Formula, Theory, and Technique for the Artisan Confectioner. Peter P. Greweling, CMB The Culinary Institute of America. Cover and interior design by Vertigo Design NYC Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Greweling, Peter P. Chocolates and confections: formula. Download free ebook cooking chocolates confection second edition. Ebook Chocolates Confections 2nd Edition | Mb | Pages | PDF |. CHOCOLATE & CONFECTIONS (2nd EDITION) book chocolate and confection second edition, English | Mb | Pages | PDF.
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These too have been rounded off to the nearest percentage point. This book has been written by a confectioner for other confectioners to use. It has been written with a level of accuracy appropriate for those wishing to use the formulas, understand the theory, and employ the techniques. Because confections themselves are smaller than pastries or baked goods, a typical batch of confections uses smaller increments of each ingredient. When scaling and handling small quantities, slight errors translate as sizable percentages of the total.
In addition to this basic requirement of precision in the amounts of ingredients, confectionery art demands precise handling techniques. Cocoa butter will crystallize in a desirable form only under specic conditions; if the temperature is a few degrees off, or the amount of agitation is not adequate, the chocolate will bloom, resulting in a ruined product. Sugar too requires exact control over percentage, temperature, and handling in order to achieve the desired result, whether that is the prevention or formation of crystals.
These are just some of the factors that the artisan confectioner must deal with every day. By understanding the ingredients commonly used in confectionery, knowing the proper use of confectionery tools, and mastering the basic processes, the artisan confectioner can bring to fruition any creative inspiration. It is how those ingredients are handled and the relative quantities of each that makes each confection unique.
Understanding the basic properties of each ingredient and how ingredients interact enables the confectioner to succeed in creating precisely the results desired. The importance of this cannot be overstated: when a professional truly understands ingredients, there is nothing that he or she cannot accomplish in formulation. Sweeteners Sweeteners are the heart of confectionery.
One of just ve tastes that the human tongue can detect, sweetness is a dening quality of confections. So, naturally, sugars are essential ingredients in confectionery. In addition to providing avor, sweeteners play a number of roles in confectionery, including acting as a preservative, doctoring and bulking agent, humectant, and source of crystallization.
The sweeteners most commonly used in confectionery are sucrose and glucose syrups, but many other sweeteners are also employed for their unique avors and functionality. SUCROSE While the word sugar may rightfully be applied to a variety of nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, when the term is used without any modiers, it refers to sucrose. Sucrose is a disaccharide made up of one molecule of fructose, also known as levulose, bonded with one molecule of dextrose, also known as glucose.
To avoid confusion between glucose and glucose syrupa starch-derived productthe term dextrose is used in this book to refer to that monosaccharide. The sucrose commonly used in confectionery is one of the purest food substances availableat least Commercially, sugar is obtained from sugarcane or sugar beets. Although the rening methods are different, there is no difference between the sucrose derived from either source, thanks to excellent processing technology.
While artisan confectioners typically download sugar in dry crystalline form, mass-production manufacturers are more likely to download liquid sugar, a syrup consisting of approximately 67 percent sucrose dissolved in water, because it is easier to handle in large quantities. A dening feature of sucrose is its tendency to crystallize at high concentrations.
Understanding this tendency and knowing how to control it are two of the most fundamental concepts in confectionery. See Saturation and Supersaturation, page See Sucrose Qualities table below.
At common room temperatures, sucrose is soluble to approximately 67 percent solidsthat is, 67 percent sugar and 33 percent water. In order to be shelf stable, sugar confectionery must have a dissolved-solids content of approximately 75 percent or higher. If the product is to remain noncrystalline, as is essential in hard candies and brittles, sucrose alone is not usually acceptable as a sweetener, and doctoring agents must also be added in order to promote stability and prevent crystallization.
Glucose syrups are the adjunct sweetener most commonly used to prevent crystallization and increase the solids content. Sucrose is available in a wide range of crystal sizes and in powdered form with various particle sizes. Powdered sugar, referred to in this book as confectioners sugar, is categorized by its degree of neness, specied by a number, with the highest number indicating the smallest particle size.
The confectioners sugars categorized as 6X and 10X are the ones most commonly used, but others are also available. American-made confectioners sugar is an exception when it comes to the purity of sucrose; it contains approximately 3 percent cornstarch to prevent caking. Exhibits a relatively low level of hygroscopicity Has little effect on Aw Expels fat Dissolves more slowly in the mouth Is not chemically reactive Releases flavor more slowly MOLASSES A thick brown syrup that is a by-product of the sugar-rening process, molasses is used in confectionery primarily for its distinctive avor and its doctoring properties.
Because it contains a signicant amount of invert sugar, minerals, and amino acids extracted during the rening process, it has a tendency to brown during cooking as a result of the Maillard reaction see page and to increase the hygroscopicity of products that contain it. Molasses is available in varying degrees of darkness and avor intensity. When it is obtained early in the sugar-rening process, it is relatively light in color and avor; molasses from the later stages of rening has a darker color and a more intense avor.
The darkest molasses, known as blackstrap molasses, is used primarily in the distilling industry, in yeast manufacturing, and for animal feed, although a small percentage of it is sold for use in human food. All molasses used for human consumption comes from sugarcane, not sugar beets. The result is sugar crystals that have a thin molasses coating and a soft, moist texture. The added molasses provides avor and increases the sugars hygroscopicity and its propensity for browning when heated.
Producing brown sugar by this method affords the manufacturer control over the product, permitting greater consistency from batch to batch. Commercially, brown sugar is given a number to indicate how dark it is, with the highest number indicating the darkest sugar. The grades of brown sugar most commonly found are 6, 8, 10, and Turbinado sugar is a type of brown sugar produced by leaving some of the molasses in during the rening process rather than fully rening the sugar and then adding molasses back to it.
Because the molasses in turbinado sugar is inside the crystal rather than on its surface, this sugar is not soft and moist like the commonly produced brown sugar but consists of hard crystals with a golden hue.
Whether it deserves it or not, turbinado sugar has developed a reputation as a more natural alternative to fully rened white sugar. It is available in various crystal sizes.
See Inversion, page Commercially, inversion may be accomplished by exposing disaccharide sucrose to an acid, usually hydrochloric acid, or treating it with the enzyme invertase. Invert sugar is valued by confectioners for its doctoring capacity, which is its most common function in confectionery formulation. It is sweeter than sucrose, more hygroscopic and, unlike sucrose, it readily contributes to Maillard browning.
See Maillard Reaction, page Because sucrose alone is soluble only to approximately 67 percent at room temperature, and invert sugar is soluble to approximately 80 percent, invert sugar is frequently added to sugar confectionery to increase the dissolved-solids content, lower water activity, and extend shelf life. Invert sugar is most commonly found as a creamy liquid paste containing approximately 80 percent solids.
The name of the source starch may replace the word glucose in the name of the syrup; for example, corn syrup is a permissible name for glucose syrup derived from cornstarch. Glucose syrups are made by hydrolyzing the long dextrose chains polysaccharides contained in starch and converting them into shorter chains of dextrose molecules. The process of breaking the bonds between dextrose molecules during syrup manufacture is called conversion, and it is accomplished with the use of acids or enzymes, or both.
Each molecule is made up of thousands of dextrose molecules bonded together. RIGHT: When treated with acid or enzymes, the starch molecule is broken down or converted into shorter sugar chains. Glucose syrup is a blend of short and long chains in a small amountabout 20 percentof water.
Most American glucose syrups are made from cornstarch because of its wide availability and low cost and are commonly known as corn syrup. In Europe most glucose syrups are made from wheat or potato starch, but there is effectively no difference among syrups made from the starches of corn, wheat, or potatoes. One of the most important factors to consider when selecting a glucose syrup is the syrups DE, or dextrose equivalence. DE is the specication used to describe how much the starch molecule has been broken down into simpler sugars.
Starches are examples of compounds called polysaccharidesthat is, thousands of dextrose molecules chemically bonded together. While it is not exactly chemically accurate, the DE of glucose syrup may be considered roughly the percentage of the starch that has been converted to sugar. For instance, unhydrolyzed starch has a DE of zero; that is, none of the bonds has been broken; all of the thousands of dextrose molecules are still bonded into one large unit.
Pure dextrose has a DE of one hundred, meaning that percent of the bonds from the original starch molecule have been broken, resulting in percent single dextrose molecules. The DE of glucose syrup profoundly inuences the syrups characteristics. High-DE syrups are sweeter, more hygroscopic, less viscous, and more prone to Maillard browning than low-DE syrups are.
See comparison table below. By denition, glucose syrups are required to have a DE of at least The glucose syrup most commonly used in confectionery has a DE of approximately When a formula calls for glucose syrup or corn syrup without specifying the DE, this is the syrup that should be used. Other commonly available syrups include those of approximately 27 DE and 63 DE, each with its own degrees of viscosity, reactivity, sweetness, and so on.
Understanding the concept and ramications of DE is only the beginning of selecting a glucose syrup. Some specialty glucose syrups that are widely available include high-fructose syrup and high-maltose syrup, which are produced by the action of enzymes that create a particular carbohydrate prole.
Each syrup has its own unique qualities. Of most interest to artisan confectioners, though, is high-maltose syrup. It resists browning at high temperature and so is useful in hard-candy applications. Compared to the glucose syrup most commonly used in confectionery, high-maltose syrup has lower viscosity when hot, making it easier to work with, and its lower hygroscopicity protects nished candy from damage due to humidity.
Many of the European-made glucose syrups are high maltose, and American manufacturers also make a range of high-maltose syrups. Glucose-syrup manufacturers produce a variety of syrups of varying DEs and carbohydrate proles, as well as other specications, for a wide range of applications. When special syrups are The DE of a glucose syrup greatly inuences many of its characteristics. The table illustrates some of the differences between lower- and higher-DE syrups.
The arrows indicate an increase in the given quality as the DE number changes.
For instance, viscosity increases as DE decreases, and sweetness increases as DE increases. While these are good general guidelines, specialty glucose syrups such as high-maltose syrup and high-fructose syrup may exhibit slightly different qualities.
Specication sheets that list the DE, conversion process, and carbohydrate proles for syrups are available from manufacturers and on their Web sites. Chemically, honey bears considerable resemblance to invert sugar; the sugars in it are mainly fructose and dextrose in nearly equal proportion, with a moisture content of approximately 17 percent.
In addition to these main components, honey contains smaller quantities of other sugars as well as proteins and acids that provide its characteristic avor and color. The avor and color of honey is greatly inuenced by the types of owers from which the bees gather the nectar.
Therefore, honeys can range from the dark, richly avored buckwheat honey to the lighter orange blossom honey. Many other honeys are available, each with a unique avor prole.
Although it possesses the same doctoring and humectant properties as invert sugar, honey browns more readily during cooking and is used in confectionery mainly to impart its avor. MAPLE Maple syrup and maple sugar are both made by concentrating the sap from the sugar maple, or black maple, tree. Sap from maple trees typically contains approximately 2 percent sugar, nearly all of which is sucrose.
To concentrate the sugar, the sap is boiled in open evaporators in order to remove the desired quantity of water. Maple syrup is boiled to a dissolved-solids content of just over 66 percent. At this concentration the syrup is saturated but will not crystallize easily. Maple sugar is made by removing more water and inducing crystallization of the sugars.
In addition to removing water, boiling causes Maillard browning and some inversion. Maillard browning, in particular, is crucial to the development of maple syrups and maple sugars characteristic avor, so the time and temperature must be carefully controlled for optimal results. The avor of maple syrup and sugar is also inuenced by environmental factors such as climate, soil type, and the point in the season when the sap is harvested.
The highest grade of maple syrup is the lightest in color and avor; the lowest grade is the darkest, which has a less subtle, more robust avor and may therefore be better suited to confectionery applications.
These range from the polyols, or sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol and maltitol, to aspartame and sucralose. These sweeteners unquestionably have applications in the marketplace. For example, they are suitable for consumption by those with diabetes or those wishing to avoid simple carbohydrates. Reflecting their original medicinal purpose, however, comfits were also produced by apothecaries and directions on how to make them appear in dispensatories as well as cookery texts.
An early medieval Latin name for an apothecary was confectionarius, and it was in this sort of sugar work that the activities of the two trades overlapped and that the word "confectionery" originated. These are usually sugars, but it is possible to download sugar-free candies, such as sugar-free peppermints. The most common sweetener for home cooking is table sugar , which is chemically a disaccharide containing both glucose and fructose.
Hydrolysis of sucrose gives a mixture called invert sugar , which is sweeter and is also a common commercial ingredient. Finally, confections, especially commercial ones, are sweetened by a variety of syrups obtained by hydrolysis of starch. These sweeteners include all types of corn syrup. Bakers' confectionery includes sweet baked goods, especially those that are served for the dessert course.
Bakers' confections are sweet foods that feature flour as a main ingredient and are baked. Major categories include cakes , sweet pastries , doughnuts , scones , and cookies. See also: List of cakes , List of cookies , List of doughnut varieties , and List of pastries Cakes have a somewhat bread-like texture, and many earlier cakes, such as the centuries-old stollen fruit cake , or the even older king cake , were rich yeast breads.
The variety of styles and presentations extends from simple to elaborate. Major categories include butter cakes , tortes , and foam cakes. Confusingly, some desserts that have the word cake in their names, such as cheesecake , are not technically cakes, while others, such as Boston cream pie are cakes despite seeming to be named something else.
Welsh cakes are cooked on a griddle. Korean rainbow rice cake is for celebrations. Birthday cakes may be elaborately decorated. European spit cakes are baked around a metal cylinder. Pastry is a large and diverse category of baked goods, united by the flour-based doughs used as the base for the product. See all customer images.
Read reviews that mention candy making pastry chef highly recommend science behind great book chocolate making easy to understand great recipes easy to follow peter greweling recommend this book get started glucose syrup want to know culinary school excellent book theory behind invert sugar chef greweling almost every. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now.
Please try again later. Hardcover Verified download. I recently took several chocolate making classes from Chef Marco Ropke, head pastry chef at the Beijing Ritz Carlton during the Olympics, and in class, he basically suggested that if we were to download any one chocolate book, THIS book was it.
It's a comprehensive 4 in 1 book: Why might you want to include glucose in your chocolate and not just any sugar syrup? What is the difference between using agar-agar, gelatin, pectin and cornstarch in making gummies and jellies? This type of information helped me better understand why some of the steps to chocolate making mattered, and also gave me more comfort in knowing where I could deviate from recipes e. I can add whatever liquid flavourings I want so long as I add them at the right time and keep my fats to liquid ratio consistent.
I have ordered more chocolate and I can't wait to try more. The book also included suggested equipment and a brief explanation of some of the tools and why they were important. The one thing missing from the book that I wish they spent time on was decorating in general -- the different techniques for finishing chocolates such as adding chocolate swirls, etc. To be fair each recipe has a description for how to finish the chocolate such as adding bits of salt or adding candied fruit bits and they did show you how to make spiked chocolates, but I wanted to know more about selecting colours and other types of chocolate flourishes.
In all it's a pricey, but valuable book that I anticipate I will be referencing a lot as I continue to learn and make chocolates. This is the second time I've downloadd this book.
I used it and others to build my business and have won many awards based on technique I learned from this book. It is a great book to learn the basics and build from there. My first book is full of chocolate and sugar and in pretty poor shape Hopefully, the second book will see the same love! I've included a small sample of my work. This was an amazing cookbook. I don't say that lightly.
Usually in cookbooks there are a great many recipes you pass over and don't want to make - you download the book for the few that you do like. This book is the exception. It exceeded my expectations in recipes and instruction. This is a intermediate or advanced cookbook, but easy to follow.
The pictures are beautiful. The photos help you see what the end product will look like. This cookbook is also a great reference with charts, photos, trouble shooting, and step by step technique. This is easily in the top 5 cookbooks I own. I would recommend to anyone wanting to know how to make confections like: Highly recommend. I will be looking for more books by this author. After my first recipe my confidence in my understanding and ability to work with chocolate is super high.
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