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Electricity is everywhere; it lights our way, cooks our food and can even brush your teeth. For an example, imagine where the medical field would be without electricity and in that sense how many lives have been saved due to electrical devices like defibrillators, pacemakers, etc. Read on to discover more about basic electrical theory. What is Electricity? So what is electricity and where does it come from? More importantly, why is carpet, socks and a doorknob a bad combination? In its simplest terms, electricity is the movement of charge, which is considered by convention to be, from positive to negative. No matter how the charge is created, chemically like in batteries or physically friction from socks and carpet , the movement of the discharge is electricity. Understanding Current This flow of electrical charge is referred to as electric current. There are two types of current, direct current DC and alternating current AC. DC is current that flows in one direction with a constant voltage polarity while AC is current that changes direction periodically along with its voltage polarity. But as societies grew the use of DC over long transmission distances became too inefficient. Nikola Tesla changed all that with the invention of alternating current electrical systems.

As mentioned previously, current is the measurement of the flow of charge in a circuit. This leaves us with the letter R which represents Resistance. Electrical resistance, measured in Ohms, is the measure of the amount of current repulsion in a circuit. Simply, resistance resists current flow.

When electrons flow against the opposition offered by resistance in the circuit, friction occurs and heat is produced. The most common application for resistance in a circuit is the light bulb. The light bulb introduces enough resistance in a circuit to heat up the filament inside, causing light to be emitted.

Resistance in a circuit can also be helpful when needing to alter voltage levels, current paths, etc. Resistors are self-contained packages of resistance that can be added to a circuit and are commonly used to divide voltage levels.

First, we need to understand what Series and Parallel circuits mean.

Series circuits are those which are connected in-line with the power source. The current in series circuits is constant throughout but the voltage may vary.

Parallel circuits are those which branch off from the power supply. The total current supplied from the power source is divided among each of the branches but voltage is common throughout. You have probably experienced the pain involved with installing Christmas lights only to realize none of them work. Cue Clark Griswold! There is probably one bulb out somewhere in the hundreds that you hung up.

More than likely it is because one of the lights decided to break or burn out and because they are wired in series the rest are now out as well. Since all of the lights are in-line with each other, if one goes out it causes an open circuit at that point.

No current will flow to the other lights because of the open circuit path. Fortunately, a lot of the new light strands are wired in parallel.

Therefore if one light goes out, then only that branch of the circuit will be out. The open will be isolated to that branch and current will continue to the other lights in the strand, Joy…to… the…World!

R1 represents the resistance value of the speaker and R2 shows the resistance value of the LEDs. What is the voltage supplied to the LEDs and to the speaker? First, we need to find the current in the loop once the belly is pressed and switch 1 S1 closes.

The supply offers 5 amps of current but the circuit will only use what is demanded by the loads.

This circuit is known as a voltage divider circuit. The supply voltage was divided among the loads in proportion to the resistance each load carries. This law states that the algebraic sum of the voltages in a closed loop is always equal to zero.

If we only knew the supply potential and the voltage drop of R1, we could use KVL to find the other voltage drop. With KVL you have to follow the current path and use the polarities of the components shown. If current path is unknown you have to assume one. We will use the positive to negative clockwise path.

KVL really comes in handy when there are multiple supplies in a loop or multiple loops.

As mentioned previously, with parallel circuits the voltage across each branch will be equal to the supply voltage. First we need to find the total resistance in the circuit. Voltage and current 3. Electric Potential and Voltage 4. Conductors and Insulators 5. Conventional versus electron flow 6. Ohm's Law 7. Polarity of voltage drops Branch current method Mesh current method Introduction to network theorems Thevenin's Theorem Norton's Theorem Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Source Transformation Unilateral and Bilateral elements Active and passive elements AC Waveforms Concept of Phasor Phase Difference The Cosine Waveform Representation of Sinusoidal Signal by a Phasor Phasor representation of Voltage and Current AC inductor circuits Series resistor-inductor circuits: Impedance Inductor quirks Review of Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance Series R, L, and C Parallel R, L, and C Series-parallel R, L, and C Susceptance and Admittance Simple parallel tank circuit resonance Simple series resonance Power in AC Circuits Power Factor Power Factor Correction Quality Factor and Bandwidth of a Resonant Circuit Generation of Three-phase Balanced Voltages Three-Phase, Four-Wire System Wye and delta configurations Distinction between line and phase voltages, and line and phase currents Power in balanced three-phase circuits