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Readers will feel comfortable when they read our PDF Alan Turing. Storia di un enigma. Download because we arrange e-books in simple way but keep. Shop eBooks and audiobooks at Rakuten Kobo. de Andrew Hodges y 2 más Alan Turing - The Imitation Game - Storia di un enigma ebooks by Andrew. 6 days ago Nice ebook you should read is Alan Turing The Imitation Game Storia Di Un Enigma. We are promise you will love the Alan Turing The Imitation.
Hundreds of movies and thousands of books have been written about the heroes of World War II. For dozens of years, however, few people knew about one of the greatest heroes of the war—a mild-mannered, eccentric mathematician from the University of Cambridge. This man, an undeniable genius whose later life was plagued by controversy and tragedy, probably played a greater role in the eventual Allied victory than anyone else.
Until quite recently his contribution to the war effort was barely recognized. This is his incredible story. Alan M. Sara Turing. Alan Turing and Enigma Machine. Alan Moon.
Alan Turing and his Contemporaries. Simon Lavington. David Leavitt. The Great Philosophers: Andrew Hodges. Alan Turing. Nigel Cawthorne. The Bletchley Girls. Tessa Dunlop. Auschwitz Death Camp. Turing's Cathedral. George Dyson. The Children. David Halberstam.
Alan Turing: The Enigma. The Code Book. Simon Singh. The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason. Sam Harris. North and South. John Jakes.
Anca's Story. Mark Williams. Seeing Further. Bill Bryson. Eva's Story. Eva Schloss. The Test Of Courage: Michel Thomas: Christopher Robbins.
The Funny Thing Is Ellen DeGeneres. Jodie Sweetin. The Portable Atheist. Christopher Hitchens. Elie Wiesel.
Catherine the Great. Robert K. Bitter Freedom: Memoir of a Holocaust Survivor. Jafa Wallach. Travelling to Infinity. Jane Hawking. The Secret Life of Bletchley Park. Sinclair McKay. American Fascists. Chris Hedges. Cruel Deception.
Gregg Olsen. A Doctor in Auschwitz. Edward Watson. As You Wish. Cary Elwes. The Sleepwalkers. The first computer music. Turing's handbook for the Mark I had a section on using it to produce notes, and they gave a demo for radio in , also a first. Not really a synth not real-time and not real electronic music produced by moving parts. Linear algebra: Better ways of solving linear systems and inverting matrices. Proof that the ' word problem ' is insoluable for cancellation semigroups.
Computability mainstream in mathematics by then. Formal verification: Paper on proving that computer programs will behave. Philosophy of mind and artificial intelligence: His famous one, "Computing machinery and intelligence" is one of the top set texts in philosophy, but Computable Numbers is deeper, outlining how computability places limits on what the brain can do, and how difficult it will be to redo.
He sees machine learning coming very clearly. Another big result in the word problem for groups. Chess engine: Published the first algorithm to play a full game of chess automatically.
Mathematical biology: Number theory: Numerical evidence computed on the Manchester Baby for thousands of values of the zeta-function. Pattern formation: Construction of the "Swift-Hohenberg" equation, 23 years before them. Copeland estimates that breaking U-boat Enigma saved 14 million lives , a large fraction of which we can lay at Turing's feet.
This puts him in the top 50 life-savers ever.
But what is most amazing and endearing is just how unsophisticated he was. Near the beginning of June he would suffer from hay fever, which blinded him as he cycled to work, so he would use a gas mask to keep the pollen out, regardless of how he looked. The bicycle itself was unique, since it required the counting of revolutions until a certain bent spoke touched a certain link rather like a cipher machine , when action would have to be taken to prevent the chain coming off.
Alan had been delighted at having, as it were, deciphered the fault in the mechanism, which meant that he saved himself weeks of waiting for repairs, at a time when the bicycle had again become what it was when invented — the means of freedom.
It also meant that no one else could ride it. He made a more explicit defence of his tea-mug again irreplaceable, in wartime conditions by attaching it with a combination lock to a Hut 8 radiator pipe. But it was picked, to tease him. Trousers held up by string, pyjama jacket under his sports coat — the stories, whether true or not, went the rounds. And now that he was in a position of authority, the nervousness of his manner was more open to comment.
The word, when it came, might be an unexpected one, a homely analogy, slang expression, pun or wild scheme or rude suggestion accompanied with his machine-like laugh; bold but not with the coarseness of one who had seen it all and been disillusioned, but with the sharpness of one seeing it through strangely fresh eyes.
More sensitive people at Bletchley were aware of layers of introspection and subtlety of manner that lay beneath the occasional funny stories. But perhaps he himself welcomed the chortling over his habits, which created a line of defence for himself, without a loss of integrity. We have words for this now "nerd", "wonk", "aspie" , and massive institutions, and even social movements, but at the time he had to make do with "don", and hide inside academia. He gets called a mathematician most often, I suppose because people don't want to be anachronistic.
But scroll up: He was falling between several chairs, until computer science caught up with him: The machine seemed to be a contradiction For Alan Turing personally, the machine was a symptom of something that could not be answered by mathematics alone.
He was working within the central problems of classical number theory, and making a contribution to it, but this was not enough. The philosopher-engineer. One of several moments in Hodge's book that left me dumbstruck is Turing arguing with Wittgenstein about the foundations of mathematics. In the spring of they were both teaching courses at Cambridge called that! Bit awkward, and in my view Alan goes easy on Ludwig.
But you still couldn't make it up. In that time he produced 3 gigantically advanced systems most of the Hut 8 system, the Delilah and the ACE design , about 10 or 20 years ahead of their time.
Hodges sees this as a triumph of managerial socialism. But the government suppressed Delilah and totally screwed up the ACE project. So I'm not sure if we can cheer too much. Keynes says somewhere that The important thing for Government is not to do things which individuals are doing already, and to do them a little better or a little worse; but to do those things which at present are not done at all. This is true of Enigma, I suppose. But instructive failures are only helpful if they occur in public.
As at least the ACE report was. The most annoying part of the films making up emotionally powerful unifying themes for Turing is that they are already there. But to grasp them, you'd have to actually display what was most wonderful and important about him, his technical work, and there goes the box office.
Anyway, here's one that made me cry: In an end-of-term sing-song [at Sherborne, when Turing was 12], the following couplet described him: One day he and Joan were lying on the Bletchley lawn looking at the daisies Alan produced a fir cone from his pocket, on which the Fibonacci numbers could be traced rather clearly, but the same idea could also be taken to apply to the florets of the daisy flower.
Numerical analysis was also important In this it was like a private atomic bomb, the computer in both cases following the development of interacting fluid waves.
The intention was that ultimately these two approaches would join up when he found a system of equations that would generate the Fibonacci patterns expressed by his matrices. Such observations reflected an insight gained from View 1 comment. This is a very, very in depth biography. So much that there were parts that I had to skip -admittedly mostly the actual mathematics portions which go quite a bit over my head.
I can see what this was so well received, especially considering when it was written originally. If you're looking for something that really gets down the nitty gritty with regards to Alan Turing this is definitely your best bet. If you're looking for something to read to feel prepared to head into the film that's loosely This is a very, very in depth biography.
If you're looking for something to read to feel prepared to head into the film that's loosely based on it The Imitation Game you may find this a bit overwhelming. I just saw the film tonight and was blown away. I really want to learn more about this man and his footprint on history. And before seeing the credits, I had no idea it was based in this book. I found Alan Turing the enigma by Andrew Hoges quite interesting and maddening. Interesting because of the genius and achievements of Turning, which are described in some detail much to the author's credit but maddening because of the sociopolitical asides about Turing's homosexuality which was illegal in the UK during his lifetime , not just as they relate to Turing himself but to further an agenda of the author that detracts from Turing's story.
I say this despite the evidence that homophob I found Alan Turing the enigma by Andrew Hoges quite interesting and maddening. I say this despite the evidence that homophobia drove Turning to commit suicide, because the author's preoccupation with gay rights is sadly far out of proportion to what Turing deserved, and largely beside the point as well. What follows is largely personal opinion about the Turing Test, which I feel has created a rather trivialized notion of what constitutes computer intelligence.
In a famous article for the magazine Mind circa , Turning proposed what has ever since been called the Turing Test, to determine when or whether the point has been reached that a computer could be considered 'intelligent'.
In a Gedankenexperiment a computer and a reasonably knowledgeable person are placed in separated rooms, but are allowed to communicate to one another via teletype. Turing reasoned that if the human or the majority of a series of humans could not determine whether the computer was merely a machine or was a human, then it would be reasonable to call that computer 'intelligent'.
Another way of putting this is this: If a computer could plausibly field any series of questions put to it by a human, such that the human has no reason to believe that his or her counterpart was a machine, than the machine could be considered 'intelligent'. I shall return to this later. Turing's brilliant work in the s some in conjunction with Alonzo Church and, in particular, his invention of Turing Machines, a conceptual machine that he proved would be capable of performing any calculation that any computer could do established that computing machines were indeed mathematically viable.
And, indeed, a Turing Machine can be used to determine whether some problems are computable at all, or would take an inordinate amount of time to solve, and whether the computation process ever ends the last is called "The Halting Problem".
Using a character set of only two or three symbols e. The way a Turing Machine is programmed is with a "state table". A state table can be expressed by a table or graph, which, mathematically speaking, consists of nodes and directed edges. In English, a node is drawn as a circle, perhaps identified with a label e. Directed edges are simply lines terminated by arrows that indicate their direction. The edges point to and connect different nodes or arch back to connect a node to itself.
The other basis for Turing's well-deserved fame is that he was the principle designer of the "Blechley Bombe", aided by many others, which famously broke the Enigma code of the Luftwaffe, which gave such an edge to the RAF in the Battle of Briton it might be said to have been critical to the outcome of World War II.
However, this was a tightly held secret until until many years after the War, and lead to many revisions of the history of WWII, not to mention augmenting Turing's reputation. Although many take the Turing Test as the gold standard for determining whether a computer is 'intelligent', I feel it is a flawed argument.
I feel that the output of a computer such as Deep Blue defeating Gary Kasparov or IBM's successful assault on the quiz show Jeopardy although perhaps wondrous or exciting, proves nothing about it's intelligence.
Only then could it be truthfully said that the computer was equal to human intelligence. Feb 01, Karen Mardahl rated it liked it. I am really glad I read this book. I read it for the story of the person - the biography. The writing was well done. It is hard to write a story that contains a lot of technical detail. This was managed quite well. My problem was that I couldn't relate to the technical stuff in audio form.
I have resigned myself to the fact that for me, technical stuff has to be presented in a visual form. I simply can't handle techical material in audio form while commuting to work. Also, I don't really have th I am really glad I read this book. Also, I don't really have the background for understanding all the detail. However, it was rather clearly presented and I could follow along. I confess that I rather zoned out some of those parts and therefore gave a lower rating.
Knowing that I was completely mesmerised by the Ramanujan story in "The Man Who Knew Infinity", which I read in print, I might well give this a higher rating if I had read an ebook or paperback.
All in all, it was nice to get an in-depth peek at this person before I see what Hollywood makes of him in "The Imitation Game". I already have my suspicions of how the film will be lacking. It might well be a good film, but won't be able to convey the details about his upbringing, the times he lived in, and so on, and which shaped him in so many ways, for better and for worse.
I do wonder how Alan Turing would have turned out if he had been born in instead of He seemed to have been very much his own person despite the way society was constructed in his day. Today, that independence might have been given much more support, and of course, his lifestyle would have been supported. How would he have developed and would he have lived a much longer life? I am about to write something that I do not think is a spoiler. This is a biography, and if you are at all curious about the book, you should know a bit about his death.
As I read about his death, I thought the author was leaning toward accidental death. He even seemed to build a case for an accident. Then he goes the other way and indicates all the ways in which there was no support for Alan in the world in which he lived.
Before reading this book, I only knew that he had committed suicide. However, I am left in a bit of confusion. I now have the impression that an accident seems to be the most logical conclusion. True, conditions for living as a homosexual in his day were close to impossible, but they didn't appear to be causing him to think of killing himself from the tales given here.
All along, I get the impression of an inquisitive mind who explores in all directions quite eagerly. He could have easily gotten careless and had an accident. A suicide is tragic. An accidental death is also tragic. This was obviously a great mind who achieved great things in his lifetime. I am glad I got a little glimpse into it through this one author's interpretation. A recent newspaper article gives me the impression a new biography is coming out soon.
I remember hearing about it because that author said that the idea of Turing having autism is hogwash. Well, this author gave me the strong impression that Turing could have had Asperger's. And so what. It's neither here nor there, but it does clarify his behaviour in some social settings. That's all. It's nothing to be ashamed of, but the article I cannot remember where I saw it indicated that this other author felt negative about the idea.
I can see that this is a rambling review, but hey, it's a biography. I can share my reactions to the book in a rambling way if I want to! Aug 21, Simon Howard rated it really liked it. This comprehensive biography is certainly detailed. It is, perhaps, the most thorough biography I've read. This allows a great insight into the character and intelligence of Turing, but it did quickly become unnecessarily dense in parts, and felt like it was veering off at a tangent by placing Turing's academic work in a wider context than was really necessary.
I don't think the book needed to explain some of the mathematical concepts in quite the detail it did, nor did it need to explain in fin This comprehensive biography is certainly detailed.
I don't think the book needed to explain some of the mathematical concepts in quite the detail it did, nor did it need to explain in fine detail the sequelae of those concepts as discovered by others. I was also a little uncomfortable with the degree of subjectiveness in this description of his life.
Clearly, it is impossible for any biography to be written from a totally objective stand-point, but it is clear that Hodges stands in awe of Turing, and constantly tries to explain and justify anything that could be seen as a fault in him. There were times when motives and opinions seemed to have been assigned to Turing's actions without a clear explanation given as to how Hodges had derived these, which made me question their veracity.
I'm also awed of Turing and think he's a giant of our age, but even I found the warmth, bordering on sycophancy, of this book a little overbearing. I think the point would have actually been made more strongly had the reader been left to draw their own conclusions from a more objective description of the events. I was disappointed with some of the omissions of this book.
Turing was clearly a man with a strong sense of morality and ethics, and yet cryptography - perhaps his best-known skill - has inherent within it the ethical complexity of choosing when to act on intelligence, and when to ignore it and effectively sacrifice people in order to maintain the illusion that the code has not been broken.
This, to me, is one of the most profoundly interesting parts of the work completed at Bletchley, and of cryptography, yet this is given relatively short shrift in this biography. I feel sure that Turing would have reflected on this point, and probably had interesting things to say about it, so it seems a shame that they aren't discussed here.
Perhaps this reflects a wider criticism of the book - it's difficult at times to pick out Turing's character amongst the reams of detailed mathematical and computational theory. That said, I think the story and an impression of the character of Turing does manage to shine through over the course of the book as a whole, even if it is hard-going in parts. Aug 30, Dan rated it really liked it. This biography of Turing, that eventually spawned the recent biopic The Imitation Game starring Benedict Cumberbatch, is a solid read and in some ways better than the movie.
The book focuses on more than just Turing's contributions around cracking the Enigma Code which is interesting in and of itself. As discussed in the book Turing made major contributions in bringing about the computer revolution, is called by some the father of modern computing, and played a vital role in advancing the theory This biography of Turing, that eventually spawned the recent biopic The Imitation Game starring Benedict Cumberbatch, is a solid read and in some ways better than the movie.
As discussed in the book Turing made major contributions in bringing about the computer revolution, is called by some the father of modern computing, and played a vital role in advancing the theory of artificial intelligence which is what he was working on when he died in The book does not shy away from his homosexuality.
I think the movie, perhaps justifiably, over-emphasized the homosexual events but at the same time the movie did Turing a disservice by creating the impression that Turing was autistic, lacked humor and any emotional maturity. From reading the book this view appears to be fabricated or at least significantly embellished. There are enough letters from Turing's own writings and sources quoted in the book that speak to the contrary.
I think the book also does a good job describing in tech speak many of Turing's mathematical insights and breakthroughs, mostly in layman's terms. With that said the writing in this bio is a little choppy at times. In closing it is difficult to think of a 20th century scientist or mathematician who contributed more to the world than Alam Turing and that includes Einstein. For that reason alone this book is a must read. Feb 25, Kathleen rated it liked it Shelves: Alan Turing has always been a fun historical figure.
The Turing Test and Turing Machines are both tributes to his unending contribution to the world of science fiction. I mean science and mathematics. The real stuff, not books about robots at all. But he was, apparently, a great deal more than that.
He was a grumpy puppy who didn't socialize well. He was a gay man alienated from society by early twentieth century mores.
He helped build Alan Turing has always been a fun historical figure. He helped build one of Britain's first computers. He was awarded the Order of the British Empire.
He was prosecuted as a sex criminal and dosed with hormones that made him grow breasts. He killed himself with a poison apple.
Hodges does a brilliant job of exploring Turing for the man that he was as well as his many accomplishments. It was a beautiful book. Oct 20, Mary Whisner rated it really liked it Shelves: Fascinating but overly detailed in stretches. Sometimes I just don't care that Turing had a meeting with so-and-so about a particular project. But, that said, there really were a lot of interesting themes: The author uses many literary allusions, sometimes to excess. Also references to George Bernard Shaw Fascinating but overly detailed in stretches.
It kept me on my toes, except when it went over my head. I liked it a lot. I think I might have liked it at least as much and maybe more if it had been about a third shorter. Enigma, by Andrew Hodge 1 15 Feb 20, Wrong book title 7 41 Mar 04, Can you please recommend or review any books you've read that focus on Turing's personal life? Storia di un enigma 4 32 Jun 29, Readers also enjoyed. Videos About This Book. More videos Biography Memoir. About Andrew Hodges.
Andrew Hodges. A mathematician, an author and an activist in the gay liberation movement of the s. Since the early s, Hodges has worked on twistor theory which is the approach to the problems of fundamental physics pioneered by Roger Penrose.
Books by Andrew Hodges. Trivia About Alan Turing: Quotes from Alan Turing: Could a machine have beliefs? Could a machine make mistakes? Could a machine believe it made its own decisions? Could a machine erroneously attribute free will to itself? The letters between Christopher Morcom's mother and Alan a correspondence that continued for many years reflect their shared grief in losing Christopher.
The experience changed Alan in many ways, including a renewed dedication to honoring Christopher's memory by pursuing the interests they had shared which, despite their youth, had included quantum physics, and Einstein's Relativity: The Special and the General Theory.
Though Alan remained secluded at King's, he was well-suited to its norms. In addition to the academic caliber of his professors and classmates, it was a socially and politically liberal environment; and it was in this context, that Alan became somewhat matter-of-factly open in his homosexuality. Not knowing much about Cambridge or really any university in the s, I was not clear as to whether Hodges' references to the life of an "ordinary english homosexual However, though Hodges is clear that this was not an easy life, it seems that it was much easier in the context of King's College.
Furthermore, this was the point at which Turing made a huge leap in the conceptual connection between abstract symbols and the physical world. Turing's conception based on the idea of a typewriter is that there is a machine that has a tape , which is divided into squares. Each square can bear a symbol. At a any given moment, one square is "in the machine," this is the scanned square, and it bears the scanned symbol. Doesn't sound like much, I know, but here's the thing: the state of the machine with its finite table of actions can be determined by a singly expression using the symbols which can be limited to two It makes more sense if you read it from the experts!
To Oz and Back It's the mids at this point, and Princeton is a pretty happening place.
Turing, offered a fellowship there, crossed the pond to work with John von Neumann who Hodges likens to the Wizard of Oz. Things just didn't work out as planned. Princeton was the height of wealth and aristocratic excess from Turing's point of view, and Turing was proving again the difference between having brilliant ideas and impressing them on the world.
However, Turing did have a good time at Princeton when taking part in "treasure hunts" consisting of series of encrypted clues.