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Other arts oriented themselves toward the visual arts and were valued according to the degree of their closeness to the latter. Just as a poetic work is not exhausted by its aesthetic function. In direct opposition to the straight monistic point of view is the mechanistic standpoint.
Because a poetic work also has a referential function. In contrast to one-sided monism and one-sided pluralism. Equating a poetic work with an aesthetic.
The definition of the aesthetic function as the dominant of a poetic work permits us to determine the hierarchy of diverse linguistic func- From this point of view. The Dominant Moreover. In the early steps of the Formalist school. Each concrete poetic canon.
Part pour Part. Of course. Tynjanov Poetic language and emotive language often overlap each other. In the referential function. Genres which were originally secondary paths.
In the early works of Sklovskij. Within a given complex of poetic norms in general. Poetic evolution is a shift in this hierarchy.
With the further development of Formalism. Such transitional genres are. The Dominant and Ejxenbaum. That which. Ejxenbaum treats the development of Tolstoj's prose against the background of contemporaneous Russian and European prose. Here the instability of boundaries.
The verses of the Russian late-Romantic lyricists Tjutcev and Fet were criticized by the Realist critics for their errors. Kril rejected the verse of Erben and Celakovsk T as erroneous and shabby from the viewpoint of the Realistic school of poetry.
Turgenev's editing of these poems became the canonical version. THEORY oughly corrected their rhythm and style in order to improve them and adjust them to the extant norm. The reader of a poem or the viewer of a painting has a vivid awareness of two orders: The Czech philologist J.
The shifting. It is precisely against the background of the tradition that innovation is conceived. Without an elucidation of these laws. The history of literature art. The immediate problems facing Russian literary and linguistic science demand a precise theoretical platform.
The evolution of literature cannot be understood until the evolu- The literary and extraliterary material used in literature may be introduced into the orbit of scientific investigation only when it is considered from a functional point of view. Pure synchronism now proves to be an illusion: An indifferent cataloguing of coexisting phenomena is not sufficient. The concept of a synchronic literary system does not coincide with the naively envisaged concept of a chronological epoch.
The idea of a mechanical agglomeration of material. At the present time. The history of a system is in turn a system. Language and Literature to the existing complex of norms. An analysis of the structural laws of language and literature and their evolution inevitably leads to the establishment of a limited series of actually existing structural types and.
This is owing to the fact that the immanent laws of literary and. The question of a specific choice of path. The investigator. A disclosure of the immanent laws of the history of literature and language allows us to determine the character of each specific change in literary and linguistic systems. It would be methodologically fatal to consider the correlation of systems without taking into account the immanent laws of each system. I received it nevertheless and later transposed this utterance first into handwritten and then into printed symbols.
The stranger had resorted to a literary quotation. An old record of a London actor dead for years. I wish you had heard his Nevennore.
I overheard a scrap of conversation. Within this monologue. He referred to a performance allegedly transmitted by broadcast.
A man said to a young lady. A dead British actor was the original sender of a message addressed "to whom it may concern. Language in Operation that that one word uttered by the Raven had been caught from some unhappy master. Thus the same single word was success"ively set in motion by the hypothetical "master. This is a chain of actual and fictitious senders and receivers. It is very different from the trivial pattern of the speech circuit graphically presented in textbooks: A and B talk face to face so that an imaginary thread goes from A's brain through his mouth to the ear and brain of B and through his mouth back to A's ear and brain.
Thus its utterance lacks both cognitive and emotive information. To show this is the purpose of the formulas Sir or Madam and with mien of lord or lad IJ which some critics call mere padding.
The automatic speech of the ungainly fowl and the speaker itself are intentionally deprived of any individuality: The word itself "should involve the utmost conceivable amount of sorrow and despair" p. As the author relates. With each repetition of the bird's stereotyped rejoinder.
He was therefore startled at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken. The pleasure increases. And the only word there spoken was the whispered word.
Poe leaves an opening for this optional interpretation of the quasi-dialogue with the Raven: For talking birds. In this peculiar variety of interlocution. Poe's skill in suggesting the empirical plausibility of an unnatural event was admired and praised by Dostoevskij. All the traits typical of verbal hallucination-as listed. Perhaps the bird and its replies are only imagined by the lover. Poe is right: The utterance is inhuman. Poe signals this connection by adjoining the two words: In Poe's view.
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming. If in a sequence a prior moment depends upon a later one. This antinomy reinforces another. Hence an articulate but subhuman creature is suggested as speaker. And the Raven. I myself speaking. The two cardinal and complementary traits of verbal behavior are brought out here: And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor Shall be lifted-nevermore! Here the pair Raven never is enhanced by a series of other mutually corresponding sound sequences.
The play upon the words pallid and Pallas is reinforced by the whimsical rhyme pallid bust-Pallas Just. Against the background of equidistant and regularly recurring rhymes. The introductory clause. It is indeed difficult to understand now the " continuous repudiations of Poe's piece of self-analysis. Not only the questions propounded by the desperate lover but in fact the whole poem are predetermined by the final rejoinder nevemwre and are composed in distinct anticipation of the denouement.
Although Poe's letter of August 9. In the prefatory note to the first publication of this poem. Language in Operation And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor. The initial dentals Is.
IS Yet with equal justice it might be set against the intimate story of Poe's own life with Virginia Clemm in "hourly anticipation of her loss. Six years ago. Again in. At the end of a year the vessel broke again-I went through precisely the same scene. Her life was despaired of. In point of fact. I took leave of her forever and underwent all the agonies of her death.
The author's account of the poem's composition. French poets. Poe's critical essay. I became insane. Poe's wife died on January Each time I felt all the agonies of her death-and at each accession of the disorder I loved her more dearly and dung to her life with more desperate pertinacity.
To his desperate queries and appeals the hero receives only seeming answers-from the bird. Language in Operation about a year afterward.
This pseudo-dialogue is tragically one-sided: I had indeed nearly abandoned all hope of a permanent cure when I found one in the death of my wife. Then again-again-again and even once again at varying intervals. In "The Raven" this theme displays a particular "force of contrast" p. The dominant motif of the poem is the lover's irrevocable loss of contact with the rare and radiant maiden.
Thus "the expected 'Nevermore. This I can and do endure as becomes a man-it was the horrible. The theme of the 'bereaved lover" p. Here a further oxymoron. Poe rendered this variation of usage particularly effective "by adhering.
The tension between this intrinsic unity and the diversity of contextual or situational meanings A word out of context allows an indeterminate number of solutions. But within the context of the dialogue it signifies by turns: Poe's insight into "the wheels and pinions" p. The inevitable Nevermore is always the same and always different: In Poe's poetic creed. Even the transposition of this temporal adverb into a proper name retains a metaphorical tie with this general semantic value.
The compound nevermore denotes a negation. The components we obtain by dissecting all these units into smaller More than anyone. Language in Operation is the pivotal problem of the linguistic discipline labeled semantics while the discipline termed phonemics is primarily concerned with the tension between identity and variation on the sound level of language.
Only this and nothing more. An everlasting disavowal seems inconceivable. Nameless here for evermore.
Poe's challenging oxymoron became a cliche. It contrasts the prospective with the foregone. Before proceeding to a systematic study of sound and meaning in In the line about the Raven sitting lonely on that placid bust the sound shape of the adjective placid evokes the missing reference to Pallas.
Thus his reference to the poet's selection of words "embodying" p. Pallid as an epithet of the sculptured Pallas figures as quasi-related to the goddess' name. At the beginning of this essay. The sound texture accentuates the confrontation between the relics of the past and the omen of the future. Thus the hemistich from thy memories of Lenore as well as take thy form from off my door rehearses the close. Such punlike. The poetic function entangles the word in both of these uses at once.
At the same time. These components of the sound texture are laid bare through the equality and diversity of the phonemes in the pervasive Byronesque rhyme: In "The Raven. The expression beast upon the sculptured bust suggests a puzzling connection between the sitter and the seat.
Quoth the Raven: Language in Operatum their interrelation. I believe. Such questions. The success of a political convention depends on the general agreement of the majority or totality of its participants.
Have we not realized what problems are the most crucial and the most controversial? Have we not also learned how to switch our codes.
The use of votes and vetoes. The problems of the baroque or any other historical style transgress the frame of a single art. Poetics deals primarily with the question. When handling the surrealistic metaphor. However ludicrous the idea of the Iliad and Odyssey in comics may seem. It is evident that many devices studied by poetics are not confined to verbal art. Poetics deals with problems of verbal structure.
The question of whether W B. We can refer to the possibility of transposing Wuthering Heights into a motion picture. The truth values. Arguments against such a claim must be thoroughly discussed. This statement. Sometimes we hear that poetics in contradistinction to linguistics.
Since linguistics is the global science of verbal structure. In short. Linguistics and Poetics I have been asked for summary remarks about poetics in its relation to linguistics. This separation of the two fields from each. The label "literary critic" applied to an investigator of literature is as erroneous as "grammatical or lexical critic" would be applied to a linguist. There is a close correspondence.
Yet why is a clear-cut discrimination made between pure and applied linguistics or between phonetics and orthoepy. This statement should not be mistaken for the quietist principle of laissez faire. Syntactic and morphologic research cannot be supplanted by a normative grammar. Literary studies. Any contemporary stage is experienced in its temporal dynamics. A thoroughly comprehensive historical poetics or history of language is a superstructure to be built on a series of successive synchronic descriptions.
Insistence on keeping poetics apart from linguistics is warranted only when the field of linguistics appears to be illicitly restricted. The selection of classics and their reinterpretation by a novel trend is a substantial problem of synchronic literary studies. Voegelin has clearly pointed out the two most important and related problems that face structural linguistics. Obviously we must agree with Sapir that. Linguistics and Poetics instance. Synchronic poetics. They differ from the means of referential language both by their sound pattern peculiar sound sequences or even sounds But even though a set Einstellung toward the referent.
Although we distinguish six basic aspects of language. Before discussing the poetic function we must define its place among the other functions of language. It tends to produce an impression of a certain emotion. He made a list of some forty emotional situations. A man. The difference between [bIg] and the emphatic prolongation of the vowel [bI: Saporta's surmise that emotive difference is a nonlinguistic feature.
May I add that all such emotive cues easily undergo linguistic analysis. The emotive function. Orientation toward the addressee. As long as we are interested in phonemic invariants.
Most of the messages were correctly and circumstantially decoded by Moscovite listeners. Thus the magic. We observe. Dorothy Parker caught eloquent examples: There are messages primarily serving to establish.
The imperative sentences cardinally differ from declarative sentences: And the sun stood still. This set for contact. Certain additional verbal functions can be easily inferred from this triadic model. Send grief beyond the blue sea. Any process of language learning. A distinction has been made in modem logic between two levels of language: The set Einstellung toward the message as such. This function cannot be productively studied out of touch with the general problems of language.
Like Moliere's Jourdain who used prose without knowing it. Linguistics and Poetics 'Eeyop! Here we are. It is also the first verbal function acquired by infants. Any attempt to reduce the sphere of the poetic function to poetry or to confine poetry to the poetic function would be a delusive oversimplification. Both cola alliterate with each other.. A girl used to talk about "the horrible Harry. Epic poetry. As I said. The particularities of diverse poetic genres imply a differently ranked participation of the other verbal functions along with the dominant poetic function.
The makeup of the three words presents a variation: Do you prefer Joan to her twin sister? The secondary. If "child" is the topic of the message. In particular. Poetry and metalanguage. To answer this question we must recall the two basic modes of arrangement used in verbal behavior. Equivalence is promoted to the constitutive device of the sequence.
The poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination. Linguistics and Poetics Now that our cursory description of the six basic functions of verbal communication is more or less complete. Both chosen words combine in the speech chain.
In poetry one syllable is equalized with any other syllable of the same sequence. Syllables are converted into units of measure. The selection is produced on the basis of equivalence. The adaptation of poetic means for some heterogeneous purpose does not conceal their primary essence. To sum up. Mnemonic lines cited by Hopkins like "Thirty days hath September". Thus verse actually exceeds the limits of poetry.
Gerard Manley Hopkins. A filibusterer may recite fIiawatha because it is long. And apparently no human culture ignores verse making. The reiterative "figure of sound. Such a figure always utilizes at least one or more than one binary contrast of a relatively high and relatively low prominence effected by the different sections of the phonemic sequence.
Another manifestation of a tendency toward a uniform syllabic model is the avoidance of closed syllables at the end of the line. Within a syllable the more prominent. Poetics in the wider sense of the word deals with the poetic function not only in poetry. Any syllable contains a syllabic phoneme. In so-called syllabic versification the number of syllabics in a metrically delimited chain time series is a constant.
Linguistics and Poetics language. Thus a metrical system of versification can be based only on the opposition of syllabic peaks and slopes syllabic verse. This contrast is usually carried out by syllable nuclei. In quantitative "chronemic" verse. The question still remains open whether. If we examine. For comparison with the English meters that we have discussed at length. Of these two undulatory curves. Besides signals certain to occur "probability one".
All even syllables. Linguistics and Poetics In textbooks of literature we sometimes encounter a superstitious contraposition of syllabism as a mere mechanical count of syllables to the lively pulsation of accentual verse.
I the number of syllables in the line from its beginning to the last downbeat is stable. Along with these characteristics compulsory for any line composed in a given meter. Using Cherry'S description of human communication. II division of syllabic nuclei into alternating downbeats and upbeats. I Ulica za panibrata S ok6nnicej podslepovatoj. Since the last downbeat is constantly stressed. The Russian binary meters reveal a stratified arrangement of three undulatory curves: The higher the relative frequency of word stresses in a given downbeat.
This license. Since the overwhelming majority of downbeats concur with word stresses. Quite naturally it was Edgar Allan Poe. Linguistics and Poetics I beloj n6Ci i zakatu Ne razminilt'sja u reki. Thus in this poem only 17 of 41 lines have a word stress on their sixth syllable. Yet in such a case the inertia of the stressed even syllables alternating with the unstressed odd syllables prompts some expectancy of stress also for the sixth syllable of the iambic tetrameter. In the last downbeat but one.
The degree of such a "frustration" is higher when the stress is lacking in a strong downbeat and becomes particularly outstanding when two successive downbeats carry unstressed syllables.
The expectation depends on the treatment of a given downbeat in the poem and more generally in the whole extant metrical tradition. Besides the rules that underlie the compulsory features of verse.
The gr ammatical fact that the. The verse has. Design and instance are correlative concepts. In British parliamentary terms. If the violences against the meter take root. Unable to abstract its rules. Far from being an abstract. Any line of Serbian epics contains precisely ten syllables and is followed by a sy ntactic pause. Where such an immediate precedence is impeded by an inserted pause. The obligatory word boundary must not be combined with a pause and is not even meant to be audible to the ear.
We are inclined to designate such phenomena as unstress in the downbeats apd stress in upbeats as deviations. Usually the free variation of these i nstances is denoted by the somewhat equivocal label "rhythm. Whatever is the reciter's way of reading. Thus verse design goes far beyond the questions of sheer song shape. Let us add that no li nguistic property of the verse design should be disregarded. Yet even a vehement accumulation of enjambments never hides their digressive. Meanwhile the truth We may speak even about the gram mar of traffic signals.
There are many linguistic problems-for instance. There exists a signal code. The intention "to describe the verse line as it is actually performed" is of lesser use for the synchronic and historical analysis of poetry than it is for the study of its recitation in the present and the past.
I say "linguistic phenomenon" even though Chatman states that "the meter exists as a system outside the language. The intonational contour specifi c to a poem. Not to mention its fundamental role in the meters of such a master of English free verse as Whitman. But whatever solution the reciter chooses. He may also subordinate the word stress of the adjective in favor of the strong syntactic stress of the following head word.
The tension between the ictus and the usual word stress is inherent in this line independently of its different implementations by various actors and readers. Both the convergences and the divergences between the two forms.
Wherever the reciter puts the accent. How the given verse instance is implemented in the given delivery instance depends on the delivery design of the reciter. As Hopkins observes. In Shakespeare's verses the second.
A performance is an event. The superinducing of the equivalence principle upon the word sequence or. We must be on guard against simplistic binar- The recitation of these pentameters may be strictly metrical with a manifest pause between "download" and "you" and a suppressed pause after the pronoun.
The projection of the equational principle into the sequence has a much deeper and wider significance. None of these ways of recitation can. Hopkins' fourfold rhyme is an agreement of two nouns- Valery's view of poetry as "hesitation between the sound and the sense" is much more realistic and scientific than any bias of phonetic isolationism.
Rhyme necessarily involves a semantic relationship between rhyming units "rhyme-fellows" in Hopkins' nomenclature. The verse shape of a poem remains completely independent of its variable delivery. Linguistics and Poetics ism which reduces two couples into one single opposition either by suppressing the cardinal cli. The structure of poetry is that of continuous parallelism.
If a poet tends to avoid grammatical rhymes. Thus in Poe's lines. As of someone gently rapping " the three rhyming words. Such full homonyms as son-sun. What about compound rhymes such as Hopkins' "enjoyment-toy meant" or "began some-ransom". Rhyme is only a particular. Do the rhyming members carry the same syntactic function?
Here again Hopkins. The artificial part of poetry. To the marked or abrupt kind of parallelism belong metaphor. Vasilij was walking to the manor. Linguistics and Poetics chromatic. Only the first kind.
Such forms enable us to verify Ransom's wise suggestion that "the meter-and-meaning process is the organic art of poetry. A brave fellow was going to the porch. From these suggestive connotations of the "fierce horse" there ensues a metaphorical synecdoche: Jasjon sokol za gory zalj'otyval A bright falcon was flying beyond the hills or Retiv kon ko dvoru priskakival A fierce I horse was coming at a gallop to the court. The negation ne may.
In the other instance. In the first of the two examples the metaphorical relation is maintained: Both subjects. A comparison between the appearing bridegroom and the galloping horse suggests itself. Linguistics and Poetics varieties of Russian erotic lore. As early as the s. Thus a simile is presented in the shape of a temporal sequence. Ambiguity is an intrinsic. Virtually any poetic message is a quasi-quoted discourse with all those peculiar. In poetry not only the phonological sequence but.
In Potebnja's examples from Slavic folklore. The supremacy of the poetic function over the referential function does not obliterate the reference but makes it ambiguous.
Besides the author and the reader. Said more technically. Quite similarly. In a sequence in which similarity is superimposed on contiguity. It is true that the first line of the final stanza in Poe's "Raven" makes wide use of repetitive alliterations. Words similar in sound are drawn together in meaning. Both confronted words were blended earlier in another epithet of the same bust-placid Ipl: And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor: The perch of the raven.
In the introductory line of this concluding stanza. The never-ending stay of the grim guest is expressed by a chain of ingenious paronomasias. This capacity for reiteration whether immediate or delayed. Particularly from the linguistic point of view the picture has often been distorted by lack of attention to the phonological aspect of speech sounds or by inevitably vain operations with complex phonemic units instead of with their ultimate cornponents.
But when on testing. Sound symbolism is an undeniably objective relation founded on a phenomenal connection between different sensory modes.
Poetry is not the only area where sound symbolism makes itself felt. The invariance of the group is particularly stressed by the variation in its order. If the results of research in this area have sometimes been vague or controversial. Linguistics and Poetics bleak refrain word "never. The two luminous effects in the chiaroscuro-the "fiery eyes" of the black fowl and the lamplight throwing "his shadow on the floor" -are evoked to add to the gloom of the whole picture and are again bound by the "vivid effect" of paronomasias: The alliterations that struck Valery build a paronomastic string: But Pope's alliterative precept to poets-"the sound must seem an echo of the sense" -has a wider application.
But when the opposite occurs. A reinforcement of this contrast by surrounding the first word with acute phonemes. But in the French jour 'day' and nuit 'night' the distribution of grave and acute vowels is inverted.
As painters used to say. Linguistics and Poetics poetic convention as well. It is no mere chance that metonymic structures are less explored than the field of metaphor. Thus in the poetry of these languages consonants lose two of the four distinctive features. In this case the transition is between strictly poetic and strictly referential language. Old Indic and medieval Latin literary theory keenly distinguished two poles of verbal art.
Allow me to repeat my oId observation that. Thus the approximate rhymes used by Slavic peoples in oral and in some stages of written tradition admit unlike consonants in the rhyming members e.
But one must say with Charles Sanders Peirce: For Brutus is an honourable man. The poetic resources concealed in the morphological and syntactic structure of language-briefly. The effect lies. I slew him. Yet Brutus says he was ambitious. Brutus' accusation of Caesar. Brutus spoke. And Brutus is an honourable man. The following polyptoton-"I speak.
The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious. Mark Antony lampoons Brutus' speech by changing the alleged reasons for Caesar's assassination into plain linguistic fictions. But Brutus says he was ambitious. What cause withholds you then to mourn for him? To Brutus' saying "he was ambitious.
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar. You all did love him once. The sterotyped "I mourn for so-and-so" and the figurative but still stereotyped "so-and-so is in the coffin and my heart is with him" or "goes out to him" give place in Antony's speech to a daringly realized metonymy. I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke.
And men have lost their reason! Linguistics and Poetics oblique context of the arguments adduced. But here I am to speak what I do know. And I must pause till it come back to me.
Eliot's comedy The Cocktail Party. Their colors are vivified in Mac H ammond's lines. There are no tigers. As to the heathens. In Kinkanja. I'm freezing-in July! Who have eaten monkeys. Julia recollects the only man she ever met "who could hear the cry of bats.
The young monkeys are extremely palatable. There were no tigers. That was the point. Bloody Mary. You've missed the point completely. The majority of the natives are heathen: They hold these monkeys in peculiar veneration.
Not a cocktail. Somebody must have walked over my grave: Imfeeling so chilly. And they eat them. Give me some gin. They trap the monkeys. Some of the tribes are Christian converts. I invented for the natives several new recipes. Are there any more cocktails? I am not so sure.
Though whether the monkeys are the core of the problem Or merely a symptom. Let us not forget the wise precept of Paul Valery: A missionary blamed his Mrican flock for walking around with no clothes on.
Lin guistics and Poetics The instinct for heaven had its counterpart: The instinct for earth. The oldest-newest night does not creak by.
The oldest-newest day is the newest alone. Compare Majakovskij's poem of My attempt to vindicate the right and duty of linguistics to direct the investigation of verbal art in all its compass and extent can come to a conclusion with the same burden which summarized my report to the conference here at Indiana University: All of us here.
To study adequately any breakdown in communications we must first understand the nature and structure of the particular mode of communication that has ceased to function. Linguistics is concerned with language in all its aspects-language in operation, language in drift,2 language in the nascent state, and language in dissolution.
There are psychopathologists who assign a high importance to the linguistic problems involved in the study of language disturbances;3 some of these questions have been touched upon in the best treatises on aphasia.
For in-. That this should be true is all the more surprising in view of the fact that, on the one hand, the amazing progress of structural linguistics has endowed the investigator with efficient tools and methods for the study of verbal regression and, on the other, the aphasic disintegration of the verbal pattern may provide the linguist with new insights into the general laws of language. First of all, they should be familiar with the technical terms and devices of the medical disciplines dealing with aphasia; then, they must submit the clinical case reports to thorough linguistic analysis; and, further, they should themselves work with aphasic patients in order to approach the cases directly and not only through a reinterpretation of prepared records which have been quite differently conceived and elaborated.
Aphasic regression has proved to be a mirror of the child's acquisition of speech sounds: The search for this order of acquisitions and losses and for the general laws of implication cannot be confined to the phonemic pattern but must be extended also to the gr ammatical system. Speech implies a selection of certain linguistic entities and their combination into linguistic lll1its of a higher degree of complexity. At the lexical level this is readily apparent: But the speaker is by no means a completely free agent in his choice of words: Thus all these attributes have been combined into a blll1dle of distinctive features, the so-called phoneme.
Neither such blll1dles as Ipl or If I nor such sequences of blll1dles as Ipig l or lfig l are invented by the speaker who uses them. The stop feature appears in combination with cer-. Even when other combinations of phonemes are theoretically possible, the speaker, as a rule, is only a word user, not a word coiner.
When faced with individual words, we expect them to be coded units. In order to grasp the word nylon one must know the meaning assigned to this vocable in the lexical code of modern English. In any language there exist also coded word groups called phrase words. The meaning of the idiom how do you do cannot be derived by adding together the meanings of its lexical constituents; the whole is not equal to the sum of its parts.
Word groups which in this respect behave like single words are a common but nonetheless only marginal case. In order to comprehend the overwhelming majority of word groups, we need be familiar only with the constituent words and with the syntactical rules of their combination.
Within these limitations we are free to put words in new contexts. But the freedom to compose quite new contexts is undeniable, despite the relatively low statistical probability of their occurrence. Thus, in the combination of linguistic units, there is an ascending scale of freedom. In forming sentences with words, the speaker is less constrained. And finally, in the combination of sentences into utterances, the action of compulsory syntactical rules ceases, and the freedom of any individual speaker to create novel contexts increases substantially, although again the numerous stereotyped utterances are not to be overlooked.
Any linguistic sign involves two modes of arrangement: I Combination. Actually, selection and substitution are two faces of the same operation. The fundamental role which these two operations play in language was clearly realized by Ferdinand de Saussure.
The constituents of a context are in a state of contiguity while in a substitution set signs are linked by various degrees of similarity which fluctuate between the equivalence of synonyms and the common core of antonyms.
These two operations provide each linguistic sign with two sets of interpretants to utilize the effective concept introduced by Charles Sanders Peirce. II There are two references which serve to interpret the sign-one to the code and the other to the context; whether coded or free, and in each of these ways the sign is related to another set of linguistic signs, through an alternation in the former case and through an alignment in the latter.
A given significative unit may be replaced by other, more explicit signs of the same code, whereby its general mean-. The constituents of any message are necessarily linked with the code by an internal relation and with the message by an external relation.
Language in its various aspects deals with both modes of relation. The separation in space, and often in time, between two individuals, the addresser and the addressee, is bridged by an internal relation: Without such an equivalence the message is fruitless: The Similarity Disorder It is clear that speech disturbances may affect in varying degrees the individual's capacity for combination and selection of linguistic units, and indeed the question of which of these two operations is chiefly impaired proves to be of far-reaching significance in describing, analyzing, and classifying the diverse forms of aphasia.
This dichotomy is perhaps even more suggestive than the classical distinction between emissive and receptive aphasia, indicating which of the two functions in speech exchange, the encoding or the decoding of verbal messages, is particularly affected.
Head attempted to classify cases of aphasia into definite groups, and to each of these varieties he assigned "a name chosen to signify the most salient defect in the management and comprehension of words and phrases. In outlining these two opposite patterns of aphasia, I shall utilize mainly Goldstein's data. For aphasics of the first type selection deficiency , the context is the indispensable and decisive factor.
When presented with scraps of words or sentences, such a patient readily completes them. His speech is merely reactive: He feels unable to utter a sentence which responds neither to the cue of his interlocutor nor to the actual situation. Her emphatic first-person assertions of anguish and other strong sentiments were an important step towards the literary affirma- tion of women writers. A precedent for such daring may be seen in the verses of Ekaterina Urusova, a poet from the previous — and first — generation of Russian women writers.
Specifically, Rather than limiting her to the tender pastoral genres — though he does include them — [Xeraskov] suggests that she could write epic verse like Homer, sing the glory of Russia like M. Lomonosov, enlighten her readers with didactic verse, and — unheard of for a woman — write for the stage as a tragedian [ In , she published Iroidy Heroides , an unusually lengthy and serious pro- duction for a woman writer.
Urusova, too, designs her Heroides as a series of lyrical speeches deliv- ered largely by women bereaved in love. Toska appears twice in connection with the feelings of Zeida, betrayed by her husband, but remaining steadfast in her devotion to him Ivi: She uses her moment in the spotlight to speak three times of her own toska Ivi: By soliciting the sympathy of other sufferers in her audience, she aug- ments both the range and force of her affliction: Those struck down by toska in love.
Weep together with me! Gender, Toska and Melanxolija The late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were an era of great change in the shaping and definition of gender. It has also been argued that Rus- sian culture was dominated by a melancholic mood in this period, specifically from the late s to the s cf.
Vinickij As we have seen, this temper or inclination was expressed through various lexemes and sometimes the choice between them was gendered. Karamzin himself preferred melanxolija to toska and took firm steps to establish its place in the pantheon of Russian literary sentiments.
On the melancholic turn in Russian letters, see also Vinickij , A closer look at the specific contexts in which Karamzin uses toska demon- strates that he continued to associate the sentiment with Greek tragedy and pin- ing shepherds, as had Sumarokov and Fonvizin. Melanxolija even served as the title of an important verse in which Karamzin reworks several lines of an excerpt from Jacques Delille In this later verse, personified Melanxolija herself emerges and flourishes precisely where women themselves had faded in Poslanie.
The sentiment of anguish that he had shared with his female companions in Poslanie is purged of their involvement and interfer- ence. In point of fact, women were largely excluded from the experience of melanxolija — or at least from its expression. Symptomatically, however, neither melanxolija itself nor toska appears in the actual verse. A more forthright exposition of feminine despair — and one that emphati- cally uses the term toska — appears in a brief elegy on the death of her sister writ- ten by Elizaveta Dolgorukova in Eschewing melanxolija, the poet reiter- ates the more traditionally feminine toska five times: Explicitly rather than implicitly autobiographical, it justi- fies its own emotivity by providing concrete motivation for it.
Another woman to take up emphatic toska was the poet Anna Volkova, who drew her inspiration directly from Xvostova. Melanxolija is not limited to the purview of male emo- tion, he suggests, and sensitive women ought to be familiar with it. Karolina does assert her right to feel powerful emotions, and recounts an eventful life that has included many of them, but not melanxolija.
Indeed, Karolina has little pa- tience for melancholic inclinations, which she views as a pretentious charade. What pos- sible connection could a woman who does not even understand love or mel- ancholy have with literature?
Women may feel melancholy, but he does not indicate that they should take up the pen to share such feelings more widely. Indeed, it seems quite plausible that the articulation of his poetic aims, which appeared a year after Kamin and in the same year that Xvostova published her Otryvki, responded, at least in general outline, to her work and to the cultural environment in which it was so well received.
Various scholars cf. Arzumanova While the fact that Xvostova overused Karamzinian stylemes helps to explain her emphatic quality in general, it does not illuminate her use of reiterative toska per se, which, as this article demonstrates, has no precedent in Karamzin. Toska in Winter As we know, Karamzin turned away from literature in the first decade of the nineteenth century to issues of the Russian state and its history.
It also registers the pleasurable sense of re- gret with which he contemplates their shared and bygone past. The elderly Urusova had meditated on winter death in quite similar terms. Ibidem Her gesture is quite forceful and surprising. Cut short your voice! Urusova herself returned to the connection between toska and difficul- ties of authorship in a verse from on the topic of writing poetry: Xvostova, too, continued to write, though without achieving the same popularity as she had with Otryvki.
Like other women writers in the early nineteenth century, both continued to feel toska: In which literary contexts toska was used, to what extent it preserved a link with the feminine, and where or how often it was reiterated remain topics for further study. We do know, however, that emphatic toskovanie was a feminine activity in eighteenth-century Russian letters and that the enthusiasm with which it was embraced by women writers such as Aleksandra Xvostova helped to encourage male writers such as Nikolaj Karamzin to select melanxolija for their own elegiac discourse.
Nostalgia and Creaturality in H. Leiv- ick. In this work, the Golem, a man-made creature based on an ancient Kabbalah legend widespread in several Central European countries, takes on openly mes- sianic features, its helpless creaturality1 and hopeless existential loneliness reflect the Jewish longing for God. In line with the tendencies of Neo-Romanticism, revived in Yiddish literature by Leivick himself, he persistently embodied this spirit or character in a blend of art and life in which each of these elements fed upon the other.
Similarly intertwined in his work were the nostalgia of Eastern European Jewish culture, a Russian and revolutionary longing, and Russian toska. Jewish Nostalgia: The lowing of cattle that walk towards the rock on which they are to be sacrificed Samuel I, 6: It can be found in two passages of the Shabbat treatise 39a and 66b , where it is used in different situations to refer to the longing of a father for his son and that of a son for his father.
The primordial wailing of a nature devoid of any hope or consolation thus takes on the form of a conscious, fully rounded human feeling. The Yiddish Culture of Nostalgia Modern literary culture in Yiddish developed with incredible speed in the second half of the nineteenth century and, over the course of just a few years, evolved from a tradition featuring interesting, but marginal works into one of the leading literary phenomena in Europe.
Because of the circumstances in which it developed, modern Yiddish literature seems to be pervaded by nostalgia. The Central and Eastern European Jewish hamlet, cast as a close-knit community where every life has its own place and meaning and enjoys an uninterrupted vital bond with tradition, not only compris- es one of the essential topoi in the work of the founding fathers of modern Yid- dish literature, but also figures pervasively in the reception and evaluation of this literature.
A feel- ing of nostalgia coupled with the same basic theme, i. In the early twentieth century, Yiddish cultural benkshaft finds expression in two different tendencies, both shaped by external events as well as by chang- es occurring within Jewish society in Central Eastern Europe. In just one gen- eration, traditional Jewish culture detached itself from the world of its fathers, a process that in the surrounding society had unfolded quite differently and over the course of several decades.
At the same time, a powerful Jewish longing for acculturation and integration into that surrounding external world met increas- ingly with an impenetrable wall of ethnic nationalism and anti-Semitism, senti- ments which were soon to reach their international apotheosis. Quite often the Jews had to face a world where, as Ola Watowa It was almost a foregone conclusion that the Bolshevik revolution — which promoted internationalism and equality — would represent the hopes of the Jewish people, at least until its openly totalitarian shift at the end of the s.
It was also fairly predictable that among individuals whose childhoods were still deeply rooted in Jewish tradi- tion, such hopes would assume forms of messianism, one of the most original and problematically distinguishing elements of Jewish thought. As summa- rized by rabbi Arthur Green The various movements for social progress that have attracted so many Jews, including Socialism and Com- munism, may be seen as forms of secular messianism. Jewish secular messianism, he writes, includes a restoring current, aimed at the restoration of a lost golden age, and a utopian current, aimed at the creation of an unprecedented social order5.
These two currents are intertwined, however, 4 A variety of nostalgia for the shtetl and a re-evaluation of its culture and existential marginality is shared today by anti-nationalist intellectuals and those highly critical of Israel as a state project, such as Daniel Boyarin in the United States and Moni Ovadia in Italy. Scholem For this information, I am grateful to Silvano Facioni.
As noted, the benkshaft of the European Yiddish world also expressed itself in two different currents: He was the eldest of nine children and the biography of his early years is the typical biography of people living in a shtetl: Later came the yeshive in Minsk, whose en- lightened headmaster allowed the students to study Hebrew grammar, a lay sub- ject and one that was disliked8.
During the Revolution, Leivick joined the Bund, the supranation- al and Yiddishist Jewish socialist party, which had been founded in Vilna in Although he had already made his debut as a promising author in He- brew, once he joined the revolution, Leivick decided to abandon the sacred idiom and shift to Yiddish, the language of the deprived masses — and it was in Yiddish literature that he later made his mark as one of its greatest representa- tives.
In , Leivick was suspected of subversive activity and arrested by the tsarist police; during the trial — an episode mentioned by B. Harshav and B. Harshav Everything that I have done I did in full consciousness. I am a member of the Jewish revolutionary Party, the Bund, and I will do everything in my power to overthrow the tsarist autocracy, its bloody henchmen, and you as well Ivi: Leivick was sentenced to four years of forced labor and permanent exile in Siberia.
In an isolated cell in the Minsk prison tower, Leivick wrote his first dra- matic poem, Di keytn fun Meshiakh The Chains of the Messiah , which was published only in Together with The Golem and Di geule komedie The Comedy of Redemption, , The Chains of the Messiah completes a triad of works on the idea of Messianism and these three works were published as such in Israel in under the title Hezyoney Geulah, Visions of Redemption.
Goldsmith, In this context, the poet himself — and others as well — can come forward as a messianic figure. It was in this same period that a picture was taken of Leivick dressed in traditional Russian garb with chains around his waist and ankles: The final destination was a hamlet called Vitim, where the poet was supposed to spend the rest of his life.
Named after a tributary of the Lena river, this village boasted an average tem- perature in winter of minus thirty-five degrees Celsius and lay at a distance of six thousand kilometers from Minsk.
And yet, thanks to the money that some comrades who had earlier emigrated to America daringly managed to send, Leivick accomplished the almost unthinkable and escaped from Siberia. He did this by downloading a horse and cart, which he drove to a railway station, travel- ing across Russia and Germany, and eventually to the United States, where he landed in the summer of Like many intellectuals of his time, Leivick faced great professional and personal difficulties in the States; these are described in some of his most pop- ular plays, such as Shmates Rags from or Shop from It was a symbolic landscape, but also the setting of painful and tangible personal experiences, as described in his famous poem Oyfn di vegn Sibirer On the Road to Siberia from Oyfn di vegn Sibirer Emets nokh itster gefinen a klepl, a shtrikl Fun mayne a tserisenem shukh.
A rimenem pas, fun a leymenem krigl a shtikl. A bleter fun heylikn bukh. Oyfn di taykhn Sibirer Ken emets nokh itster gefinen a tseykhn a shpendl Fun mains a dertrunkenem plit; In vald — a farblutikt-fartriktn bendl, In shney — ayngefroyrene trit Leivick In particular, for Leivick and for most of his readers, Jewish messian- ism was closely intertwined with Russian tradition.
It is not mere chance that Harshav twice compares him to Dostoevsky; and, according to Roskies Leivick was linked to more recent Russian culture as well. Over the years, however, he moved further away from these Russian sources: Der goylem.
Dramatishe poeme in akht bilder The Golem. There is abundant scholarly literature on the legend of the Golem; in addition to the books included in the Bibliography, see, for example, Idel Zylberzwejg His sufferings in this period were also exacerbated by tuberculosis, which obliged him to undergo long periods of hospitalization and consequent isolation from the outside world.
After the Shoah, Leivick was the first among Yiddish poets and writers in the United States to give voice to the widespread sense of disorientation and feeling of guilt for the catastrophe that many of his writings — including The Golem — seemed to have disturbingly foreshadowed.
Schwarz Leivick died in New York in He had spent the last four years of his life paralyzed and unable to speak, visited constantly by writers and friends. He was compared to the starets Zosima of The Brothers Karamazov in both his own outlook and in the devotion that others demonstrated to him Harshav, Harshav Nahshon , particularly pp.
When you pass our Church you have to take our hat off! You dirty Jew! The lesson that day was on the binding of Isaac and when Leivick heard Abraham described as lifting the knife, he burst into hysteri- cal tears. Though the teacher tried to comfort Leivick — it was just a test, Isaac was not slaughtered! Returning home on that same day, young Leivick walked past the estate of Count Yassevitch13, who, everyone knew, had a mad son that he kept locked up.
Great terri- fying eyes. The man himself — a giant, the black hair of his head and face dishev- eled, wild. It was a game, Leivick recalled, invented to entertain the prisoner, to show him that he wanted to cheer him up. Russian nineteenth-century novels often tell of pranks played on village idiots and greeted with general hilarity, but in this case, Leivick inverts the expected prank to punish himself.
In the first episode, the sudden and unjustified act of anti-Semitic 13 Also spelled Jasiewicz. I have been unable to find any information confirming the historical existence of the Count, although this surname was very common in that region. Leivick thus presents himself as a messianic figure, but not in the image of a triumphant Messiah, the son of David, but according to another Talmudic model provided by Jewish tradition, i.
The Talmud states that the Messiah is a beggar waiting at the gates of Rome. And how can one recognize him? While the other lepers change their bandages all at once, the Messiah does so one bandage at a time, so as not to be late cf. Facioni The first of the eight scenes into which The Golem is divided, entitled Clay, takes place at night just outside Prague and presents an argument between the rabbi and the shadow of the Golem that he is about to remove from the darkness.
His grave in the Jewish cemetery of Prague, which has remained untouched to this day, is often visited. Legend holds that he was the cre- ator of the Golem. The Phantom: The Rabbi Maharal: The shadow then disappears, after one last unheeded prayer, his apparition soon replaced by the sinister one of the Priest, whose name is Polish — Tadeush Ta- deusz — and who hisses to the rabbi: Nor ze, funvanem kumen dos tsu dir azoyne oygn? Retsikhe shpritst fun zey un shvartse gvure, Vi kumt retsikhe tsu a rov?
The cynical Tadeush is certainly right when he sees retshikhe, slaughter, in the eyes of the rabbi, when he recognizes him as an alter ego of the Golem. The Golem, half man and half puppet, endowed with supernatural strength but ready to obey every request of his creator, will be the savior of the helpless Jews. He will be the one to stain his hands with blood in obedience to a higher will; thus it has 15 Quotations in this article from the original Yiddish text of The Golem are taken from Leivick , while the English translations found largely in the notes are from Leivick In the second scene, entitled Walls, the Golem is no longer a shadow, but a person.
He has a name, Yosl, Joseph, that reminds us of his messianic destiny and a rough-hewn appearance: At first, the Golem can feel only the most primordial, violent feelings: The rabbi seems both disap- pointed and fascinated by his creature.
He teaches him to bend his head if he has to walk through a very low door, to move objects instead of sweeping them away; he teaches him that the sunset is not a fire that will soon devour every- thing. His rage explodes in an expressionistic outburst, his desperation at finding himself in a world so incomprehensible and threatening recalling scenes in works by other contemporary authors about the tragedy of the First World War: Es hoybt zikh epes inveynik in mir un vergt, Un klapt, a klinkerey in beyde oyern, Un far di oygn — royt un grin… Un mayne fis zey hoybn zikh, zey viln geyn, Un mayne hent ot gibn zey a khap dikh farn halz Un trogn zikh avek mit dir In the following scene, Through Darkness, the distance between the Golem and the community that he is supposed to protect continues to grow.
When the biblical God had called Abraham, the patriarch had answered with the single word: Hinneni, Here I am, and it is from this absolute readiness that Jewish sa- cred history was born. The relationship between the Golem and the rabbi may also be seen as a degraded version of this narrative from the Book of Genesis: God-Maharal will not call Yosl, but Yosl will think he has heard the call, and when he, like Abraham, leaves everything to answer: Un shtendik dakht zikh mir, ikh her dayn kol: Ikh tu a sets Di hak in holts areyn un entfer: Un ale nehmen lakhn, iberkrimen: In the meantime, events come to a head.
And the rabbi answers: Gor a sakh, a sakh Nor gebn konen mir zey gornisht, gornisht, hert mir? Un epes konen mir — o, io, mir konen, reb Basevi, mir viln ober nit. Mir viln nit… mir hobn Tsu alts un alemen fun gor der velt Nor tsugerirt zikh mit eyn shpits fun finger, Gor fun der zeyt a hoykh geton mit unzer otem, Un alts un ale fun der gantser velt Vet trogn shoyn oyf eybik unzer finger, Un shturems, virblendike shturems veln oysbrekhn Fun unzer leykhtn oysgehoykhtn otem… The fourth scene, Beggars, is set among the poor who are quartered in the Fifth Tower, a sort of timeless non-place belonging to noone, perhaps a refer- ence to the Minsk Tower where Leivick himself had been imprisoned.
Tadeush wants to throw the Jews out of even that horrible shelter: According to a well-known prophecy, the Messiah will come when the world is either completely good or when it is completely evil. In either case, mankind will have to be ready to welcome him and to accept change. In the scene Unbidden, Prophet Elias and the Messiah are two beggars, one old and one young, both with sore hands and feet and waiting for dawn at the out- skirts of Prague.
As noted above, however, no redeemer may come without having been called for. The time is not yet ripe; the awaited Messiah can only be the Last One, who marks the end of time. It is the Maharal himself who sends the two miserable beggars away. Fun den man, vos trogt zayn tseylem Tsu dem betler mitn zakh, kumt der oysleyzer, der goylem, mit a fist un mit a hak In scene six, Revelations, the Golem wakes up in the Fifth Tower, where the Maharal had imprisoned him together with beggars and victims of the pogroms.
Here, the puppet suddenly reveals his messianic role; the time set for his birth has come: Nevertheless, the power that he has suddenly acquired does not mean that the Golem is moving away from his creator: In the penultimate scene, In the Cave, the plot draws to a close. In the dark tunnels of the Fifth Tower that connect cathedral with synagogue, Tadeush and a monk carefully carry sealed bottles containing the blood of the child they have killed.
Blood is the key word in the last pages of the poem, the blood which the Golem smells from afar. Only he will be able to prevent the final slaughter, but the means by which he can do so are the same as those used by Tadeush and his fellows. The Golem tries to brace up, repeating the ter- rible formula, but he is continually tormented by nightmares and phantoms he cannot explain. Deserted by the Maharal and lost in the airless underground tunnels, he finds the bottles with the blood and probably intends to murder Tadeush and his assistant.
But visions haunt him: O, rebe mayner! The rabbi has not visited him for eight days. The memory of that terrible night in the Fifth Tower is still vivid in the larg- er community: And yet, the Rabbi would still like the Golem to learn to live among other Jews, to relish the sound of their prayers.
Moreover, the violence that the Rabbi himself has triggered within his creature — indeed, the violence for which the Rabbi created him — cannot be restrained.
The result is a grotesque tragedy: Iz dos a shtraf far unzer freyd, Reboyne oylem? Iz doz dayn shtraf far veln rateven zikh? Ti hostu nisht baviligt? Mayn zind far veln opnemen baym faynt dos zeynike; Der faynt hot oyfgemant Ikh hob gevolt farmaydn blut un blut fargosn Dvorel runs in, terrified.
The Golem reaches out to her, thinking she has come to be with him. Evening falls. The Maharal orders the faithful to resume the song that marks the beginning of the Shabbat. Here again, Leivick highlights the problem of violence being completely alien to Jewish identity. Dervayl hot zikh mit eynuneyntsik rege Fartsoygt mer, durkh mir, dayn leben; Zay dankbar mir far der gerateveter rege, Vayl ot fargeyt zi The devising of utopias and conjuring up of complex plans for salvation is pointless, Leivick argues.
While Leivick knew that even the greatly yearned for coming of the Mes- siah would change nothing in the human condition, he also held that continuing to wait for and to believe in his arrival was necessary. Bertolone As the narrator explains: While Yiddish, to which Leivick chose to attach his destiny, is generally associated — at least in its secular version — with the simul- taneous acknowledgement and acceptance of dispersion and of exile, Yiddish language and culture also participated, albeit in often conflicting and troubled ways, in the building of the new country.
Leivick spent the greater part of his life hovering between two idealizations of life in the Diaspora, both of them reflective in mood: These two visions culminated after his death, as had often happened in his life, in a symbolic event, namely the creation in Tel Aviv in of the House of Lei- vick, a cultural center and museum, as well as the Israeli seat of the association of Yiddish writers and journalists This institution is one of very few in the state of Israel where the sounds of Hebrew and Yiddish, together with the multiple nostalgias of the Hebrew world, coexist in relative harmony — and both worlds, significantly, are contained in its name: Bet Leyvik, Leyviks Hoys.
Translated by Cecilia Pozzi and Sara Dickinson 27 At the same time, this guttural and poetic idiom of a disinherited and homeless people, a language whose very structure would seem to symbolize exile, necessarily sug- gested paradox and a sort of bizarre defeatism.
Indeed, in the early years of the Israeli state, Ben Gurion led an aggressive campaign against Yiddish culture, which he identi- fied with the humiliation and powerlessness of the Diaspora. This article will focus on that variety of Vysockian toska that might be defined, paraphrasing Giambattista Vico Unless otherwise noted, subsequent volume and page numbers in this chapter for citations of Vysockij refer to this edition. Lotman, Uspenskij Heroic gestures simultaneously constitute a supreme form of human ex- perience for Vysockij and serve as the object of nostalgia — and it is in this light that they appear in his most well-known musical-poetic cycles.
Harsh expanses of steppe and polar ice, underground mines, and mountain peaks are among the spaces selected by Vysockij to elaborate his conception of heroism. When locat- ing heroism in other eras, Vysockij often chooses to contemplate the heroic feat in the context of war. Particular attention will be devoted in this article to the origins of this choice as well as to the expression of heroism found in his songs about the men who fought in World War II.
The blend of a profoundly personal nostalgia for the heroic feat with widely shared public sentiments enabled both Vysockij and his audience to transcend the quotidian reality of daily Soviet life. In these lyrics, we can begin to intuit a link between heroism and the ethical nature of true friendship the only admissible kind found elsewhere in Vysockij as well6.
Nikolaj Rerix, who in characterized podvig as a concept that is specifically Rus- sian and thus untranslatable into other languages, highlighted the notion of moral choice found at its core: Heroism accompanied by fanfare is not capable of conveying the immortal, complete, and all-encompassing idea contained in the Russian word podvig [ Those who choose to take on the heavy burden of the podvig bear it voluntarily Rerix His impetu- ous temperament, his romantic sense of honor, and his irrepressible surges of creativity clashed constantly and irremediably with the paralysis that reigned in Soviet society during that era.
In particular, Vysockij suffered from the stifling conformity that reigned in the official artistic institutions and from the hostil- ity of the politico-cultural bureaucracy, that, while never overt, was insidious, systematic, and encountered by him daily8.
I asked him: Leonid Dolgopolov His travels through poetic space took him to dramatic geo- graphical settings and harsh climates: His colleague, however, who up until that moment also been his friend, obeys a mistaken instinct for survival and, in a display of irrationality and irresponsibility, succumbs to the urge to flee.
Luck- ily, fate has prepared a happy ending for both men, as well as for the truck that they are delivering to a construction site beyond the Urals: Having overcome adversity with remarkable firmness, the hero reaches his apotheosis in a demonstration of magnanimity — as genuine as it is laconic — to- wards his weaker companion: In role lyrics, a lyrical procedure is used to appropriate epic material: Regret for the Time of Heroes 81 Though his coworker fails the test of friendship, the heroic protagonist re- mains generously disposed towards him.
Both songs are set in dramatically rendered environments that sharply contrast with one another and with daily life: Severe atmospheric conditions are exploited still more fully in Beloe bezmolvie White Silence , where perennial pack ice serves as stage for the mental states and heroic acts of polar explorers: Such homecom- ing is tolerable only because it is necessary in order to subsequently embark upon yet another path of ascent.
In his mountain songs, the vital and vitalist Vysockij suggests that our only means of achieving happiness is choosing to set out again and thus to perform not just one, but several heroic feats, waging sustained battle against our own weaknesses and fears: As we gradually supersede one trial after another, uncertainty and appre- hension give way to a self-confidence that borders on exaltation: Not one step back!
While the two brief and apparently random quatrains that Volodja intones lack any explicit connection with mountain heroism, they can be linked to his general vision of mountaineering. The quest for such opportunities is con- stant in his work, perhaps because it is through the demonstration of heroism, in his view, that one earns the right to be called a human being. Hero- ism constitutes an ongoing process that, despite moments of triumph, is imbued with uneasiness and longing.
Vysockij himself appears to have been driven by a troubled restlessness or anxiety in his ceaseless desire to uncover heroes. He searches for heroes everywhere, ranging widely through space and time to do so. The feats of such personages offer at least temporary respite from the con- tinued threat of quotidian stagnation, their repeated acts of heroism constituting a bulwark against the encroachment of the mundane as well as the vital reasser- tion of full human dignity.
As noted, the quest for heroism takes Vysockij to ex- treme geographical contexts: His search also leads him to the past and, particularly, to the era of World War II and to the heroism of the soldier. He began to write war songs in the first half of the s25, when no theme in Soviet culture was more widespread than that of the Second Great Patriotic War.
Ubiquitous in the figurative arts and classical music, the War was also featured in hundreds and hundreds of novels, stories, plays, poems, lyrics, songs, historical essays, journalistic reportage, war diaries, and films, both doc- umentary and non-.
Regret for the Time of Heroes 85 the conflict with Napoleon that broke out in , clearly underlined historical continuity with the tsarist epoch. Nonetheless, while he does mourn a profound lack of heroism in the dismal, gray, and dispiriting life that surrounds him, Vysockij does not seek return to the past. Bar- skova A lack of interest in such themes allows him to avoid the heavy finality of either tragic or rhetorical emphasis, and to conclude his songs with the acknowl- edgement of a permanent, ongoing state or condition of toska.
At the end of the day, artistic pro- duction seems to have allowed Vysockij to simultaneously sublimate and come to terms with a sense of loss through the act of commemorating it.
It is also true that since his songs contain no clearly expressed desire for any actual restoration of the past, they generate in listeners a variety of nostalgia that is linked less to properly historical memory than to remembrance shot through with an emotional and even deeply personal nostalgia. Since the struggle for survival that characterized the War era did not lend itself well to the discussion of ideological fine points, rehabilitated s pa- triotism was easily reconciled with the official image of the USSR as different nationalities united to defend the native land against medieval Nazi barbarity.
Polevoj Ekaterina Klimakova In the initial months of the war, I had to take him, as a three-year-old, with me to work. Sometimes he would sleep right there on the tables.
When the air-raid sirens went off, we went down into the bomb shelter. It was always crowded, very hot and stuffy. And did he whine? Not once! Just the opposite: Volodja came up to the loft several times, too, with his little toy bucket Safonov With the adjective bylinnye, referring to the Russian folk epic, Vysockij blends historical reality with folkloric reminiscence.
The age-old concept of the war trophy requires little ulterior explanation. With the passage of time, the term progressively moved towards the criminal world, becoming a slang term for institutions of detention cf. Krylov-Kulagin Abdullaeva It is instructive to compare the verses quoted above with what Vysockij himself declared about the motives that drove him to write songs about the war: Indeed, most of the protagonists in his war songs are individuals or well-defined groups.
Nonetheless, Ballad on Combat contains no trace of any disenchantment or bitterness towards youthful romantic idealism. On the contrary, fidelity to the teachings of books read in childhood and adolescence constitutes an ethical requirement for human beings: Immediately after the war, Volodja lived with his father and stepmother on a Soviet military base in Eberswalde, East Germany for almost three years from the end of to August Volodja began to love books very early [ He loved retelling to his friends what he had been reading.
He had an excellent memory. He could memorize a poem after reading it only once [ In Germany and later in Moscow my friends would come to see us. You can imagine what men who had served together on the front lines would talk about when they got together.
I pay tribute to this era with my songs. Regret for the Time of Heroes 91 Red Banners. Nonetheless, for all their plausibility, these songs seem to be set both in World War II, and also — simultaneously — in a metahistorical or mythologically prototypical dimension. May 9, was proclaimed a national holiday — as it had been in the early postwar years — and the tradition of holding an impos- ing military parade on Red Square was revived as well.
Ana- tolij Kulagin This twentieth anniversary of the victory was celebrated with under- standable pride by the large majority of Soviet citizens, to whom the War had caused indescribable suffering and hardship. The Communist Party exploited the event to launch a major campaign of self-celebration, mobilizing expo- nents of the creative intelligentsia.
Painters, sculptors, prose writers, poets, playwrights, theatre and film directors each responded to the call on the basis of their talents if they had any and character, be it a tendency towards servil- ity or the affirmation of courage and a sense of dignity. Vysockij himself was involved during this period with two important projects that he would never have occasion to regret and that marked a significant step in his artistic evolu- tion.
Danelija that met with great success. He committed suicide in Regret for the Time of Heroes 93 the heroic to the lyrical The most well known among them, Mass Graves Bratskie mogily , was sung off screen by Mark Bernes and used by Turov as a connecting thread in the plot He was a truly extraordinary man, who really valued bard music.
And this had a surprising effect, because, for ex- ample, we received a letter from a woman who had lost her memory when two of her sons were hanged right in front of her. She watched this movie in the hospital and she wrote us a letter telling us that she had suddenly remembered where that had happened to her children.
She wrote both to Bernes and to the studio in Minsk. Vysockij, like Bernes, regularly received a number of letters from veterans who thought they had rec- ognized themselves in the protagonist of this or that song, a fact that he often mentioned with pride during his concerts. Here director Jurij Lju- bimov used an approach that would become one of his trademarks, namely pre- senting the bare poetic text without any set.
As was the case with all Taganka productions, restrictions imposed by the censorship meant protracted struggles, lengthy negotiations, and multiple post- ponements.
In point of fact, the song Mass graves was itself cut before the drama opened in November , although Vysockij had the honor of singing another of his songs on stage. More- over, when he made a brief video in May in order to introduce himself to Warren Beattie, who was then casting the movie Reds, Vysockij began by reciting in Russian some poems from The Fallen written by wartime poet Semen Gudzenko , rather than a selection from his own wide repertoire.
Unlike the prohibited theme of the illegal underground that Vysockij had explored in previous work — and that had no official outlet — the war theme was publicly approved and even officially embraced; his own approach to the War, however, remained sui generis.
An initial answer to this question was given by Vysockij himself in an explanation of his constant references to war: Having argued that war provides the best context for investigating hu- man nature, offering as it does constant opportunities for such to be revealed, Vysockij goes on to note that in the martial setting questions of themes such as courage or cowardice, selflessness or egotism, responsibility or lack thereof, re- main substantially invariant across eras: And I often find them in those times.
It seems to me that there were simply more of them then, that the situations in which they found themselves were more ex- treme. If you think about and listen to them care- fully, you will see that they can even be sung today: Korkina The motives for courageous acts on the battlefield are quite specific and differ from those that inspire, for instance, climbers.
The sentiment is so natural and deeply-rooted, in other words, that no explicit mention of it is neces- sary. Indeed, Vysockij makes no use of patriotic rhetoric in his entire oeuvre — a fact essential to understanding his poetics.
The soldierly sense of duty that Vysockij describes does not appear to be trig- gered by conditioned reflex since the men do reflect upon it , nonetheless, this sentiment ultimately prevails over their other motives for action and, most nota- bly, over an instinct for self-preservation.
Their participation in the war results situations have been taken from those days [of war], but all of it could very well happen here, too, even now. This is how I regard them: Regret for the Time of Heroes 97 from various pressing events, but it is mainly the product of individual choice. In- deed, Vysockij rarely deprives his characters of the chance to choose or, at least, to challenge their fate even in the most dramatic contexts.
And thus he thinks before obeying: Nonetheless, it is not the order from above, but his own sense of personal responsibility in pursuit of the common good that prevents him and his companions from giving in to hatred or instinc- tive emotion. Despite a few variations in poetic tone, the war cycle is a coherent group of songs persistently laced with the themes of friendship, danger, courage, fear, physical exertion, life, and death. Certainly, such an approach itself might be interpreted as adding a touch of aesthetic and psychological authenticity to the subject, insofar as those who were actually involved in the War, whether as participants, witnesses or victims, were often quite unwilling to offer up the grisly details, preferring to recollect the tragedy in all its emotional complexity as a world in and of itself.
While not all of the persons described perform heroic feats, they do all overcome their fears and transcend the limitations imposed by an egotistical sense of self-preservation in order to create an epic together. Recalling the land where he was born, the protagonist remembers his orphanage childhood with implicit gratitude: Decades of exile, misfortune, hardship, unfreedom, and displacement follow: The Chechen does not speak of his own sad fate in order to inspire compassion, but reflects upon it, fully aware that his experience is but one detail in an immense collective portrait of the entire na- tion: Of all the types of violence to which he has been subjected, he is particularly haunted by the ethnic variety perpetrated among the deported peoples: More than one third of the deportees died during the journey or from hardships suffered in the first years of exile, while the survivors were forbidden to leave their place of destination.
The same fate also befell the Crimean Tatars, similarly accused of col- laboration with the Nazis and rounded up by the Red Army in May for deportation to Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan. No one could move, everyone sat in silence. And suddenly someone burst into tears, another began to cry, a third. In the last stanza, a long-awaited note of almost cathartic liberation sounds: As Austrian scholar Heinrich Pfandl He thus contextualized his own personal and familial affairs in the greater historical narrative that saw the Jews of the tsarist Empire adhere en masse to the progressive and universalist ideology of the Revolution inimical as it was to nationalism and antisemitism , as Yuri Slezkine brilliantly demonstrates.
Initially rewarded with roles of power and responsibility, the Jews fell victim to Stalinist repression in the s: In a list of historical situations allowing humankind to demonstrate its heroic qualities, he regretted that such an opportunity had been denied to him by the epoch in which he lived: We can agree with Klimakova There is no lasting escape from existence: Summing up, Vysockian toska is an existential melancholy that is incom- mensurate with the rudimentary mechanisms of restorative nostalgia: Vysockij at- tempted to overcome the anxiety produced in him by this divide through artistic expression and experience.
Singing offered him a means of transcendence and it is not mere coincidence that Vysockij set himself a furious pace in work and as a result in life cf. Buvina, Curletto His frenetic attempts to achieve an exalted state yet again illustrate an attitude that deeply worried those close to Vysockij and was the primary cause of his premature death.
It is quite probable that he more or less consciously considered artistic creation to be his own individual podvig, a heroic feat whose realization required a vzlet or act of taking flight that could not, alas, continue uninterrupted.
His quest to soar con- stantly above daily life was ultimately impossible to reconcile with the physical limitations of human existence. Vysockij was not content with artistic creativity that was restricted to an intimate or personal scale — the result of factors both external and internal, in- cluding his character, his theatrical training, and a certainty that he would not be published or officially recorded in Soviet Russia. Vysockij was driven to share his art, and the more he immersed himself in others, the more successful he felt it to be.
Writing verses was only the first step in this heroic creative process: Vysockij himself affirmed that his songs assumed semi- definite shape only after having passed muster with his audience: This re- corded Alice, directed by Oleg Gerasimov, was first released in as a double album and, after its great success, reissued almost every year until the early nineties; an MP3 version became available in Will you chicken out at once?
Or will you boldly leap? Inter- estingly, his compositions never achieved a final form: Perhaps he felt that the heroic feat of performing a song could not be repeated mechanically and that each realization required new effort and new adjustments. Some clarification of this apparent paradox is suggested by Boym The border between bytie and byt seems to parallel the mythical border between Russia and the West. Vysockij also meets the definition established by Antonio Gramsci This is exactly what Vysockij does and it explains his success: And by voicing nostalgia for the War and, more generally, for heroic contexts located in other spatial and temporal worlds, Vysockij allowed his public to both accept daily life and to understand it as preparatory to the heroic feat.
Melancholic Humor, Skepticism and Reflective Nostalgia. Svetlana Boym What is freedom? To me freedom is the Russian language. Viktorija Tokareva 1. He now lives in Jerusalem. Although Guberman worked for many years as an electrical engineer, he has written verse throughout his life. A reliable biog- raphy that might offer insight on this charge does not currently exist, although Guberman himself provides some information on the subject in his prose writings and other scat- tered comments may be found in the memoirs of his friends and other acquaintances.
Indeed, dozens of gariki demonstrate that the poet does not take his own literary endeavors too seriously. Later books including the Seventh and Eighth Journals came out in and , respectively cf. According to Svetlana Boym Melancholic Humor, Skepticism and Reflective Nostalgia on oppositions whose psychological appeal belies their rhetorical and artificial nature: Restorative nostalgia is a means to assertively translate a vague and intimate longing into a concrete sentiment that is both ideologized and goal-directed, whereas reflective nostalgia cf.
Boym Reflection or introspection corrodes any comfortable, self-referential sys- tem of values I vs. You, right vs. He is content with everything. Where indicated, we have been able to use the translations of Guberman found in Sokolovskij , although the bulk of the gariki cited here have been rendered into unrhymed English verse by Sara Dickinson, Cecilia Pozzi, and Laura Salmon.
Indeed, the sober unmasking of this delu- sion is the only existential happiness that humans can hope for: Toska with no object, in other words, is nothing but the feel- ing of reflective nostalgia, or melancholia.
The same can be said of other frequently occurring lexemes referring to the same semantic domain, i. His smiles and his tears transcend rhetoric and eventually blend: Even when oppressive toska drives the poet to respond in typical Rus- sian fashion by praying, drinking and writing, he invariably filters his feelings through skepticism or irony, rather than dramatizing them: Such individuals live on the margins of a domi- nant culture, in a borderland whose fertile soil nourishes skepticism.
Prete Althought Prete Ivi: For such exiles, there is no spacetime on earth where this in- ner sense of diversity might be erased — hence their questing takes the shape do Jews always answer a question with a question?
Melancholic Humor, Skepticism and Reflective Nostalgia of wandering not through actual spacetime, but through their own minds. The component of reflection that is specific to reflective nostalgia results from this process of mental wandering.
They are always potentially ready to leave, to find and adapt to new spaces, and yet to preserve their constitutive strangeness wherever they are. Whereas Apollonians have a clear sense of belonging to a concrete territory and constituting a stable nation — they can leave immovable property to their heirs — Mercurians tend to cultivate knowledge, an asset that can not be inherited, but is easily transport- able in case of flight.
In the host countries of the Diaspora, the Jewish condition of alien brought with it fear, uncertainty, and a sense of ontological suspension, and encouraged concomitant Jewish-Mercurian tendencies towards mastering the languages of the Others, reflecting on alterity, and renewing and even subverting various cultures: Regardless of the particular form that it assumes, Jewish-Mercurian exile appears as intrinsically disharmonic cf.
Wex This state of incertitude and its related inclination for reflection inspires in the Jews of the Diaspora both increasing curiosity towards the Other and partial — and ambivalent — identifica- tion with them.
They are the artistic expression of a thoughtful and empathic Mercu- rian mood36, for reflection also means looking at oneself from an outside per- spective, i. A direct connec- tion between his mental flexibility and the reflective nature of his social critique is evident. If serious Apollonian writers experience a concrete sense of cultural be- longing, Mercurians operate in a reality that is paradoxical.
Where Apollonians offer conservative answers, Mercurians pose thorny questions: Such stability does not necessarily mean rigidity, however. Guberman c: Why did my friends always laugh so much at parties?
In his treatise On Humor, Pirandello, who was also quite preoccupied with fluctuating identities as at- tested in The Late Mattia Pascal and One, No One, and One Hundred Thou- sand , provides a good description of the empathetic reflective mood, albeit in somewhat different terms cf.
Pirandello Aimed at in- dividuals or groups that are seen to represent specific faults ignorance, greed, arrogance, etc. Paradox, by its very nature, is exclusively horizontal and anti-Manichean: But I know you are going to Cracow. So why are you lying to me? According to Freud Ivi: Throughout the twentieth century, the paradoxical melancholic mood of Ashkenazi Jewish culture exerted a strong influence on Apollonian culture in the West.
Skeptical humor is by no means frequent in either everyday life or literature Freud But the fact that our life is a comedy is understood and felt by only very few of its participants.
I perceive both of these two genres. Melancholic Humor, Skepticism and Reflective Nostalgia Guberman expects that the audience for his skeptical humor will be com- posed of skeptics and humorists as well: His well-disposed reader enters an illogical world where laughing is a re- sponse to toska, which in turn is the response to cheerfulness: Indeed, skeptical humor is a form of subversive cogni- tive deprogramming that can make sense of ambiguity much like the insights of Zen Salmon Insofar as Mercurian Jews tend to re- ject dogma, nourish doubt, and invert moments of inconsistent logic, they are perceived by Apollonian culture — which defends the status quo and aches for restoration — as a dangerous threat: A reflective, humorous response to feelings of regret, sorrow, melancho- lia, and nostalgia implies a thorough revision of human binary postulates.
In such cases, subjective empathy paradoxically means the demystification, and thus humanization of the object itself. The process of subjectivizing and humanizing the object also para- doxically makes it available to the Other. Indeed, the more subjective the object of nostalgia, the more universal it becomes. This [Russia] is my one and only homeland.
Poor, hungry, crazy, and drunk!