This book covers a vast portion of the upper body anatomy. Where can I get a PDF download of BD Chaurasia's Anatomy book? you will find the PDF Copies of BD Chaurasiya Human Anatomy Volume 1, 2 and 3. He has written all the gross anatomy in 3 volumes. The first one is called BD Chaurasia human anatomy volume 1 pdf which consists of Upper.
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The common sites of fracture are the surgical neck. It has an the radial groove. The centres include: The upper end ossifies from 3 secondary centres: Three nerves are directly related to the humerus and are.
Supracondylar fracture is common in young age. The radius is the lateral bone of the forearm.
The 3 centres fuse together during the sixth year to form one epiphysis. The head of the humerus commonly dislocates inferiorly. The posterior border is the mirror image of the anterior border. The tuberosity lies just below the medial part of the neck.
The circumference of the head is also articular. The Shaft It has three borders and three surfaces. Borders 1. The head is disc-shaped and is covered with hyaline cartilage Figs 2. The lower vertical part is crest-like Fig. The head and neck are free from capsular attachment and can rotate freely within the socket. It has a superior concave surface which articulates with the capitulum of the humerus at the elbowjoint.
The anterior border extends from the anterior margin of the radial tuberosity to the styloid process. The Upper End 1. It fits into a socket formed by the radial notch of the ulna and the annular ligament. The neck is enclosed by the narrow lower margin of the annular ligament. The oblique part is called the anterior oblique line. It has a rough posterior part and a smooth anterior part.
It is oblique in the upper half of the shaft. The interosseous membrane in its upper part. A nutrient foramen opens the ulnar notch below. The upper oblique part is known as part. The nutrient is attached to its lower three-fourths.
In its lower artery is a branch of the anterior interosseous artery.
It extends from the 1. The anterior surface lies between the anterior radial tuberosity above to the posterior margin of and interosseous borders. The medial or interosseous border is the Surfaces sharpest of the three borders.
The Lower End The lower end is the widest part of the bone. It has 5 surfaces Fig. The posterior surface presents four grooves for the extensor tendons.
The radial artery is palpated against this surface. Side Determination The smaller circular and upper end is concave followed by a constricted neck. The medial surface is occupied by the ulnar notch for the head of the ulna. Medial or in- terosseous border is thin and sharp. Anterior border 1. The inferior surface bears a triangular area for the scaphoid bone.
The anterior surface is in the form of a thick prominent ridge. The wider lower end is thick with a pointed styloid process on its lateral aspect and a prominent dorsal tubercle on its posterior surface.
The lateral surface is prolonged downwards to form the styloid process. The lateral surface lies between the anterior and posterior borders. The dorsal tubercle of Lister lies lateral to an oblique groove.
The pos terior s urface lies between the posterior and interosseous borders. Just below the medial aspect of neck is the radial tuberosity. This surface takes part in forming the wrist joint. The biceps brachii is inserted into the rough posterior part of the radial tuberosity. The anterior part of the tuberosity is covered by a bursa Fig. The supinatoris inserted into the upper part of the lateral surface Fig. The pronator quadratus is inserted into the lower part of the anterior surface and into the triangular area on the medial side of the lower end.
The brachioradialis is inserted into the lowest uncommon. The extensor retinaculum is attached to the lower part of the anterior border. The radial head of the flexor digitorum anomaly. It normally lies distal to the ulnar styloid process. Smith's fracture is the reverse of the Colles' 1. The radius commonly gets fractured about 2 cm above its lower end Colles's fracture. The articular disc of the inferior radioulnar joint is attached to the lower border of the ulnar notch.
The radial artery is palpated as "radial pulse" as it lies on the lower part of anterior surface of radius. The oblique cord is attached on the medial side just below the radial tuberosity. Brachialis 2. The pronator teres is inserted into the middle of fracture. Radioulnar synostosis is also a rare condi- Fig. The abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis arise from the posterior surface.
The interosseous membrane is attached to the lower three-fourths of the interosseous border. The upper end head ossifies from a secondary centre which appears during the 4th year and fuses at 18 years Table 2.
The quadrateligamentis attached to the medial part of the neck. The shaft ossifies from a primary centre which appears during the 8th week of development.
This fracture is caused by a fall on the outstretched hand. The flexor pollicis longus takes origin from the Olecranon upper two-thirds of the anterior surface Fig. The articular capsule of the wrist joint is ler attached to the anterior and posterior margins of the inferior articular surface.
Congenital absence of the radius is a rare 3. The distal fragment is displaced upwards and backwards. It is 2. This results in gross radial deviation superficialis takes origin from the anterior of the hand.
The lower end ossifies from a secondary centre which appears during the first year and fuses at 20 years. The ulna is the medial bone of the forearm.
It has may dislodge the head of the radius from the grip upper end. This is known as sublux- ation of the head of the radius. The upper end presents the olecranon and coronoid processes. A sudden powerful jerk on the hand of a child homologous with the fibula of the lower limb.
Triceps brachii -. Pronation and supination is impossible in these cases. Styloid process Fig. Right radius and ulna: Posterior aspect. The head can The Upper End normally be felt in a hollow behind the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
The lower part of the lateral surface forms a depressed area to accommodate the radial tuberosity. The coronoid process projects forwards from the shaft just below the olecranon and has four surfaces: The anterior surface is triangular and rough. The posterior surface forms a triangular subcutaneous area which is separated from the skin by a bursa. Inferiorly it is continuous with the posterior border of the shaft of the ulna. The upper part of its lateral surface is marked by the radial notch for the head of the radius.
The olecranon process projects upwards from the shaft. The superior surface forms the lower part of the trochlear notch. The medial surface is continuous inferiorly with the posterior surface of the shaft.
It is limited behind by a ridge called the supinator crest. It has superior. The annular ligament is attached to the anterior and posterior margins of the notch. The anterior surface is articular: The upper part forms the point of the elbow.
Its lower corner forms the ulnar tuberosity. The Shaft The shaft has three borders and three surfaces Fig. The anterior border is thick and rounded. It be- gins. The trochlear notch forms an articular surface that articulates with the trochlea of the humerus to form the elbow joint. It begins above on the medial side of the ulnar tuberosity.
The radial notch articulates with the head of the radius to form the superior radioulnar joint. The posterior border is subcutaneous. The interosseous or lateral border is sharpest in its middle two-fourths. The head articulates with the ulnar notch of the radius to form the inferior radioulnar joint. The anterior surface lies between the anterior and interosseous borders.
The lateral border of the shaft is sharp and crest-like. The lower part is further divided by a vertical line into a medial and a lateral area. Pointed styloid process lies medial to the rounded head of ulna. The styloid process projects downwards from the posteromedial side of the lower end of the ulna.
The anterior part of the surface is covered by a bursa Fig. The Lower End The lower end is made up of the head and the styloid process.
It is separated from the wrist joint by the articular disc Figs 2. The medial surface lies between the anterior and posterior borders. The posterior surface lies between the posterior and interosseous borders. The upper end is hook-like. A nutrient foramen is seen on the upper part of this surface. Ulnar artery and nerve lie on the anterior aspect of head of ulna Fig. Surfaces 1. The nutrient artery is derived from the anterior interosseous artery.
The ulnar head of the flexor digitorum superficialis arises from a tubercle at the upper end of the medial margin of the coronoid process. It is subdivided into three areas by two lines.
An oblique line divides it into upper and lower parts. The brachialis is inserted into the anterior surface of the coronoid process including the tuber-osity of the ulna Fig. It is directed upwards. The supinator arises from the supinator crest and from the triangular area in front of the crest.
The triceps is inserted into the posterior part of the superior surface of the olecranon. The ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist is attached to the styloid process.
The lower end ossifies from a secondary centre which appears during the 5th year. The oblique cord is attached to the lateral side of the tuberosity.
The superior part of the olecranon ossifies from a secondary centre which appears during the 10th year. The anconeus is inserted into the lateral as- pect of the olecranon process and the upper one-fourth of the posterior surface Fig.
The lateral part of the posterior surface gives origin from above downwards to the abductorpollicis longus. The flexor carpi ulnaris ulnar head arises from the medial side of the olecranon process and from the posterior border 6 c. This is the growing end of the bone Table 2. The shaft and most of the upper end ossify from a primary centre which appears during the 8th week of development.
The articular disc of the inferior radioulnar joint is attached by its apex to a small rough area just lateral to the styloid process. The ulnar head of the pronator teres arises from the medial margin of the coronoid process. The flexor digitorum profundus arises from: The pronator quadratus takes origin from the oblique ridge on the lower part of the anterior surface. Other Attachments 1. The extensor carpi ulnaris arises from the pos- terior border.
The annular ligamentof the superior radioulnar joint is attached to the two margins of radial notch of ulna. The interosseous membrane is attached to the interosseous border. The capsular ligament of the elbow joint is at- tached to the margins of the trochlear notch. It forms a scale-like epiphysis which joins the rest of the bone by 16 years. This implies that. Fracture of the olecranon is common and is i the trapezium. So preserve pronation and supination of the hand. As a corollary. Madelung's deformity is dorsal subluxation 1.
The proximal row is convex proximally. The ulna is the stabilising bone of the fore. It has These ends of long bones which unite last with the a concavoconvex articular surface distally. It is actively growing part of the bone with rich blood. The trapezium is quadrangular in shape. The olecranon shifts posteriorly and the Table 2.
Each bone has 6 surfaces. The pisiform is pea-shaped and has only one In long bones possessing epiphyses at both of their oval facet on the proximal part of its dorsal ends. Dislocation of the elbow is produced by a fall on capsular attachment and the epiphyseal line at the the outstretched hand with the elbow slightly ends of humeral.
The triquetral is pyramidal in shape and has an isolated oval facet on the distal part of the Ossification of Humerus. The scaphoid. The capitate is the largest carpal bone. Identification 2. These relations are disturbed in disloca.
The proximal row contains from lateral epicondyles of the humerus. The hamate is wedge-shaped with a hook near radius and ulna are growing ends.
Metaphysis is the epiphyseal end of the diaphysis. Fracture capitate. Law of Ossification 4. The shaft of the ulna may fracture either sis of the bone if it is partly or completely inside the alone or along with that of the radius.
Side Determination The direction of the nutrient foramen in these General Points bones. The lunate is half-moon-shaped or crescentic. The epiphyseal line is the arm. On this foundation the end of the bone.
Importance of Capsular Attachments and Epiphy. The distal row contains in the same order: At the end of the humerus. The trapezoid resembles the shoe of a baby. Infections in this part of the bone are most 1. The distal row is convex proximally and flat distally.
So infection in the joint may affect the metaphy- 2. Cross-union joint capsule. The carpus is made up of 8 carpal bones. The side can be finally determined with the nerve.
The tubercle is directed laterally. The dorsal non-articular surface is always larger lies on the distal part of the palmar surface. The lunate. The trapezium. The triquetral. The pisiform. Ossification of humerus. The hook projects from the distal part of the palmar surface.
At the lowest part of Metaphysis is upper end mical neck. Epiphyseal line E. The capitate. It bears a small facet for the 4th metacarpal bone. L Result Humerus Laterally to the anato. Medial intracapsular through the olecranon epicondyle owns a fossa.
Bones of the Upper Limb 27 Table 2. The dorsomedial angle is the distal-most projection from the body of the capitate. The hamate. The trapezoid. All attachments are to these four pillars Fig. Both epicondyles separate epiphyseal are extracapsular line Radius Attached to the neck of The head forms the Metaphysis is upper end the radius epiphysis partly intracapsular Radius Close to the articular Horizontal line at Metaphysis is lower end margin all around the level of the completely extra- upper part of ulnar capsular notch Ulna Near the articular Scale-like epiphysis on the Metaphysis and part of upper end surface of ulna upper surface of olecranon diaphysis is related to capsular line.
Relation of capsular attachment and epiphyseal lines Capsular attachment C. The tubercle of the scaphoid gives attachment to: The trapezium has the following attachments: Figure 2. The pisiform gives attachment to: These constitute muscles of thenar eminence.
The triquetral articulates with the following bones: The lunate articulates with the following bones: The pisiform articulates with the triquetral. Hook of hamate iv The groove lodges the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis.
The trapezium articulates with the following bones: Articulations 1. The scaphoid articulates with the following bones: Bones of the Upper Limb 29 Digital nerves Branches to second and first lumbricals Communicating branch Branch to muscles of thenar eminence Median nerve Dinar nerve Fig.
Median and superficial branch of ulnar nerves and thenar muscles. The capitate articulates with the following bones: The trapezoid articulates with the following bones: The head and shaft are flattened from side to side.
Compare with Fig. Each bone has a head placed distally. The dorsal surface of the shaft is uniformly convex.
The head and shaft are 1. The metacarpal bones are 5 miniature long bones. Arrangement of carpal bones in man. The dorsal surface of the shaft has an elongated. Hamate 2. The shaft tapers distally. The base is irregular. The year of appearance of centre of ossification in the carpal bones is shown in Figure 2.
The shaft is of uniform thickness. Scaphoid Triquetra! Trapezium Pisiform prismoid. Lunate 2. The base appears to be cut sharply and obliquely. The heads of the metacarpal bones a form the knuckles. It ext end s mo re on the pal ma r su r- fac e tha n on the dor sal sur. It has an arti cul ar sur fac e wh ich ext end s mo re ant ero pos teri orl y tha n late rall y. The base has an elongated articular strip on V. The I. Palmar in- terossei arise from one bone each except the third Metacarpal metacarpal Fig.
The lateral and medial sides The main attachment from shaft of metacarpals is of can be confirmed by the following criteria. Side Determination The proximal.
The gated articular strip for the fourth metac- medial side of the base is non-articular and arpal.
The anterolateral surface is larger than the other attachments are listed below. Dorsal interossei arise from adjacent sides of two metacarpals Fig. Abductor digiti minimae Fig. Only the interossei arise from it. With the trapezium. Articulations at the Bases serted on the dorsal surface of the base. First palmar interosseous Adductor pollicis Medial Sesamoid bones First dorsal interosseous.
Palmar Fig. Dorsal interossei. Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal is which supports the sensitive pulp of the fingertip.
These also 3. Direct violence usu- ally displaces the fractured segment forwards. When the thumb possesses three phalanges. The palmar surface is centre each. The fist cannot 7. The thumb is forced into a semiflexed position and cannot be opposed. In the little finger. In adults. The other metacarpals may also be fractured the palmar surface Fig. Then the medial branch has no 3.
Tubercular or syphilitic disease of the metac- extend the insertion of lumbrical and in- arpals or phalanges is located in the middle of terossei muscles Fig. The Proximal Phalanx distal epiphysis. Each phalanx has a base. The dorsal surface Ossification: The shafts ossify from one primary is convex from side to side. The shaft tapers towards the head. With the capitate. In the thumb.
The Middle Phalanx plexus immediately upon reaching the i The flexor digitorum superficialis is inserted on medullary cavity. It involves the anterior part of the base. A secondary centre for the head ap. In the middle phalanx. The Head 3rd year and fuses with the shaft at about In the proximal and middle phalanges the head has years Fig. With the capitate and the 2nd and 4th metacar.
There are 14 phalanges in each hand. The i The fibrous flexor sheath is attached to the lateral branch has a distal epiphysis and three phalanges. The Shaft With the hamate and the 4th metacarpal. Base of the Distal Phalanx be clenched.
It appears during the 2nd. In the distal pha- langes. The Base iii The extensor pollicis brevis is inserted on the In the proximal phalanx. The shaft of each phalanx ossifies from a primary centre which appears during the 8th the lateral side of the metacarpophalangeal joint week of development in the distal phalanx.
These are as follows. They are variable in I Second lumbrical. Tendon of extensor 3. One sesamoid bone is found on the ulnar side of the capsule of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the little finger. Sometimes sesamoid bone may be found at middle phalanx. Less frequently. Extensor expansion their occurrence. The pisiform is often regarded as a sesamoid bone lying within the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris. One sesamoid bone is found in the capsule of digitorum the interphalangeal joint of the thumb.
The secondary centre appears for the base durir years and fuses with the shaft during years Fig. Note the insertion of the lumbrical and interossei muscles into it.
The dorsal digital expansion of the middle finger. Indian Journal. Journal of Anatomical Society of India. Indian Journal of Medical Research. Observations on the tilt of the glenoid cavity of scapula. The angles of scapula. The sexing of adult clavicles. A radiological study of the time of fusion of certain epiphyses in Punjabees. DAS SP. Sexing of the adult clavicle. Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society.
Times of appearance and fusion of epiphysis at the medial end of the clavicle. Radiological study of the ossification of the upper end of the humerus in UP Indian subject. Identification of sex from the humerus. A study of ossification as observed in Indian subjects. Scapula showing a facet for the oniovertebral bone. Sexual dimorphism in scapula. Journal of the Indian Academy of Forensic Sciences.
JIT I. The torsion of the humerus in central India. Clavicle JrrI. A study of epiphyseal union for determining the age of South Indians.
Additional Reading of Medical Research. The book has received numerous updates since it was first launched, creating a new volume every time it is updated. New images and texts are added, however, the basic content has somehow been unchanged.
There must be a reason for it, right? You can download the three volumes of the book by links given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it.
This book covers a vast portion of the upper body anatomy. It comprises of highly detailed and well-versed chapters on the bones of upper limbs as well as the pectoral region, scapular region, the forearm and the anatomy of the hand, joints of upper limbs and so on. Most importantly, the book contains detailed information on the wall of thorax, thoracic cavity and the pleura, pericardium and the heart.
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