A World of Prose for CSEC book. Read 22 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Compiled with the approval of the Caribbean Examinations. Get this from a library! A World of prose for CXC. [David Williams; Hazel Simmons -McDonald; Caribbean Examinations Council.;]. A World of Prose for CSEC by David Williams - medical-site.info English 2 Pdf World Cup World Bar Association World Atlas Ags World History World.
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A World of Prose for CXC by David Williams and Mark McWatt (From previous Grade). Download free ebooks online: share any PDF ebook on. a world of prose cxc. Media Publishing eBook, ePub, Kindle. PDF View ID ae38e3. Oct 11, By Erle Stanley Gardner. A World Of Prose Cxc. Summary. Thu, 25 Oct GMT a world of prose for pdf - A World of Prose for. CXC by David Williams and Mark McWatt (From previous Grade). Download.
At no stage does Paul think of the things that he is good at rather his main focus is on how he is not as good as Benjy at things. There is also a sense that Paul is afraid of failure or at least what he perceives to be failure. The walk at night time with his father and Benjy being an example. Yet at the same time Paul wants to make a connection with Benjy. Even if it means that he feels as though he is second best to Benjy. This too may be important as Wickham could be highlighting how deep and strong the bond is between Paul and Benjy.
Though Paul may hate Benjy. He still wants to be his friend. He wants to have a loving relationship with his brother. If this is the case then Paul will never be happy as he will always be looking to see if he can better Benjy rather than living each day as it comes.
There is also some symbolism in the story which may be important. The angelic appearance of the tree during the day in many ways mirrors how Paul lives his life. By having Paul playing with the leather Wickham could be symbolically suggesting that Paul is making a new pair of shoes to walk in.
Something that is clearer to the reader when Paul attacks Benjy. The fact that Mac is unaware of what is happening and thinks that both boys are playing may also be important as it could suggest that the battle that Paul feels he is facing with Benjy is not a public battle but a personal battle.
The end of the story is also interesting as Wickham appears to be exploring the theme of fear. Benjy is afraid of Paul after he threatens him with the sharp awl. For the first time in the story Benjy shows fear. This may be important as it is through showing fear that the reader suspects that Benjy may now have an understanding for how Paul feels. In reality the attack connects both Paul and Benjy. The Minority African-American Experience References 2 1.
The Caribbean: Ethnic Groups The Caribbean consists of several islands which have inhabitants of various ethnicities. In the English-speaking Caribbean, people of African descent Africans constitute the vast majority of the population. Indians in the Caribbean People of East Indian descent Indians form the largest ethnic group in countries such as Trinidad and Tobago , or Lucia, and St Vincent and the Grenadines.
In Jamaica, Indians total 20, persons or 0. In Grenada, Indians total 1, persons or 1. In St. Lucia, Indians total 3, inhabitants or 2. Vincent and the Grenadines, Indians total 1, persons or 1. Belize has a total of 12, Indians who comprise 3. In Grenada, PIOs account for 10, inhabitants or 9. Lucia, St. Vincent and Belize1 consist of 1,, persons.
Kitts and Nevis, St. The CXC is governed by a Council comprising representatives from each participating country and the day to day operations of the Council are managed by a Registrar. CAPE is intended to satisfy requirements for entry into regional and international universities, as well as other courses. The Caribbean Examinations Council CXC provides and gives support to syllabi, examinations and certificates to 15 English-speaking Caribbean countries and territories including those stated above.
Observations expressed orally within the Indian community have noted that the CXC syllabi have been marginalising, if not excluding, Indian history, heritage and culture since its operation in The secondary school population in the Caribbean, especially Trinidad, Guyana and Jamaica, is not an ethnically homogeneous group.
Curriculum developers in the Caribbean, therefore, must devise various strategies and approaches to reflect, respect and include all the varied cultures of its teachers and learners Barrow, ; James, If the curriculum is not adequately representative of the multicultural community, then there is need for curriculum reform through inclusion. In her book Comprehensive Multicultural Education: Theory and Practice Bennett argued: Curriculum reform expands traditional content through inclusion of multi-ethnic and global perspectives.
For most of us, this revision requires active inquiry and the development of new knowledge and understanding about cultural differences and the history and contributions of contemporary ethnic groups and nations, as well as of various civilizations in the past p. Sleeter also stated in her book, Un-Standardising Curriculum: Multicultural Teaching in the Standards-Based Classroom: … schools tend to include content that benefits the dominant culture and to exclude content central to groups that have been historically marginalized, such as African-Americans, Hispanics and Native Americans.
The knowledge and learning styles of the dominant culture have been deemed most important. Curricula must also encompass concepts, procedures and themes of non-dominant groups. Addressing cultural diversity is a daunting task … p. Educators must be reminded that they are facilitators to students, and not dictators in the teaching and learning process.
They should not take their religious and ethnic biases into the school system. Educators should help students see that people may come from different ethnic backgrounds, speak different languages as their mother tongue, hold different religious beliefs and develop different ways of thinking and approaching the world.
Formal education needs to promulgate a view that no particular trait is superior or inferior to, or more or less entitled or desired than others Wei, Definition of Inclusive Education i. Education for all — social and economic conditions The concept of inclusive education IE has emerged in response to a growing consensus that all children have the right to an education World Education Forum, Inclusive education posits that education should be provided to the learning needs of all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic, age or other conditions The Salamanca Statement, Education should be delivered to all children, including disabled and gifted, street and working, remote or nomadic, rich and poor, and black and brown.
Inclusive education is an educational reform movement, and a process whose major goal is to change the structures of educational institutions so that students who are members of diverse racial, ethnic, language and cultural groups will have an equal chance to achieve academically in school Banks and Banks, Education for all — ethnic minorities Education should be provided for all persons to develop their human potential and to enhance their respect for human rights, equity, social justice, peace and the struggle for a non- discriminatory society and fundamental freedoms Armstrong and Barton, Education should be delivered to promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, and racial and religious groups.
Education should include learners from diverse cultures and communities, thereby reducing exclusion within and from education. Minorities tend to be excluded from the master historical narratives. Indo-Trinidadian cultural practises are selected primarily from the Hindu sector of the population, although there are occasional references to the Muslim religious festival of Eid, and to Hosay pp. Divali, Christmas , incidents, songs e.
Rap, Calypso, and Chutney , icons e. What Worrell did not analyse in her paper, which I intend to do in mine, is a content analysis of themes and items that belong to the two numerically dominant ethnic groups in the multi-racial society.
For example, how much space was given to, and the statistical frequency numbers and percentages of, Indian and African cultural themes and items. In cosmopolitan societies like Trinidad and Tobago, the curriculum in any subject must promote democracy, social justice, ethnic equity and cultural inclusion.
Theoretical Framework — Critical pedagogy and the absent curriculum This study is framed by the theory of critical pedagogy developed initially by the Brazilian educator and philosopher, Paulo Freire The theory provides a framework to examine the CXC History and Literature syllabi for possible marginalisation or exclusion of Indians and their history, heritage and culture.
Critical pedagogy is linked to a multicultural education because it calls upon oppressed groups to resist and struggle against the dominant modes of schooling which suppresses cultural diversity.
Critical pedagogy develops the academic skills and improves the ability to make personal and public decisions, and to choose actions that contribute to changing the society for the better Orstein and Hunkins, ; Salend, In a democratic society, an inclusive 7 curriculum can become a lever for social change to reshape and transform values and attitudes Topping and Maloney A curriculum in a multi-ethnic society that is not ethnically inclusive will appear to have been designed by the hidden agenda of identity-politics.
The absent curriculum discloses that these minority groups are excluded or missing from the national curricula, and that they are relatively insignificant citizens in the community of the nation Wilkinson, The absent curriculum represents a set of choices about the knowledge, values and prejudices of those who have designed it. It is a symbol of power and ideology; a form of hegemony that imposes ideas. The existence and persistence of the absent curriculum poses a serious threat to the rights of minority and marginalised groups and, ultimately, democratic systems Freire, ; Topping and Maloney, An absent curriculum would be examined for its content, concepts, themes, issues, problems and concerns from various cultural perspectives Ahonen, In this transformative approach, students learn to think critically and reflect on the viewpoints of different groups in the society based on culture, gender and class.
The affected minority or invisible groups may engage in a struggle for social justice and ethnic equality rather than passively accept and submit to an educational system that is oppressive.
Methodology The methodology used in this research is based on content analysis which is an umbrella term applied to a set of diverse techniques. Content analysis is mainly a quantitative research method used for the objective, systematic study of the content of communication. This research technique can also be qualitative in approach which makes it a mixed-method of conducting research.
Content analysis should extend to more than a mere listing of items; it should be comparative in its orientation. In this research, content analysis was used to examine the written text i.
Information in the syllabi relating to ethnicity and country of origin the variables were identified and categorised. In the context of the syllabi, ethnicity was categorised as Black, Caucasian, Mixed and Indian.
Information from the syllabi was also identified and categorised according to the country of origin of the playwright, poet or novelist. The analysis was applied only to the manifest content of the data e. India, indentureship i. The results of the classification were tabulated, evaluated, 8 and are presented below in a qualitative narrative and quantitative statistical form.
The results of the content analysis of the CXC Literature and History syllabi is a reflection of the values, attitudes and politics of Caribbean society see Delgato However, English B Literature is compulsory only until Form 3. This decline is unfortunate because the centrality of Literature allows readers to understand the psychological, social, historical and cultural world through imagination.
Literature is a most potent force in allowing us to enter a world of experience imagined by another person. These imaginary worlds will be shared in part by the immediate social and cultural experiences of the writers, and will bear the imprint of the historical time and circumstances in which they are written Bleach, , p.
In the suggested reading list of entries for authors or editors, only seven. No Indian playwright, poet, novelist or short-story writer was chosen, although Indians and PIO form the majority ethnic group in Trinidad and Guyana, as well as the largest minority group in Jamaica, Grenada, St.
Vincent and St. Not even 11 recommended was the Trinidad-born writer, V. Naipaul, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in India was not selected in the prescribed list although Indians constitute the second populous country in the world with 1. Not even recommended was Rabindranath Tagore of India who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in with his poetry anthology, Geetanjali. There is only one writer from India. Lucian - Kendel Hippolyte. Modern Drama Unit 1 — Module 2 a.
British Poetry b. Post-Colonial Unit 2 — Module 2 a. Caribbean Prose — Novels b. American d. Post-Colonial Unit 2 — Module 3 a. British Prose — Novels b. Post-Colonial ii. In the secondary schools, it is sometimes offered as a subject from Forms 1 to 3, and even when available, it is offered only occasionally at the CSEC level Joseph, ; Stephens, History should be an important subject in any curriculum in any part of the world.
History allows students to understand how the past has shaped the present, and the interplay between continuity and the change of ideas, behaviour and institutions. The study of history contributes to the social, cultural, religious, economic and political preservation and development of a society.
History provides data on how communities, societies and nations have interacted with others locally, regionally and globally.
Studying history should prevent the reoccurrence of mistakes of the past. Indians constitute an overwhelming majority of arrivals among all the other ethnic groups coming to the Caribbean after the abolition of slavery.
Number of Arrivals in Ethnic Groups — History Figure 5 — Bar chart showing the number arrivals to the Caribbean by ethnic groups , , , Number of Arrivals , , , , , , 50, 0 Indians Liberated Africans Madeirans Chinese Ethnic groups 17 Figure 5 illustrates that the number of Indian arrivals after Emancipation in the Caribbean were However, the period cannot adequately document the establishment and development of Indo-Caribbean Peasantry because Indians acquired their own land after the end of Indentureship Indians also bought their own land with their savings.
They were also granted land by the colonial government in Trinidad and Guyana in exchange for the return passage to India. On these private lands, Indians cultivated sugar cane, cocoa, rice and vegetables, and reared cattle Greenidge, Module 2 concentrates on African Peoples chattel slavery, trans-Atlantic trade in Africans, anti- slavery rebellions, the Haitian Revolution, abolition and emancipation.
No attention is given to Indians and Indentureship which has been described as a new system of slavery. Unit 1, Module 3, Theme 1 mentions Indians among the Chinese and Portuguese in the context of settlement and citizenship.
However, Indians should not be lumped with the Chinese and Portuguese. Indians should have been categorised as an independent sub-theme because they constituted an overwhelming majority of arrivals , when compared to the Chinese 20, and Portuguese Rogers, The themes listed are European activities in Africa and the Americas, Atlantic trade on West African societies and economies, changing West African responses to European contact, and trade in African captives.
The suggested reading resources include: 1 How Europe underdeveloped Africa, and 2 Africa and Africans in the making of the Atlantic World, No theme addressed European activities in India and China; Asian responses to European contact; trade in Asian labourers; and European trade in India in tea, silks, cotton, and spices.
It must be remembered that the European explorer, Christopher Columbus, was in search for a shorter trade route to India that led to the discovery and occupation of the Americas, which resulted in the African slave trade and slavery. The route passed through different empires, kingdoms, reigns and societies, enriching the journeys and destinations with new cultures, religions, languages and merchandise.
CXC must transcend its boundaries beyond the Atlantic and Africans to include Asia and Asians in global transformations. Past and current world events must be understood from multiple national perspectives, and both minority and nonminority points of view 19 must be considered in interpreting local and national events Bennett, , p.
Rather, it recommends a complimentary, inclusive and holistic view that challenges the master narrative of history outlined by the CXC. The Minority African-American Experience In commemoration of the recognition of the First Peoples of Trinidad and Tobago, the President of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago said recently that no race should feel superior or inferior to the other Ali, , p.
He added that the First Peoples would soon get the respect and honour they deserve. However, the reality has been the promotion of ethnic and racial individual and institutional discrimination in the USA.