Cambridge University Press - Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Second Edition Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers . Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, work explaining various approaches to, and methods of, language teaching. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and. Theodore S Foreign and Second Language Learning by William Littlewood. Language .. book The Practical Study of Languages () he set forth principles for.
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In this series. ft Affect in Language Learning edited by Jane Arnold Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Second Edition, by Jack C. Richards and. The nature of approaches and methods in language teaching. The second level in the system, design, specifies the First edition (34th edition, ) . Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Approaches and Export citation; download the print book. Contents . pp i-iv. Access. PDF; Export citation.
They saw a need for students to develop communicative skill and functional competence in addition to mastering language structures. Communicative competence redefined what it meant to "know" a language; in addition to speakers having mastery over the structural elements of language, they must also be able to use those structural elements appropriately in a variety of speech domains.
Canale refined the model by adding discourse competence, which contains the concepts of cohesion and coherence.
When communicative language teaching had effectively replaced situational language teaching as the standard by leading linguists, the Council of Europe made an effort to once again bolster the growth of the new method.
This led to the Council of Europe creating a new language syllabus. Education was a high priority for the Council of Europe, and they set out to provide a syllabus that would meet the needs of European immigrants. Wilkins, that defined language using "notions" and "functions", rather than more traditional categories of grammar and vocabulary.
The new syllabus reinforced the idea that language could not be adequately explained by grammar and syntax, and instead relied on real interaction.
This proposed that published materials stifle the communicative approach. As such, the aim of the Dogme approach to language teaching is to focus on real conversations about practical subjects, where communication is the engine of learning. The idea behind the Dogme approach is that communication can lead to explanation, which will lead to further learning. This approach is the antithesis of situational language teaching, which emphasizes learning through text and prioritizes grammar over communication.
Oral activities are popular among CLT teachers, as opposed to grammar drills or reading and writing activities, because they include active conversation and creative, unpredicted responses from students.
Activities vary based on the level of language class they are being used in. They promote collaboration, fluency, and comfort in the TL. The six activities listed and explained below are commonly used in CLT classrooms. The instructor defines the goal of the students' conversation.
The students converse in pairs for a designated amount of time. This activity gives students the chance to improve their communication skills in the TL in a low-pressure situation. Most students are more comfortable speaking in pairs rather than in front of the entire class.
Students may use the same utterances repeatedly when doing this activity and not actually have a creative conversation. If instructors do not regulate what kinds of conversations students are having, then the students might not be truly improving their communication skills. Students take turns asking and answering the questions in pairs. This activity, since it is highly-structured, allows for the instructor to more closely monitor students' responses.
It can zone in on one specific aspect of grammar or vocabulary, while still being a primarily communicative activity and giving the students communicative benefits. Higher-level speakers should be having unpredictable conversations in the TL, where neither the questions nor the answers are scripted or expected. If this activity were used with higher-level speakers it wouldn't have many benefits. Teachers and teacher educators should not be blinded by the criticisms of methods and thus fail to see their invaluable contribution to teacher education and continuing development.
Key to doing so, though, is moving beyond ideology to inquiry, a movement to which I hope this book will contribute.
Further, the Introduction Chapter 1 has been expanded. Contrary to those who fear that a method will be imposed on practitioners, my experience as a teacher educator is that the challenge lies in getting reachers to leave behind teaching as they were taught and become aware of, and open to, alternatives. I therefore welcome the opportunity that the expanded chapter has given me to elaborate on one way that openness can be encouraged.
Another change is the inclusion of methods that have come into prominence since the first edition of this book. In order to keep this book from becoming too long, I have grouped a number of methods in two chapters. In addition to considerations of length, I have justified this decision because it seems these methods have in common the views that first, xii To the Teacher Educator language can best be learned when it is taught through communication, rather than for it Chapter 10, on content-based, task-based, and participatory approaches], and second, that language acquisition can be enhanced by working not only on language, but also on the process of learning Chapter 11, on learning strategies, cooperative learning, and multiple intelligences.
A further substantial modification is that the epilogue of the first edition has grown into a full chapter of its own Chapter 12 in this second edition. Readers of the first edition have told me that they wished that I had concluded with a more explicit evaluation and comparison of the methods. I chose not to do so in the first edition of this book, as I am not of the opinion that the purpose of learning about methods is so one can adopt the right one, or that I could choose for others which one that would be.
However, in this second edition, I have responded to readers' requests by providing a summary chart of the methods discussed in this book, and by so doing, highlighting their major differences. A word about nomenclature is also in order. I am using the term 'method1 here not to mean a formulaic prescription, but rather a coherent set of links between principles and certain techniques and procedures.
Anthony has made the case for a tripartite hierarchy. As he put it Following Anthony, in certain of the chapters, I will inttoduce a particular method by showing how it is an example of a more general approach to language teaching. However, not all methods discussed in this book conveniently follow from a general approach. They all do, though, have both a conceptual and an operational component, fitting the definition in Richardsetai.
Theodore Stephen. Rodgers Frontmatter More information Preface This is a revised and reorganized version of the first edition, originally published in More than half of the contents of this new edition has been specially written for this edition. Since the first edition was pub- lished, it has become one of the most widely referred to books on teach- ing methods.
Since then, however, a great deal has happened in language teaching. In planning this new edition, we have therefore made a number of substantial changes. We have divided the book into three main parts: Part I deals with major trends in twentieth-century language teaching. The chapters in this section are substantially the same as those in the first edition but include an updated list of references.
Part II deals with alternative approaches and methods. This section describes approaches and methods that have attracted support at different times and in different places throughout the last 30 or so years, but have generally not been widely accepted or, in some cases, have not maintained substantial followings. Addi- tional and more recent references have been added to these chapters.
Because these methods are no longer widely used, a shorter treatment seemed appropriate. Readers requiring fuller discussion of these methods should consult the first edition.
Although these latter approaches share some features with communicative ap- proaches in Part III, we feel that they are sufficiently distinct to be grouped with the other approaches discussed in Part II. Part III deals with current communicative approaches. New material has been added to the final sections of the chapter on Communicative Language Teaching, and addi- tional references have been added to this chapter and to the one on the Natural Approach.
Rodgers Frontmatter More information Preface The history of language teaching has been characterized by a search for more effective ways of teaching second or foreign languages. For more than a hundred years, debate and discussion within the teaching profes- sion have often centered on issues such as the role of grammar in the language curriculum, the development of accuracy and fluency in teach- ing, the choice of syllabus frameworks in course design, the role of vocab- ulary in language learning, teaching productive and receptive skills, learn- ing theories and their application in teaching, memorization and learning, motivating learners, effective learning strategies, techniques for teaching the four skills, and the role of materials and technology.
Al- though much has been done to clarify these and other important ques- tions in language teaching, the teaching profession is continually explor- ing new options for addressing these and other basic issues and the effectiveness of different instructional strategies and methods in the classroom. The teaching of any subject matter is usually based on an analysis of the nature of the subject itself and the application of teaching and learn- ing principles drawn from research and theory in educational psychology.
The result is generally referred to as a teaching method or approach, by which we refer to a set of core teaching and learning principles together with a body of classroom practices that are derived from them.