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Three stator windings surround the rotor. In the outrunner or external-rotor configuration, the radial-relationship between the coils and magnets is reversed; the stator coils form the center core of the motor, while the permanent magnets spin within an overhanging rotor which surrounds the core.
The flat or axial flux type, used where there are space or shape limitations, uses stator and rotor plates, mounted face to face. Outrunners typically have more poles, set up in triplets to maintain the three groups of windings, and have a higher torque at low RPMs.
In all brushless motors, the coils are stationary. There are two common electrical winding configurations; the delta configuration connects three windings to each other series circuits in a triangle-like circuit, and power is applied at each of the connections.
The Wye Y-shaped configuration, sometimes called a star winding, connects all of the windings to a central point parallel circuits and power is applied to the remaining end of each winding.
A motor with windings in delta configuration gives low torque at low speed, but can give higher top speed. Wye configuration gives high torque at low speed, but not as high top speed.
Although efficiency is greatly affected by the motor's construction, the Wye winding is normally more efficient. In delta-connected windings, half voltage is applied across the windings adjacent to the driven lead compared to the winding directly between the driven leads , increasing resistive losses.
In addition, windings can allow high-frequency parasitic electrical currents to circulate entirely within the motor.
A Wye-connected winding does not contain a closed loop in which parasitic currents can flow, preventing such losses. From a controller standpoint, the two styles of windings are treated exactly the same.
Applications[ edit ] The four poles on the stator of a two-phase brushless motor. This is part of a computer cooling fan ; the rotor has been removed.
Brushless motors fulfill many functions originally performed by brushed DC motors, but cost and control complexity prevents brushless motors from replacing brushed motors completely in the lowest-cost areas. Small cooling fans in electronic equipment are powered exclusively by brushless motors. They can be found in cordless power tools where the increased efficiency of the motor leads to longer periods of use before the battery needs to be charged.
Low speed, low power brushless motors are used in direct-drive turntables for gramophone records. The advantages of brushless over brushed motors low weight, high efficiency are more important to handheld, battery powered tools than to large, stationary tools plugged into an AC outlet, so uptake has been faster in that segment of the market.
Heating and ventilation[ edit ] There is a trend in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning HVAC and refrigeration industries to use brushless motors instead of various types of AC motors. The most significant reason to switch to a brushless motor is the dramatic reduction in power required to operate them versus a typical AC motor.
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