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Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal , using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. In late ,  he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. It was about eight inches long and it gave a clearer and larger image.
In , the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in —80, when Hooke, appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions,  which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector.
But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films Opticks Bk. II, Props. However, later physicists favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns and the general phenomenon of diffraction.
Today's quantum mechanics , photons , and the idea of wave—particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. In his Hypothesis of Light of , Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. The contact with the Cambridge Platonist philosopher Henry More revived his interest in alchemy.
John Maynard Keynes , who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance , across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity. In , Newton published Opticks , in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, In the same book he describes, via diagrams, the use of multiple-prism arrays.
Some years after Newton's discussion, multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. Also, the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. Young and Fresnel combined Newton's particle theory with Huygens' wave theory to show that colour is the visible manifestation of light's wavelength. Science also slowly came to realise the difference between perception of colour and mathematisable optics.
The German poet and scientist, Goethe , could not shake the Newtonian foundation but "one hole Goethe did find in Newton's armour, Newton had committed himself to the doctrine that refraction without colour was impossible. He therefore thought that the object-glasses of telescopes must for ever remain imperfect, achromatism and refraction being incompatible.
This inference was proved by Dollond to be wrong. Frequency adverbs Q fook at these words and sentences from the recording and answer the questions below. I Do frequency adverbs like often go before or after the mai n verb? I I listen to music on the radio.
Rewrite those that are not true, using different frequency adverbs and expressions. Ask about these activities and answer using frequency adverbs plus the correct preposition of time. Use expressions like euery day, once o week and' twice a month in your answers.
Which of the pictures on the right. Which parts of it are the sails and. Which five of the points below are I The family built a windmill and they now live in it. The itne. Decide what kind of text it is, what it is about, and its three main points. Exam advice We often believe that living in a cave i s [ 0.
The cl i mat e i s changi ng and temperatures around the world are [2. I am si tti ng i n a cave home i n Cappadoci a, one of the hottest parts ofTurkey, [ three o' clock on a July afternoon. Outside it reaches 35 degrees here it is only Modern cave homes like this often have a phone, satellite TV and an Internet [6 and they are very comfortable.
And, t hey say, it's easy to make more 8 for yourself. You just dig a bigger room! Begi n by readi ng the text to get a general i dea of the type of text, i ts topi c and the mai n poi nts.
Use the questions in italics to help you. Why not? Use the present simple or the present continuous. Bge for now, Pamel a. State verbs Verbs that describe states ale not normally used in continuous forms: IJi ot ffi Wtrictr of these are state verbs? Which verb does not ned an object? Which preposition goes with the seasons? Wttich linking word means 'becausd at tlrc beginning of a sentence? Whicttword means 'empty', on and above tlrc ground? PET c andidate s of ten make mistakes with these.
Choose the correct option in italics in this sentence, then check your answer with the extract from the Cambrid. Then complete the rules and examples on page 14 with a little, a few, much, many, a lot, o lot of and lots of.
Do qou be! Ask questions about their first partner. Does sh"e preler weeKduis or see erds? Uate questions using the present simple or the present continuous, adding and changing words where necessary. Then answer the questions in full sentences. Stata varbs nret'f usun! Tell your partner these things about them: He often pl ays.. Slrc's learning Sp anish. He's walking lrcme. At this time of the year it rains a lot and there jsnl-muctr suns6lrr, 5r, summer is different.
From June to August we only have a little rain, and for a few months. Circle the conect option in italics in each of these sentences. He sleePs " ' 9 fil in the gaps with a little, a few, mtlch, mdny, a lot or a lot offlots of. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. Ii ttXe Too much l ooks terri bl e, I thi nk. They Work in pairs.
Talk about your apartment or house, describing each room and what is in it. As your partner listens, he or she draws a picture or plan of your home. When you finish, check your partner's diagram. Then change roles. Speaking Part 1 Q nut the words in in the correct order. Then match the questions with answers a-e. It's a town on the coast near M. I studied it at school and now I have lessons at work with the other people there. I work in an insurance company. Complete the tables with prepositions from a-e above.
My hai r al ways goes dry i f I use There i sn' t. Prepositions of pt26s nst another student the questions in Exercise 1. Your partner should answer about himself or herself, being careful to use the correct prepositions.
Fill in the correct form of the verbs in brackets and prepositions of place and time. Maria, where l I'm from Vari. It's a small town 2 Greece, near Athens. Mari a: What subj ects [ All the usual ones like maths and historv. It's really Here are some sentences about family life. For each question, complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first, using no more than three words.
There aren't many days when all my family do the same thi ng. Right now, my mum and dad are out having a meal somewhere. My parents home right now because they're having a meal somewhere. My elder sister Emily is at the swi mmi ng pool at the moment. At the moment.
She nearly always goes out somewhere during the eveni ng. She hardl y st ays i n duri ng t he eveni ng. My brother James doesn't spend much ti me here i n summer. In summer, my brother James only spends time here. He usually prefers to be by the sea with his friends. He usually prefers to be. Write an email to an English- speaking friend about your own family life. What 9 ti me?
Well, I 10 like listening to music 11 home, 12 my room. And I sometimes Work with a different partner. Ask the questions in Exercise 4.
Your partner gives true answers. Writing Xlart I Q Circle the correct option in italics. Wtrat do the sentences in Exercise I test? Match sentences l-5 with grammar points a-e below. Which grammar point a-e does each of test? One grammar point is not tested. Choose a phrase from the box for photos A-E. After each sound, talk to your partner and match it with photos A-E. Use the phrases in Exercise I to ask and answer questions about your typical school day.
Vnve 6ou Vot n'n nlnrw clocK? You read a l ong factual text and deci de i f ten sentences are correct or i ncorrect. The ten sentences fol l ow the order of the text. Before you read the text on page lZ look at the title, pictures and clocks. What do you think the text is about? Wayne goes to secondary school in Beiiing, China. What do you think Wayne does on a typical school day?
Use the phrases in Starting off. Read the text quickly to get a general idea of what it is about and find out if you were right about Wayne. Underline the most important words in each. I Wayne makes breakfast for his sister. Wayne' s school has some sports faci l i ti es. At midday, none of the students go home for lunch.
Wayne leaves school a Wayne does his homework until it's time for dinner. Wayne never sleeps more than si x hours a ni ght. Underline where you find the information in the text.
In your groups, compare your typical school day with Wayne's. In which ways is your day similar and in which ways is it different? Would you like to study at Wayne's school? We have sport every day. I have t o get up. I go to the ki tchen to fry mysel f an egg for br eakf ast. My si st er downloads somet hi ng f r om t he mar ket st al l s on t he way t o school so she can sl eep Iongcr. Our school di dn' t use to have a' footbal l pi tch, basketbal l ,courts,or.
I r ead somet hi ng. Somet i mes I need t o l ear n f amous poems or t ext s i n ot her l anguages. I set off for school. I someti mes go to school by bus. However, I normal l y go to school by bi cycl e.
In Chi na, dri vers have to be ol der t han' lI year s ol d. We have to be i n school at l east 20 mi nutes before l essons begi n. If you don' t arri ve on ti me, you can expect puni shment. I do not want to miss my class. W I've lost my umbrella. I want to lean how to dive. My dad taught me how to dive.
OO Work in pairs. Circle the correct option initalics in sentences Aow otle-w do you lnKe exatws nt your sctnoo!? Work in small groups. Ask and answer each other's questions. O Work in small groups. Nadine is from Toronto, Canada. Last year she went to San Pedro de Atacama - a town in Chile - to be an exchange student. What differences do you think she found between her life in Canada and her life in Chile?
Wlnara did 6ou 6o!. Work in pairs. Nadine talks about an experience that happened last year. Write the interviewer's questions in the correct form of the past simple, using the words given.
Past simple and past conttnuous Q fook at the pictures. What happened to Nadine when she was walking to school? What do you think happened next? Listen to the rest of Nadine's story. Were you right about what happened next?
Underline the verbs in the past simple e. Then, answer the question that follows each extract. The dogs ran off. What happened last? Do we know when the sun started shining? Do we know if the sun stopped shining? Yes, I di d. Spani sh at school. Listen to the interview again. Check your questions l-6 and complete Nadine's answers a-f.
Look again at Nadine's answers a-f. Underline the regulor past simple forms and circle the irregalar past simple forms. I O PET candidates often make spelling mistakes with regular past tense forms. Correct one spelling mistake in sentences l-7 and say why it is wrong.
O O PET candidates also make mistakes with irregular past simple forms. Correct one mistake in sentences Listening Part 1 Exam advice. There are seven short recordi ngs, each on a di fferent topi c. Li sten to the recordi ng and choose the correct pi cture.
You l i sten to each recordi ng twi ce. Q nead the four Listening Part I questions and underline the important words in each. Q was doing logether to show. Read what he says about his first day at a Japanese school and put the verbs in brackets in the past simple or past continuous. Use the past simple and past continuous to tell each other about: A T B T c l What will the weather be like tomorrow? What can you see in each? Picture C in Question t has been done for you. Teenmagazine has interviewed Candy about her days at primary school.
Read this extract and answer the question below. Which words does Candy use to talk about things that happened regularly in the past but don't happen now? Rewrite what Candy says so that it is true for you. Read the rules about questions, then write at least five questions with used to, using the topics in the box. What primary school did you use fQgo fo? DJd you use to get' homework? Whaf sport's did you use t'o ptay when You were Younger? Change pairs.
Take turns to ask your questions from Exercise 4.
Where possible, answer the questions using used to. Reading [3art ] Exam alvice. You read five short texts [e. Each text has three explanations, A, B and C, and you have to choose the correct one. When you have made your choi ce, compare i t wi th the text and deci de i f i t real l y expl ai ns what the text says.
Q fook at the text in each question. What does it say? Circle the letter next to the correct explanation - A, B or C. I Do you want to earn some extra cash in the school holidays? A local petrol station needs an attendant to wash cars and fillthem up with petrol. To apply, phone Stefan on Stefan A needs a j ob duri ng t he summer break. B woul d l i ke to hear from peopl e who are i nterested i n t he j ob. C i s l ooki ng for someone to wash hi s car. Mar a To: Nat asha Hi.
Let us know what gou t hi nk when gou come f or di nner t omor r ow. Mara has wri tten the emai l to A i nvi te Natasha to have di nner.
B ask Natasha i f she can borrow her scooter. C i nform Natasha about a j ob. Zoe, JanHarris phoned. They want to celebralelheir wedding anniversary on Saturday but need eomeone t o look aller lheir son from B Lo 11 pm.
Can you do it? Mum Jan Harri s A wants Zoe to phone her back toni ght. B has i nvi ted ZoeIo go out on Saturday ni ght. C woul d l i ke Zoe to take care of her chi l d for the eveni ng. Dani , I' ve taken the job washing up in Dave's Caf6. I might be late for the film tonight. B go i nto the ci nema i f Robi i s del ayed.
A You wi l l have an opportuni ty to hand i n your appl i cati on on Fri day. B Everybody shoul d get there 15 mi nutes before the i ntervi ew starts.
C You must compl ete an appl i cati on form before Fri day. Use the verbs from the box to complete questions l-5 correctly. I can you Ask and answer questions Remember to explain why.
Speaking Part 4 O Work in small groups. Discuss these questions.
Why notJ? Make notes on how they answer the questions in Exercise 1. Arrive at least 15 minutes before if you still need to ftll in a form. Linh and Marcelo take turns to speak by asking each other questions. They also show they are listening to each other. Complete the expressions in the table.
They are numbered in the order you will hear them. Try this Speaking Part 4 question. Remember to use some of the expressions from Exercise 3. Your photogrophs showed people ot work. Now I'd like you to tolk together about the work members of your fomily do ond the sorf of work you'd like to do in the future.
The important information has been underlined in the first question. Now underline the important information in the second question. I Your English-speaking friend has helped you study for your English exam. I n your emai l , you shoul d. K lsabel. You can' t go to sports practice after school. Write a note to your coach. In your note, you should. O Work in pairs.
Look at each Writing Part 2 question again and answer these questions. What do you need to write?
Who are you writing to? Do you know their name? Why are you writing? What three points do you need to include? Hi l sabel , Thanks ever so much for helping me with my English exam. The exam was quite easy and I think I' ve done well. Would you like to come to my house to have pizza atthe weekend? Read the answers again and underline the expressions which are used to thank, invite, slaggeEt, explain and apologise.
Use this Writing Part 2 question to answer the questions in Exercise 2 again. Ypu agreed to meet your English-speaking friend tomorrow but now you can' t go.
Write an email to Jason. Write words. Write your answer to the task in Exercise 5. Hi everybody, Wel l , here I am 1. New Zeal and, stayi ng wi th a very fri endl y fami l y 2 the town of Westport.
I l i ke i t because there are l ots of cupboards to put my thi ngs and the bed i s much bi gger than the one 5 6 7 my room the eveni ngs and weekends, the fami l y someti mes take me out, though often we just stay and watch TV. I usually go to bed qui t e earl y Circle the correct option initolics in sentences Iittle money until Friday? Correct the errors. I We don't eat always in the dining room. Vocabulary Complete the crossword with words from Unit 1.
Across ' I where we keep food cool 4 have something 6 to or in a higher part of a house 7 comfortable and warm 8 where we wash the dishes 9 thick warm cover for a bed 10 hole in the side of a mountain 11 where people keep their car 12 room that leads to other rooms Down I level of a building 2 stay the same 3 where water comes from 5 put things in the right pl ace 7 what we use to make meal s 8 seat for two or more peopl e 9 it rings at the door un" t Unat2 Voco.
I'm really nervous. Some have a spelling mistake and some have an incorrect irregular form. Q pug" Grammar reference; lrregular verbs trave! H to England with a friend called Bruno. I only payed 25 euros for these boots. Last weekend, I founded a yery good restaurant in my town.
I went to the shopping centre and there I baught some new clothes. While my brother was playing football, he felt and injured his leg. My friend Sara bringed her dog to school one day. I met Holly a very long time ago. We were studing at the same school. In the first lesson our English teacher teached us some new words for sports. We puted all our things in the car and we set off for the mountains. Be careful with your spelling! The sun f shi ne and t he bi rds.
Yesterday, when I haveJ my dinner, the phone ringy. I really l0 in. Complete these sentences with used to or didn't use to.
I I don't play the piano now but when I was younger I I have lunch at school now but at primary school I I live close to school now but when we lived in Tokyo we. My brother is now a really good student but when he was younger he. Mr Puy'doesn't give us much homework but when Mrs Garcia was our teacher she Martin's never late for school but before he bought 3 4 7 8 l 0 the alarm clock he unit z Fun ti me Starting off Q vtatctr the verbs in the box with a-i to form leisure activities. Which are shown in the pictures?
Put a-i in order, starting with the activity you most like or would like to do. Compare your answers with a partner. What kind of information , e. Match a-d with questions You will hear a man talking on the radio about four ways of spending a daY out.
For each question, put a tick [. Co Wild adventure courses are not dangerous because A you have to wear safety equipment. B somebody is always holding you. C onl y adul ts can go on the course.
Passengers on the boat trip in Wales nearly always see A sharks. B whal es. C dolphins. A The route never changes. B They are a little too short. C There are no flights in winter. Complete questions with expressions recording using these words. Exom advice.
Before you listen, look at each question and decide what kind of information you need [e. When you first hear the recording, listen for details about this kind of information and choose the best answer. Listen carefully the second time to check that you are right. Make these adjectives negative by writing im-, in- or an- on the left. Decide which oian" four activities from the recording you would most like to do. Then ask your partner about other interesting ways of spending a day out e.
Ask some ol the questions from Exercise 3. Complete these sentences with information that is true for you. Quickly read the text and complete this statement. Use your own words. TLta writer's whiti.
Which is closest to your answer in Exercise 2? A To warn young peopl e to take care at sea B To describe a great achievement by a boy C To encourage teenagers to take up sai l i ng D To expl ai n how to become an expert sai l or Read the text more carefully and think of answers to these questions. Which paragraph gives you the answer to each? I What di d Mi chael say when he arri ved i n Jamai ca?
For each question, decide which of A, B, C or D is closest to your understanding of the text. I A He preferred bei ng at sea B He enj oyed sl eepi ng on hi s boat C He wanted to have a good meal D He l i ked openi ng ti ns of food 2 A He had a conversati on wi th Sebasti an B Hi s father suggested the i dea to hrm C He wanted to do the same as Sebasti an D He was al readv an exnert sai l or 3 A B c D fook again at the parts of the text that gave you the correct answers to questions Are they in the same order as the questions?
Exam aduice r. Cambridge Teacher Development. Cambridge Vocabulary for Ship or Sheep? Try out the demos for these digital books following these links: Compatible with Computer. Interactive Whiteboard. Available Online.