Linguistics an introduction to language and communication pdf

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LINGUISTICS. AN INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE AND. COMMUNICATION. Fifth Edition. Adrian Akmajian. Richard A. Demers. Ann K. Farmer. Robert M. Speech and Language Processing: An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics and Speech Recognition. Read more. f AL I N G U I ST I C S An Introduction to Language and Communication SIXTH DOWNLOAD PDF The Inferential Model of Linguistic Communication

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Linguistics An Introduction To Language And Communication Pdf

Akmajian, Demers, Farmer & Harnish - Linguistics, An Introduction to Language and Communication - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book. Citation: H-Net Book Channel. New Book - Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. The H-Net Book Channel. Linguistics An Introduction To Language And Communication Adrian Akmajian [ PDF] [EPUB]. Linguistics is the scientific study of language.

Contact Language and communication Language allows people to communicate with great precision. The Language and Communication group studies how people use language in specific discourse contexts, to share information with others, and to persuade or otherwise affect them. Our overall goal is to understand how language is actually used, when it is used effectively, and why. For instance, how do particular text characteristics interact with a reader's cognitive architecture such that information is conveyed in a coherent, comprehensible way? How does language interact with people's emotional and motivational architecture so that it effectively moves or persuades them? We explore whether answers to the above depend on the medium and genre e.

A new edition a popular introductory linguistics text, thoroughly updated and revised, with new material and new examples. This popular introductory linguistics text is unique for its integration of themes. Rather than treat morphology, phonetics, phonology, syntax, and semantics as completely separate fields, the book shows how they interact. The text first treats such structural and interpretive parts of language as morphology, phonology, syntax, and semantics, then takes a cognitive perspective and covers such topics as pragmatics, psychology of language, language acquisition, and language and the brain.

For this sixth edition, all chapters have been revised. New material includes updated examples, new special topics sections, and new discussions of the minimalist program, semantic minimalism, human genetic relationships and historical relationships among languages, Gricean theories, experimental pragmatics, and language acquisition.

The organization of the book gives instructors flexibility in designing their courses. Chapters have numerous subsections with core material presented first and additional material following as special topics. The accompanying workbook supplements the text with exercises drawn from a variety of languages. The goal is to teach basic conceptual foundations of linguistics and the methods of argumentation, justification, and hypothesis testing within the field.

By presenting the most fundamental linguistics concepts in detail, the text allows students to get a feeling for how real work in different areas of linguistics is done. An Introduction to Language and Communication" has long served as the yardstick introductory textbook to Linguistics. This new edition continues in that tradition, offering a carefully updated presentation of diverse aspects of the discipline.

The text succeeds in being engaging without sacrificing conceptual sophistication or analytic accuracy; it challenges the reader without overwhelming. Its comprehensive coverage of traditional linguistic topics combined with its cognitive science perspective make this textbook uniquely adaptable for a broad range of courses.

It is to my mind the best overall single volume for making state-of-the-art linguistics accessible to the novice student. An Introduction to Language and Communication" is a wonderful introductory textbook for linguistics. The book is flexible enough to be used in both introductory and more advanced survey courses by including more advanced special topic sections and lengthy reference lists for the interested student.

It also combines 'famous' linguistic examples e. An Introduction to Language and Communication has long served as the yardstick introductory textbook to Linguistics. The text succeeds in being engaging without sacrificing conceptual sophistication or analytic accuracy, it challenges the reader without overwhelming.

Its comprehensive coverage of traditional linguistic topics combined with its cognitive science perspective makes this textbook uniquely adaptable for a broad range of courses. The 6th edition of Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication is a wonderful introductory textbook for linguistics. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support?

Read more Read less. Frequently bought together. Total price: Add both to Cart Add both to List. One of these items ships sooner than the other. Show details. download the selected items together This item: Ships from and sold by site. FREE Shipping. A Linguistics Workbook: Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Introduction to Communication Disorders: A free morpheme can stand alone as an independent word in a phrase, such as the word tree in John sat in the tree.

A bound morpheme cannot stand alone but must be attached to another morpheme— like, for example, the plural morpheme -s, which can only occur attached to nouns, or cran-, which must be combined with berry or, more recently, with apple, grape, or some other fruit.

A base morpheme may be free like tree; tree is thus both a free morpheme and a free base or bound like cran-. To sum up, then, we have seen that words fall into two general classes: simple and complex. Simple words are single free morphemes that cannot be broken down further into recognizable or meaningful parts. Complex words consist of two or more morphemes in combination. Parts of Speech Each word belongs to a category.

Though there are exceptions—for instance, irregular plurals children and not childs and mass nouns rice and not rices —most nouns can be pluralized in this fashion, whereas a word such as famous cannot be. Thus, there exists morphological evidence for distinguishing nouns from words belonging to other categories. The following present tense verb forms illustrate this: 22 3 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular I walk.

You walk. She walks. He walks. It walks. Plural We walk. They walk. Notice that the verb form remains the same in all cases, except when the subject is third person singular. Some adjectives occur not with -er or -est but with the comparative and superlative words more and most beautiful—more beautiful—most beautiful.

For example, the adjective quick can be converted into an adverb by adding -ly, to form quickly and similarly for pairs such as easy—easily, ferocious—ferociously, obvious—obviously. But note that adverbs are not the only class of words in English that can end in -ly. Adjectives can too: witness lonely man, loneliest man. The question now arises, Are these categories part-of-speech classes found in all languages, or just in English?

The answer is by no means simple. Though it may be true that most, if not all, languages share the categories noun and verb and possibly a few others , it is also clear that other categories are found in some languages but not others.

For example, Japanese has a class of bound morphemes known as particles, which are attached to noun phrases to indicate grammatical function. The subject of an English sentence typically precedes the verb and the object typically follows it, as in John read the book. Conversely, English has grammatical categories not found in Japanese.

Articles are not found in Japanese, as the example sentence John-ga hon-o yonda illustrates. The noun hon is followed by the particle -o indicating its object function , but it is accompanied by no morphemes equivalent to the English articles. Such categories are traditionally labeled noun, verb, and so on, but we must remain open to the possibility that a given language may have a grammatical category not found in others.

The existence of part-of-speech categories shows that the lexicon of a language is not simply a long, random list. Rather, it is structured into special subgroups of words.

Open- versus Closed-Class Words In discussions about words, a distinction is sometimes made between open-class words and closed-class words sometimes referred to as content words and function words, respectively.

Examples of open-class words include the English words brother, run, tall, quickly. The essential feature of the word and is that it functions grammatically to conjoin words and phrases, as seen in the combination of noun phrases the woman and the man. Any change in membership of such a class happens only very slowly over centuries and in small increments. One familiar variety of language in which the distinction between openclass words and closed-class words is important is known as telegraphic speech or telegraphic language.

Generally speaking, in telegraphic forms of language the open-class words are retained, whereas the closed-class words are omitted wherever possible. Both are sometimes grouped together and referred to as grammatical morphemes.

First, new words can be added, and the meaning of already existing words can be changed. Second, new words can enter a language through the recombining of existing morphemes called derivational morphology.

Figure 2. Under the right conditions these can be adopted by the larger linguistic community and become part of the language. Coined Words Entirely new, previously nonexistent words keep entering a language. This often happens when speakers invent or coin new words. In terms of the two components of words sound and meaning , speakers coin a new word by inventing a new sound sequence and pairing it with a new meaning.

For example, adolescent slang has given us words such as geek and dweeb. Acronyms The words radar and laser are acronyms. It is important to note that even though such words are originally created as acronyms, speakers quickly forget such origins and the acronyms become new independent words.

Characteristic of these alphabetic abbreviations or initialisms is that each of their letters is individually pronounced they contrast with acronyms in this respect.

Here are a few well-known and perhaps not so well known examples, some of which are computer-inspired alphabetic abbreviations now numbering in the thousands. There are also orthographic abbreviations such as Dr. Blends New words can also be formed from existing ones by various blending processes: for example, camcorder from camera and recorder , infomercial from information and commercial , edutainment from education and entertainment , cankle from calf and ankle , cafetorium from cafeteria and auditorium , Katrinagate from Katrina hurricane and Watergate , netiquette from network and etiquette , trashware from trash and software , bit from binary and digit , and Aberzombie from Abercrombie and Fitch and zombie.

Hence, kleenex, a brand name for facial tissue, has come to denote facial tissue in general. Hence, in casual speech we can commit the grave sin of talking about downloading a Canon xerox machine. The fastest brand name to be genericized was Google TM. Joseph Guillotin. Thousands of such words are now part of English; in many cases the word remains and the connection to the person has been lost.

Speakers of English aggressively borrow words from other languages. We have kindergarten German , croissant French , aloha Hawaiian , and sushi Japanese , among many others.

Editions of Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication by Adrian Akmajian

We have even borrowed words that were themselves borrowed. The Aztec language contributed many words to Spanish, which have now become part of English. Changing the Meaning of Words A new meaning can become associated with an existing word. There are numerous ways this can come about: 31 Morphology The grammatical category of the word changes change in part of speech.

In this way a new meaning can be associated with and related to an existing word. For example, ponytail, the noun, refers to hair that is tied together at the back of the head, whereas to ponytail, the verb, refers to the process of making a ponytail. In cases involving proper names, the meaning of the new word does not derive from the meaning of the previously existing word i. To Houdini is one example.

McGill Journal of Education / Revue des sciences de l'éducation de McGill

When a language does not seem to have just the right expression for certain purposes, speakers often take an existing one and extend its meaning in a recognizable way.

The language does not gain a new word as such, but since a word is being used in a new way, the language has been augmented, as though a new word had been added. To take one example: it is interesting to note that speakers of English have adopted many existing terms from the realm of ocean navigation to use in talking about space exploration.

It is striking that terms that basically derive from the historical epoch of wind-powered ocean navigation have with great ease been extended into the realm of space navigation. This is an important fact, for it shows that technological changes in a society will not necessarily result in the addition of previously nonexistent words to its language.

Indeed, speakers of all human languages show great creativity and imaginative power in extending the existent language into new realms of experience. Just think of how the meanings of existing words have been extended to accommodate the rapidly changing world of high technology.

For example, consider the following sentences: 10 a. Will you stop feeding me that old line! All right, spit it out. That was a tasteless thing to say. In these examples, one realm roughly, a realm involving ideas is described in terms of words from another realm food and digestion.

A feature of this particular case is that words from a physical realm are being extended into a mental realm, perhaps because the physical vocabulary provides a familiar and public frame of reference for discussing our private mental life. Broadening Metaphorical extension is not the only mechanism by which already existing words can be put to new uses. Sometimes the use of existing words can become broader.

With the passage of time, the word has come to be applied to almost anything conceivable, not just music; and it no longer refers just to a certain genre or style, but is a general term indicating approval of the thing in question.

Narrowing Conversely, the use of a word can narrow as well. A typical example is the word meat. Semantic Drift Over time the meanings of words can change, or drift. A rather striking example of change has occurred in the word lady. This word was originally a compound made up of the two words hlaf and dighe. Are children really perfect language learners? What factors bring about language evolution, including language speciation and the emergence of new language varieties?

How did language evolve in mankind?

This is a general education course without any prerequisites. It provides a necessary foundation to those working on language at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Greek is one of the oldest continuously written languages: we have testimonies of it across three millennia. We will read and discuss texts from all phases, including literary texts, epigraphy, papyri and medieval manuscripts.

Two years previous study of Greek is a requirement for enrollment. This course addresses the major issues involved in first-language acquisition. This course is both a class on constructed languages and linguistic typology. In this course, students will explore the history and purposes of various invented languages, as well as their typologies: the features and patterns of select conlangs Esperanto, Klingon, Ithkuil, Elvish, etc. Topics to be covered include phoneme inventories, phonological rules, morphological classification, syntactic structure, language change over time, dialectal variation, language relatedness Elvish , and writing systems.

The final project will consist of collaborative invention of an artificial language, including an orthography or a completely new writing system for it, and composition of a text in the new language.

No previous work in linguistics is presupposed. This course is designed to review critically some of the literature on the phylogenetic emergence of Language, in order to determine which questions have been central to the subject matter, which ones have recurred the most, and to what extent the answers to these are now better informed. The class will also review new questions such as the following: What is the probable time of the emergence of modern language s?

Should we speak of the emergence of Language or of languages, in the plural? What does the choice of the singular or plural delimitation of language entail for accounts of the emergence of typological diversity? How do debates on the emergence of language s bear on the nature and significance of Universal Grammar aka the language organ or the biological endowment for language, among other names?

Akmajian, Demers, Farmer & Harnish - Linguistics, An Introduction to Language and Communication

Is there any real conflict between arguing that languages are cultural artifacts and supporting the position that humans are biologically endowed to develop or learn them? What ecological factors explain the fact that human populations are primarily speaking rather than signing? Assuming that languages are communicative tools or technology, are there any strong reasons for expecting the architectures of signed and spoken languages to be identical? To what extent does modality bear on the architecture of signed and spoken languages?

Can these questions be addressed independent of what the ecology of the phylogenetic emergence of language s is? Old Church Slavonic is the oldest attested Slavic language. OCS played the same role in medieval Slavia Orthodoxa and even in parts of Slavia Romana as Latin did in the medieval Roman Catholic realm: it was the scriptural, ritual, liturgical, and scholarly medium of Church life. The surviving OCS texts are primarily ecclesiastical biblical and liturgical.

We will read them in Cyrillic or Cyrillic transliteration of the original Glagolitic. In particular, the complicated morphophonemics of any modern Slavic language begins to make much more sense after studying OCS. Furthermore, a knowledge of OCS is indispensable for doing work in Russian linguistics and Russian literature, since at all stages of its history literary Russian has had a significant Church Slavonic component.

In this course, we will study OCS grammar and the lexicon with two general aims: first, to prepare the student for translation and grammatical and textual commentary of a selection of original OCS texts which will take place in the second half of the course ; and second, to place those texts in their cultural and historical context. Yaroslav Gorbachov, Autumn.

This focus of this course is conversational implicature. How many languages are there in the world? What are the major language families? How are languages similar to or different from one another? Are there general patterns that languages follow? And what roles do languages play in society and politics? In this class, we will survey the languages of the world, examining their structural diversity and uniformity across space and time.

We will also discuss topics on how languages affect our society, such as language ideologies, policies, education, preservation and revitalization.

By the end of this class, students will be able to use various reliable online and library resources to investigate a language of interest, describe the basic facets of any given language using linguistic terms, and compare certain grammatical features of any given two languages. In this course, we will examine the language of deception and humor from a variety of perspectives: historical, developmental, neurological, and cross-cultural and in a variety of contexts: fiction, advertising, politics, courtship, and everyday conversation.

We will focus on the linguistic knowledge and skills that underlie the use of humor and deception and on what sorts of things they are used to communicate. A survey of linguistic phenomena typical of the Algonquian family of languages, including animacy-based gender, obviation, inverse verbs, deixis, noun incorporation, complex predicates, discontinuous constituents, separable preverbs, discourse conditions on word order, and templatic inflectional morphology.

This course satisfies the non-Indo European requirement for undergraduate Linguistics major. This seminar focuses on current research in contact linguistics in a global perspective, including but not limited to the impact of languages of wider communication e.

English, Russian in contact with other languages. Where our ideas have come from, and where we think they have come from—these concerns have a powerful influence on the work that we do, and nowhere is this more true than in the academic fields that we call the mind sciences, which include linguistics, psychology, philosophy, and logic.

This course will focus on several important moments in the developments in these fields, as viewed from the vantage point of a linguist in the 21st century. The course is based on a book, Battle in the Mind Fields, which I have written with Bernard Laks, and which will appear this summer from the University of Chicago Press.

This book covers the era from the beginning of historical linguistics in Europe in the early 19th century, all the way up to the political turbulence in the s and s that led to World War II and the shift of the center of intellectual mass in the West from Europe to the United States. In this class we will cover computational techniques for collecting linguistic data. We will also cover various methods for using algorithms to analyze that data and some basic computational theory to understand the complexity and efficiency of our algorithms.

We will use the programming language Python and focus on real-world applications to gain experience in gathering, manipulating, and analyzing data from sources such as field-work, corpora, or experiments. No previous knowledge of programming is required. This course studies the structure of Hungarian, a non-Indo-European language spoken in the heart of Europe.

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