Modern processor design pdf


 

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Modern Processor Design Pdf

how do the elements cooperate and communicate? – how are data transmitted between processors? – what are the abstractions and primitives for cooperation?. Modern processor design fundamentals of superscalar processors. Material. Type. Book. Language English. Title. Modern processor design fundamentals of. Conceptual and precise, Modern Processor Design brings together numerous microarchitectural techniques in a clear, understandable framework that is easily .

Conceptual and precise, Modern Processor Design brings together numerous microarchitectural techniques in a clear, understandable framework that is easily accessible to both graduate and undergraduate students. Complex practices are distilled into foundational principles to reveal the authors' insights and hands-on experience in the effective design of contemporary high-performance micro-processors for mobile, desktop, and server markets. Key theoretical and foundational principles are presented in a systematic way to ensure comprehension of important implementation issues. Two case studies and an extensive survey of actual commercial superscalar processors reveal real-world developments in processor design and performance. A thorough overview of advanced instruction flow techniques, including developments in advanced branch predictors, is incorporated. Each chapter concludes with homework problems that will institute the groundwork for emerging techniques in the field and an introduction to multiprocessor systems. Table of Contents.

Read C 8. Read 9. Lipasti : Solution Manual Q. Assume memory is byte-addressable i. L1 instruction cache: 64 Kbytes, byte blocks, 4-way set associative, indexed and tagged with virtual address. L1 data cache: 32 Kbytes, 64 byte blocks, 2-way set associative, indexed and tagged with physical address, write-back. Assume the TLB keeps a dirty bit, a reference bit, and 3 permission bits read, write, execute for each entry. Specify the number of offset, index, and tag bits for each of these structures in the table below.

Also, compute the total size in number of bit cells for each of the tag and data arrays. Arbitration for the bus takes one bus cycle 10 ns , issuing a cache line read command for 64 bytes of data takes one cycle, memory controller latency including DRAM access is 60 ns, after which data double words are returned in back-to back cycles.

Further assume the bus is blocking or circuit- switched. Compute the latency to fill a single byte cache line. Then compute the peak read bandwidth for this processor-memory bus, assuming the processor arbitrates for the bus for a new read in the bus cycle following completion of the last read.

Assuming memory controller overhead of one cycle 10 ns to initiate a read operation, and one cycle latency to transfer data from the DRAM data bus to the processor-memory bus, compute the latency for reading one 64 byte cache block.

syllabus(1).pdf - ECEC-412 Modern Processor Design ECEC-621...

Now compute the peak data bandwidth for the memory interface, ignoring DRAM refresh cycles. Arbitration for the bus takes one bus cycle 10 ns , issuing a cache line read command for 64 bytes of data takes one cycle, memory controller latency including DRAM access is 60 ns, after which data double words are returned in backto back cycles.

Further assume the bus is blocking or circuitswitched. What is the average access latency for a byte read? Recompute the average access latency for Problem 34 assuming a rotation speed of 15 K rpm, two platters, and an average seek time of 4.

Solution: modern. Lipasti : Solution manual Q. In an out-of-order processor, rename registers are used for the same purpose.

Given a four-wide out-of-order processor TYP pipeline, compute the minimum number of rename registers needed to prevent rename register starvation from limiting concurrency. Solution: john-paul. The three arrays are of length N. The instruction set used for Problems 5. This chapter highlights only the key features of superscalar processor organizations. Chapter 7 provides a detailed survey of features found in real machines.

Chapter 5: Superscalar Techniques This chapter is the heart of this book and presents all the major microarchitecture techniques for designing contemporary superscalar processors for achieving high performance. It classifies and presents specific techniques for enhancing instruction flow, register data flow, and memory data flow. This chapter attempts to organize a plethora of techniques into a systematic framework that facilitates ease of comprehension. Chapter 6: The PowerPC This chapter presents a detailed analysis of the PowerPC microarchitecture and uses it as a case study to examine many of the issues and design tradeoffs introduced in the previous chapters.

This chapter contains extensive performance data of an aggressive out-of-order design. Chapter 7: Intel's P6 Microarchitecture This is a case study chapter on probably the most commercially successful contemporary superscalar microarchitecture.

It is written by the Intel P6 design team led by Bob Colwell and presents in depth the P6 microarchitecture that facilitated the implementation of the Pentium Pro, Pentium n, and Pentium in microprocessors. This chapter offers the readers an opportunity to peek into the mindset of a top-notch design team.

Chapter 1: Processor Design This chapter introduces the art of processor design, the instruction set architecture ISA as the specification of the processor, and the microarchitecture as the implementation of the processor. Mark Smotherman of Clemson University, provides a historical chronicle on the development of superscalar machines and a survey of existing superscalar microprocessors. The chapter was first completed in and has been continuously revised and updated since then.

It contains fascinating information that can't be found elsewhere. A companion website for the book contains additional support material for the instructor, including a complete set of lecture slides www. Acknowledgments Many people have generously contributed their time, energy, and support toward the completion of this book. This chapter helps ground this textbook in practical, real-world considerations.

This chapter documents the rich and varied history of superscalar processor design over the last 40 years. The guest authors of these two chapters added a certain radiance to this textbook that we could not possibly have produced on our own. Finally, the thorough survey of advanced instruction flow techniques in Chapter 9 was authored by Gabriel Loh, largely based on his Ph.

In addition, we want to thank the following professors for their detailed, insightful, and thorough review of the original manuscript The inputs from these reviews have significantly improved the first edition of this book. The topics covered include historical, currently used, and proposed advanced future techniques for branch prediction, as well as high-bandwidth and high-frequency fetch architectures like trace caches.

Though not all such techniques have yet been adopted in real machines, future designs are likely to incorporate at least some form of them. Chapter Advanced Register Data Flow Techniques This chapter highlights emerging microarchitectural techniques for increasing performance by exploiting the program characteristic of value locality.

This program characteristic was discovered recently, and techniques ranging from software memoization, instruction reuse, and various forms of value prediction are described in this chapter. Though such techniques have not yet been adopted in real machines, future designs are likely to incorporate at least some form of them. Chapter Executing Multiple Threads This chapter provides an introduction to thread-level parallelism TLP , and provides a basic introduction to multiprocessing, cache coherence, and high-performance implementations that guarantee either sequential or relaxed memory ordering across multiple processors.

It discusses single-chip techniques like multithreading and on-chip multiprocessing that also exploit thread-level parallelism.

Finally, it visits two emerging technologiesimplicit multithreading and preexecutionthat attempt to extract thread-level parallelism automatically from single-threaded programs. In summary, Chapters 1 through 5 cover fundamental concepts and foundational techniques. Chapters 6 through 8 present case studies and an extensive survey of actual commercial superscalar processors.

R.E.A.D. [BOOK] Modern Processor Design: Fundamentals of Superscalar …

Chapter 9 provides a thorough overview of advanced instruction flow techniques, including recent developments in advanced branch predictors. The first use of the term "microprocessor" is attributed to Viatron Computer Systems [5] describing the custom integrated circuit used in their System 21 small computer system announced in By the late s, designers were striving to integrate the central processing unit CPU functions of a computer onto a handful of very-large-scale integration metal-oxide semiconductor chips, called microprocessor unit MPU chipsets.

Building on an earlier Busicom design from , Intel introduced the first commercial microprocessor, the 4-bit Intel , in , followed by its 8-bit microprocessor in AL-1, an 8-bit CPU slice that was expandable to bits. The first microprocessors emerged in the early s and were used for electronic calculators , using binary-coded decimal BCD arithmetic on 4-bit words.

Other embedded uses of 4-bit and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals , printers , various kinds of automation etc.

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Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with bit addressing also led to the first general-purpose microcomputers from the mids on. Since the early s, the increase in capacity of microprocessors has followed Moore's law ; this originally suggested that the number of components that can be fitted onto a chip doubles every year. With present technology, it is actually every two years, [6] and as a result Moore later changed the period to two years.

This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. March Further information: Central Air Data Computer In , Garrett AiResearch who employed designers Ray Holt and Steve Geller was invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy 's new F Tomcat fighter.

Shen J.P., Lipasti M.H. Modern Processor Design: Fundamentals of Superscalar Processors

The design was significantly approximately 20 times smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it competed against, and was used in all of the early Tomcat models. This system contained "a bit, pipelined , parallel multi-microprocessor ". The Navy refused to allow publication of the design until Ray Holt's autobiographical story of this design and development is presented in the book: The Accidental Engineer.

From its inception, it was shrouded in secrecy until when at Holt's request, the US Navy allowed the documents into the public domain. Since then people[ who?

Holt has stated that no one has compared this microprocessor with those that came later. Its design indicates a major advance over Intel, and two year earlier. It actually worked and was flying in the F when the Intel was announced. It indicates that today's industry theme of converging DSP - microcontroller architectures was started in The layout for the four layers of the PMOS process was hand drawn at x scale on mylar film, a significant task at the time given the complexity of the chip.

Pico was a spinout by five GI design engineers whose vision was to create single chip calculator ICs. They had significant previous design experience on multiple calculator chipsets with both GI and Marconi-Elliott.

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