inferences it will also contain physicochemical parameters, which are deleterious to lives.

Therefore, the lagoon is polluted. Therefore, consuming any of its food can cause infections in the pray. O, Fapohunda, O. O, and Awanlemhen, B. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5 1: Adelegan, J. A Ajayi, A. The Punch. Monday, June Akpata, T. I and Ekundayo, J. An inaugural lecture delivered at the st University of Lagos on 1 July.

Andrew, R. W and Jackson, J. M Environment and Human Impact. Ayoade, J. Baarschers, W. H ; Eco — facts and Eco — fiction: Toward Environment Strategies for Cities. World Bank. Hebert, M. Laleye, P. A and Moreau, I. Cities in the Developing World. Washigton, D. Dictionary of Contemporary English. Miller, G. JR Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections and Solutions.

New York. Morgan, R. National Planning Commission. Obire,O, and Aguda, M. Obire, O, Tamundo, D. C, and Wemedo, S. Daily Sun. Saturday November K and Owen, A. L An Introduction to Global Environmental Issues.

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Support for environmental protection: The role of moral norms | SpringerLink

Wednesday May N, Ibe, C. A, Nwilo, P. C, and Huidobro, P. International Journal of Oceanography Vol. Wahab, B. The Environscope.

A Multidisciplinary Journal. Wright, R. T and Nebel, B. J Environmental Science; Towards a Sustainable Future.

Social and Economic Benefits of Enhanced Environmental Protection in ENP Countries

Prentice Hall Inc. UNEP WHO Our Planet, Our Health, Geneva. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Wikipedia Here, a successful strategy for the use of enzymes in various industries. The fruit processing industries produce a large amount of waste material, which poses considerable disposal problems and ultimately leads to pollution.

In the processing of citrus fruits, a large proportion of the produce goes waste in the form of peel, pulp and seeds. Dried citrus peel is rich in carbohydrates, proteins and pectin; pectin acts as the inducer for production of pectinolytic enzymes by microbial systems.

Thus, in the present study, dried citrus peel was used as substrate for the production of pectinase. Pectinase enzyme hydrolyse pectic substances into sugar which can be used for food and value added products. Pectinase are industrially important enzymes and have potential applications in fruit, paper, textile, coffee and tea fermentation industries. Pectinases are either intracellular or extra cellular. Although a large number of micro-organisms can degrade pectin. Keeping in view, the demand of new enzymes some micro-organism capable of pectinase production are being isolated and studied.

India is also a major producer of citrus fruits. Oranges of Nagpur are famous for their size and aroma. Citrus fruits are utilized mostly for table purposes, but a significant portion is processed into various products, such as squashes, cordials, single strength juices, juice concentrates, marmalades, pickles etc.

These all are known to contain appreciable amounts of pectin. Pectic substances are present in the primary plant cell wall and the middle lamella. Sugar beet pulp, a by- product of sugar extraction, also contains Fruit processing industries produce a large amount of waste material in the form of peel, pulp, seeds, etc.

Some fresh orange peel is, however, used in shredded form in the preparation of orange-marmalade. This waste material presents considerable disposal problems and ultimately leads to pollution. Dried citrus peel is rich in carbohydrates, proteins and pectin; the fat content, however, is low.

Various microbial transformations have been proposed for the utilization of food processing waste for producing valuable products like biogas, ethanol, citric acid, chemicals, various enzymes, volatile flavouring compounds, fatty acids and microbial biomass. Citrus peel contains an appreciable amount of pectin and thus can be used as a substrate for the production of pectinolytic enzymes by micro organisms.

Pectin acts as the inducer for the production of pectinolytic enzymes by microbial systems. The advantage of using micro organisms for the production of enzymes is that these are not influenced by climatic and seasonal factors, and can be subjected to genetic and environmental manipulations to increase the yield. Highly productive strains of micro organisms are required at the industrial level to reduce the production costs.

Strains obtained by crossing high and low polygalacturonase hetrokaryons of A. Different types ofmicroorganisms have been exploited for the production of enzymes.

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Pectinolytic enzymes have been reported to be produced by a large number of bacteria and fungi such as Bacillus spp. These are widely used in the food industry for the production and clarification of fruit juices, to improve the cloud stability of fruit and vegetable juices and nectars, for depectinization in order to produce high density fruit juice concentrates, and for haze removal from wines Pectic enzyme preparations are also used for the production of low methoxypectin for diabetic foods, in the degumming of natural fibers in the textile industry, and in making commercial softwoods, such as Sitka and Norway spruce, more permeable to preservatives.

Purified pectinases have also been developed specifically for use in plant protoplast culture studies. When used with cellulase, purified pectinases have been found to be very useful for generating good yields of viable protoplast in several plant systems, e.

Commercial enzymes are generally obtained from fungal sources since the pH optima of these enzymes are in the range found naturally in materials to be processed and the enzymes are secreted into the culture media, making the downstream processing easier.

Keeping in view the importance of enzyme pectinases in the food processing industry and the problems associated with the disposal of food processing industry waste, the present study was undertaken with the objectives of utilizing citrus peel for the production of pectinase. Enzyme production is a growing field of biotechnology and the world market for enzyme is1. The majority of the industrial enzymes are of microbial origin. In the present study ,eighty five isolates were isolated from different places.

These isolates were grown at different temperature and pH to be able to produce a polygalacturonase which favourable to be used as additive for clarification of juice. A screening of pectinolytic productivities of the isolates showed that many of them gave good pectinolytic productivities.

The nature of solid substrate is the most important factor in solid state fermentation. This, not only supplies the nutrient to the culture but also serve as anchorage for the growth of microbial cell. The selection of substrate SSF depends upon several factors mainly with the cost of availability and this may involve the screening of several agro-industrial residue.

An optimum substrate provides all necessary nutrients to the micro organism for optimum function. However, some of the nutrients may be available in suboptimal concentrations or even not present in the substrate In such cases, it would be necessary to supplement them externally. In order to reduce medium costs we screened different low cost substrate and in the course of this we identified citrus peel for cost effective production of the enzyme under study.

SSF is receiving a renewed surge of interest, primarly because increased productivity and prospect of using a wide agro industrial residue as substrate. From industrial point of view, in order to achieve production of low cost of enzymes, these isolates under study were allowed to grow. The selection of the substrate for the process of enzyme biosynthesis was based on the following factors i.

SSF are usually simple and can use waste of agro-industrial substrates for enzyme production. The minimal amount of water allows the production of metabolites, less time consuming and less expensive. Higher production of pectinase in SSF process may be due to the reason that solid substrate not only supplies the nutrient to the microbial culture growing in it, but also serves as anchorage for the cell allowing them to utilize the substrate effectively.

The environmental conditions in SSF conditions can stimulate the microbe to produce the extra cellular enzymes with different properties other than those of enzymes produced by same organism under the conditions performed in submerged fermentation.

In this field many workers dealt with the main different factors that effects the enzyme productions such as temperature, pH, aeration, addition of different carbon and nitrogen sources. Although such factors were previously studied. Still we need for more investigation seems to be continuously required to give a chance to isolate more. The present work is to determine the optimum conditions for the enzyme.

On the other hand, the economic feasibility of the microbial enzymes production application generally depends on the cost of its production processes. In order to obtain high and commercially viable yields of pectinases enzyme, it is essential to optimise the fermentation medium used for growth and enzyme production. Alexander and G. Food Sci. Alkorta, C. Garbisu, M. Llama and J. Dhingra and O.

Kumar, A. Goswami and T. Phatak, K. Chang and G. Hang, C. Lee and E. Hang and E. Christen, A. Bramorski, S. Revah and C. Stredansky, E. Conti, S. Stredanska and F. Choi, G. Ji, K. Koh, Y. Ryu, D. Jo and Y. Aguilar and C. Solis, M.

Flores and C. Fredurek and Z. Bhat, N. Jayasankar, A. Agate and M. Berovic and H. Puchart, P. Katapodis, P. Biely, L. Christakopoulos, M.

Kekos, B. Macris andM. Antov and D. Rombouts and W. Birch, N. Blakebrough and K. Corredig and L. Food Sci 67 5 , —